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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934712/biotransformation-of-flubendazole-and-fenbendazole-and-their-effects-in-the-ribwort-plantain-plantago-lanceolata
#1
Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková, Lenka Skálová, Barbora Szotáková, Eliška Syslová, Ivan Vokřál, Tomáš Vaněk, Radka Podlipná
Although veterinary anthelmintics represent an important source of environmental pollution, the fate of anthelmintics and their effects in plants has not yet been studied sufficiently. The aim of our work was to identify metabolic pathways of the two benzimidazole anthelmintics fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.). Plants cultivated as in vitro regenerants were used for this purpose. The effects of anthelmintics and their biotransformation products on plant oxidative stress parameters were also studied...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934710/calcium-availability-but-not-its-content-modulates-metal-toxicity-in-scenedesmus-quadricauda
#2
Jozef Kováčik, Sławomir Dresler
Impact of calcium nutrition (pre-culture on solid medium with standard or elevated Ca dose, i. e. 0.17 and 4.40mM marked as low and high Ca) on acute metal toxicity (Cd, Mn and Pb, 24h of exposure to 10µM) in freshwater green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. Surprisingly, Ca content differed only slightly between low and high Ca samples and applied metals rather suppressed its amount. Na content was higher in metal-exposed high Ca samples, indicating that Ca/Na ratio may affect accumulation of metals...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934693/enzyme-classification-using-multiclass-support-vector-machine-and-feature-subset-selection
#3
Debasmita Pradhan, Sudarsan Padhy, Biswajit Sahoo
Proteins are the macromolecules responsible for almost all biological processes in a cell. With the availability of large number of protein sequences from different sequencing projects, the challenge with the scientist is to characterize their functions. As the wet lab methods are time consuming and expensive, many computational methods such as FASTA, PSI-BLAST, DNA microarray clustering, and Nearest Neighborhood classification on protein-protein interaction network have been proposed. Support vector machine is one such method that has been used successfully for several problems such as protein fold recognition, protein structure prediction etc...
August 31, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934659/comparison-on-the-effects-of-water-borne-and-dietary-borne-accumulated-zno-nanoparticles-on-daphnia-magna
#4
Yanjiao Chen, Fengxia Wu, Wenying Li, Tiangang Luan, Li Lin
Nanoparticles (NPs) can exert toxicity to aquatic animals through water and dietary exposure. However, little is known about the contribution of the two exposure pathways to the total toxicity of NPs to aquatic animals. In the present study, we fed Daphnia magna with ZnO NPs-accumulated-algae or directly exposed them to ZnO NPs suspension at the same Zn concentration. The body Zn concentrations were the same in both treatments, but the surface elastic modulus in the water-borne group was lower than that in the dietary-borne group, indicating more severe surface damage in the water-borne treatment...
August 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934643/combined-effects-of-microcystin-and-nitrite-on-the-growth-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-responses-of-the-freshwater-rotifer-brachionus-calyciflorus
#5
Ye Liang, Xinglan Chen, Xuxin Lu, Sichen Jin, Yuanqi Min, Jiaxin Yang
Toxicants released during the degradation of cyanobacterial blooms, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nitrite (NO2-N), affect the growth of aquatic organisms. The freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was exposed to solutions with different combined concentrations of MC-LR (0, 10, 50, 100, and 200μgL(-1)) and NO2-N (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8mgL(-1)) to assess the combined effects of MC-LR and NO2-N on life cycle parameters and oxidative stress. Single solutions of MC-LR 200μgL(-1) and NO2-N 8mgL(-1) were toxic to rotifers...
September 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934561/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulating-adaptive-responses-to-targeted-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer
#6
Steven P Angus, Jon S Zawistowski, Gary L Johnson
Although targeted inhibition of oncogenic kinase drivers has achieved remarkable patient responses in many cancers, the development of resistance has remained a significant challenge. Numerous mechanisms have been identified, including the acquisition of gatekeeper mutations, activating pathway mutations, and copy number loss or gain of the driver or alternate nodes. These changes have prompted the development of kinase inhibitors with increased selectivity, use of second-line therapeutics to overcome primary resistance, and combination treatment to forestall resistance...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934551/polymer-conjugation-to-enhance-cellulase-activity-and-preserve-thermal-and-functional-stability
#7
Thaiesha A Wright, Melissa Lucius Dougherty, Benjamin Schmitz, Kevin M Burridge, Katherine Makaroff, Jamie M Stewart, Henry D Fischesser, Jerry T Shepherd, Jason A Berberich, Dominik Konkolewicz, Richard C Page
A thermophilic cellulase, FnCel5a, from Fervidobacterium nodosum was conjugated with various functional polymers including cationic, anionic, and strongly and weakly hydrogen bonding polymers. The activity of FnCel5a toward a high molecular weight carboxymethyl cellulose substrate was enhanced by polymer conjugation. Activity enhancements of 50% or greater observed for acrylamide and mixed N,N-dimethyl acrylamide/2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate polymers suggesting that the greatest enhancements were caused by polymers capable of non-covalent interactions with the substrate...
September 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934496/activities-of-gyrase-and-topoisomerase-iv-on-positively-supercoiled-dna
#8
Rachel E Ashley, Andrew Dittmore, Sylvia A McPherson, Charles L Turnbough, Keir C Neuman, Neil Osheroff
Although bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV have critical interactions with positively supercoiled DNA, little is known about the actions of these enzymes on overwound substrates. Therefore, the abilities of Bacillus anthracis and Escherichia coli gyrase and topoisomerase IV to relax and cleave positively supercoiled DNA were analyzed. Gyrase removed positive supercoils ∼10-fold more rapidly and more processively than it introduced negative supercoils into relaxed DNA. In time-resolved single-molecule measurements, gyrase relaxed overwound DNA with burst rates of ∼100 supercoils per second (average burst size was 6...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934494/derivatives-of-bst-like-gss-polymerase-with-improved-processivity-and-inhibitor-tolerance
#9
Igor P Oscorbin, Ekaterina A Belousova, Ulyana A Boyarskikh, Aleksandr I Zakabunin, Evgeny A Khrapov, Maksim L Filipenko
At the moment, one of the actual trends in medical diagnostics is a development of methods for practical applications such as point-of-care testing, POCT or research tools, for example, whole genome amplification, WGA. All the techniques are based on using of specific DNA polymerases having strand displacement activity, high synthetic processivity, fidelity and, most significantly, tolerance to contaminants, appearing from analysed biological samples or collected under purification procedures. Here, we have designed a set of fusion enzymes based on catalytic domain of DNA polymerase I from Geobacillus sp...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934493/ubalai-is-a-monomeric-type-iie-restriction-enzyme
#10
Giedrius Sasnauskas, Giedre Tamulaitiene, Gintautas Tamulaitis, Jelena Calyševa, Migle Laime, Renata Rimšeliene, Arvydas Lubys, Virginijus Siksnys
Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) form a large and highly diverse group of enzymes. Even REases specific for a common recognition site often vary in their oligomeric structure, domain organization and DNA cleavage mechanisms. Here we report biochemical and structural characterization of the monomeric restriction endonuclease UbaLAI, specific for the pseudosymmetric DNA sequence 5'-CC/WGG-3' (where W = A/T, and '/' marks the cleavage position). We present a 1.6 Å co-crystal structure of UbaLAI N-terminal domain (UbaLAI-N) and show that it resembles the B3-family domain of EcoRII specific for the 5'-CCWGG-3' sequence...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934476/crystal-structure-of-an-engineered-hiv-specific-recombinase-for-removal-of-integrated-proviral-dna
#11
Gretchen Meinke, Janet Karpinski, Frank Buchholz, Andrew Bohm
As part of the HIV infection cycle, viral DNA inserts into the genome of host cells such that the integrated DNA encoding the viral proteins is flanked by long terminal repeat (LTR) regions from the retrovirus. In an effort to develop novel genome editing techniques that safely excise HIV provirus from cells, Tre, an engineered version of Cre recombinase, was designed to target a 34-bp sequence within the HIV-1 LTR (loxLTR). The sequence targeted by Tre lacks the symmetry present in loxP, the natural DNA substrate for Cre...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934434/high-sensitivity-assays-for-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-by-immuno-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-of-pfideh-and-pfldh-antigens
#12
Jianbing Mu, John F Andersen, Jesus G Valenzuela, Thomas E Wellems
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests based on Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRP-II) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) antigens are widely deployed for detection of P. falciparum infection; however, these tests often miss cases of low-level parasitemia, and PfHRP-II tests can give false-negative results when P. falciparum strains do not express this antigen. Methods: We screened proteomic data for highly expressed P. falciparum proteins and compared their features to those of PfHRP-II and PfLDH biomarkers...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934416/transporter-engineering-in-biomass-utilization-by-yeast
#13
Kiyotaka Y Hara, Jyumpei Kobayashi, Ryosuke Yamada, Daisuke Sasaki, Yuki Kuriya, Yoko Hirono-Hara, Jun Ishii, Michihiro Araki, Akihiko Kondo
Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934415/first-report-of-urease-activity-in-the-novel-systemic-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-a-comparison-with-the-neurotrope-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Barbra Lerm, Chris Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz, Heinrich Kroukamp, Riaan de Witt, Nelesh P Govender, G Sybren de Hoog, Alfred Botha
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the AIDS-defining illness, cryptococcal meningitis. During the disease process, entry of cryptococcal cells into the brain is facilitated by virulence factors that include urease enzyme activity. A novel species of an Emmonsia-like fungus, recently named Emergomyces africanus, was identified as a cause of disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected persons in South Africa. However, in contrast to C. neoformans, the enzymes produced by this fungus, some of which may be involved in pathogenesis, have not been described...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934399/methane-metabolizing-microbial-communities-in-sediments-of-the-haima-cold-seep-area-northwest-slope-of-the-south-china-sea
#15
Mingyang Niu, Xibei Fan, Guangchao Zhuang, Qianyong Liang, Fengping Wang
Cold seeps are widespread chemosynthetic ecosystems in the deep-sea environment, and cold seep microbial communities of the South China Sea are poorly constrained. Here we report on the archaeal communities, particularly those involved in methane metabolization, in sediments of a newly discovered cold seep (named 'Haima') on the northwest slope of the South China Sea. Archaeal diversity, abundance and distribution were investigated in two piston cores collected from a seep area (QDN-14B) and a non-seep control site (QDN-31B)...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934381/carboxysomes-metabolic-modules-for-co2-fixation
#16
Aiko Turmo, C Raul Gonzalez-Esquer, Cheryl A Kerfeld
The carboxysome is a bacterial microcompartment encapsulating the enzymes carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. As the site of CO2 fixation, it serves an essential role in the carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism of many chemoautotrophs and all cyanobacteria. Carboxysomes and other bacterial microcompartments self-assemble through specific protein-protein interactions that are typically mediated by conserved protein domains. In this review, we frame our current understanding of carboxysomes in the context of their component protein domains with their inherent function as the 'building blocks' of carboxysomes...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934368/a-single-danio-rerio-hars-gene-encodes-both-cytoplasmic-and-mitochondrial-histidyl-trna-synthetases
#17
Ashley L Waldron, Sara Helms Cahan, Christopher S Franklyn, Alicia M Ebert
Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS) is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility of new and unexpected functions in this ancient enzyme family. For example, mutations in HARS have been linked to two different neurological disorders, Usher Syndrome Type IIIB and Charcot Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934305/the-prognostic-value-of-interleukin-17-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-based-on-chinese-patients
#18
Xiao-Fei Wang, Yi-Tong Zhu, Jia-Jia Wang, Da-Xiong Zeng, Chuan-Yong Mu, Yan-Bin Chen, Wei Lei, Ye-Han Zhu, Jian-An Huang
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays an important role in cancer progression. Previous studies remained controversial regarding the correlation between IL-17 expression and lung cancer (LC) prognosis. To comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the prognostic value of IL-17 expression in LC patients, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. METHODS: We identified the relevant literatures by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data databases, up until April 1, 2017...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934276/enhanced-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-improves-cardiac-outcomes-in-a-murine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#19
Lin Piao, Yong-Hu Fang, Manfred M Kubler, Michael W Donnino, Willard W Sharp
RATIONALE: Post-ischemic changes in cellular metabolism alter myocardial and neurological function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the limiting step in mitochondrial glucose oxidation, is inhibited by increased expression of PDH kinase (PDK) during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This results in decreased utilization of glucose to generate cellular ATP. Post-cardiac arrest (CA) hypothermia improves outcomes and alters metabolism, but its influence on PDH and PDK activity following CA are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934216/genetic-polymorphisms-of-cytochrome-p450-1a2-cyp1a2-among-emiratis
#20
Mohammad M Al-Ahmad, Naheed Amir, Subramanian Dhanasekaran, Anne John, Yousef M Abdulrazzaq, Bassam R Ali, Salim M A Bastaki
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is one of the CYP450 mixed-function oxidase system that is of clinical importance due to the large number of drug interactions associated with its induction and inhibition. In addition, significant inter-individual differences in the elimination of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2 enzyme have been observed which are largely due to the highly polymorphic nature of CYP1A2 gene. However, there are limited studies on CYP1A2 phenotypes and CYP1A2 genotypes among Emiratis and thus this study was carried out to fill this gap...
2017: PloS One
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