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serotonin and central amygdala

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760517/neuroprotective-effects-of-htr1a-antagonist-way-100635-on-scopolamine-induced-delirium-in-rats-and-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#1
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744641/somatosensory-regulation-of-serotonin-release-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-mediated-via-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#2
Ryota Tokunaga, Rie Shimoju, Hideshi Shibata, Mieko Kurosawa
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737780/effect-of-handling-on-neurotransmitter-profile-in-pig-brain-according-to-fear-related-behaviour
#3
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651065/localization-of-organic-cation-transporter-2-oct2-in-monoaminergic-and-cholinergic-axon-terminals-of-the-mouse-brain
#4
Toshiyasu Matsui, Takahiro Nakata, Yasushi Kobayashi
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are low-affinity, high-capacity carriers that mediate sodium-independent transport for biogenic cations, including catecholamine, serotonin, histamine, and choline/acetylcholine. Among them, OCT2 is expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. Although previous studies show OCT2 expression in several populations of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons, the regional distribution of OCT2 in the brain remains largely unknown. Here we performed immunohistochemical analyses to reveal the distribution of OCT2 throughout the mouse forebrain...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569181/regional-specific-modulation-of-neuronal-activation-associated-with-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitors-in-an-animal-model-of-antidepressant-activity
#5
Eoin Sherwin, Valentina Gigliucci, Andrew Harkin
OBJECTIVE: The regional specific modulation of neuronal activation following drug administration is of interest to determine brain areas involved in the behavioural effects of experimental test compounds. In the current investigation the effects of the L-arginine related NOS inhibitor N(ω)-l-nitroarginine (L-NA) and the structurally unrelated selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 1-(2-Trifluoro-methyl-phenyl) imidazole (TRIM) were assessed in the rat for changes in regional c-FOS immunoreactivity, a marker of neuronal activation, upon exposure to the forced swimming test (FST)...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566488/behavioral-pharmacological-and-neuroanatomical-analysis-of-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonism-on-maternal-behavior-in-rats
#6
Ruiyong Wu, Jun Gao, Shinnyi Chou, Collin Davis, Ming Li
As a highly motivated social behavior, maternal behavior in rats has been routinely used to study psychoactive drugs for clinical, neuroscience and pharmacological purposes. Recent evidence indicates that acute activation of serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptors causes a disruption of rat maternal behavior. The present study was designed to elucidate the behavioral, pharmacological mechanisms and neuroanatomical basis of this 5-HT2C effect. First, we replicated the finding that acute MK212 injection (2.0mg/kg, a highly selective 5-HT2C agonist) disrupts maternal behavior, especially on pup retrieval...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478387/amphetamine-withdrawal-differentially-increases-the-expression-of-organic-cation-transporter-3-and-serotonin-transporter-in-limbic-brain-regions
#7
Rajeshwari R Solanki, Jamie L Scholl, Michael J Watt, Kenneth J Renner, Gina L Forster
Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456832/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-mice-impairs-long-term-fear-memory-consolidation-through-dysfunction-of-the-cortex-and-amygdala
#8
Fumiaki Ihara, Maki Nishimura, Yoshikage Muroi, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Naoaki Yokoyama, Kisaburo Nagamune, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii becomes established in tissues of the central nervous system, where parasites may directly or indirectly modulate neuronal function. Epidemiological studies have revealed that chronic infection in humans is a risk factor for developing mental diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying parasite-induced neuronal dysfunction in the brain remain unclear. Here, we examined memory associated with conditioned fear in mice and found that T. gondii infection impairs consolidation of conditioned fear memory...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347889/control-of-the-cutaneous-circulation-by-the-central-nervous-system
#9
William Blessing, Robin McAllen, Michael McKinley
The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282087/reduced-response-to-chronic-mild-stress-in-pacap-mutant-mice-is-associated-with-blunted-fosb-expression-in-limbic-forebrain-and-brainstem-centers
#10
Viktória Kormos, László Gáspár, László Á Kovács, József Farkas, Tamás Gaszner, Valér Csernus, András Balogh, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Dóra Reglődi, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Balázs Gaszner
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in stress adaptation with potential relevance in mood disorder management. PACAP deficient (KO) mice on CD1 background were shown to have depression-like phenotype. Here we aimed at investigating effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts. We hypothesized reduced FosB neuronal activity in stress-related centers, altered activity and peptide/neurotransmitter content of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cells of the oval (ovBST) bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (cpEW) and serotonin (5HT) cells of dorsal raphe (DR) in PACAP deficiency...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213991/pattern-of-distribution-of-serotonergic-fibers-to-the-amygdala-and-extended-amygdala-in-the-rat
#11
Stephanie B Linley, Francisco Olucha-Bordonau, Robert P Vertes
As is well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amygdala in the rat, no previous report has described overall 5-HT projections to the amygdala in the rat. Using immunostaining for the serotonin transporter, SERT, we describe the complete pattern of distribution of 5-HT fibers to the amygdala (proper) and to the extended amygdala in the rat. Based on its ontogenetic origins, the amygdala was subdivided into two major parts, pallial and subpallial components, with the pallial component further divided into superficial and deep nuclei (Olucha-Bordonau et al...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044837/a-possible-significant-role-of-zinc-and-gpr39-zinc-sensing-receptor-in-alzheimer-disease-and-epilepsy
#12
REVIEW
Muhammad Zahid Khan
Zinc the essential trace element, plays a significant role in the brain development and in the proper brain functions at every stage of life. Misbalance of zinc (Zn(2+)) ions in the central nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Depression, and Epilepsy. In brain, Zn(2+) has been identified as a ligand, capable of activating and inhibiting the receptors including the NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), GABAA receptors, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), glycine receptors (glyR) and serotonin receptors (5-HT3)...
April 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950265/involvement-of-serotonin-2c-receptor-rna-editing-in-accumbal-neuropeptide-y-expression-and-behavioural-despair
#13
Miku Aoki, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Kanji Yoshimoto, Atsushi Tsujimura, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, Masaki Tanaka
Serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT2 C Rs) are widely expressed in the central nervous system, and are associated with various neurological disorders. 5-HT2 C R mRNA undergoes adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing at five sites within its coding sequence, resulting in expression of 24 different isoforms. Several edited isoforms show reduced activity, suggesting that RNA editing modulates serotonergic systems in the brain with causative relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic mice solely expressing the non-edited 5-HT2 C R INI-isoform (INI) or the fully edited VGV-isoform exhibit various phenotypes including metabolic abnormalities, aggressive behaviour, anxiety-like behaviour, and depression-like behaviour...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917054/the-effect-of-prolonged-simvastatin-application-on-serotonin-uptake-membrane-microviscosity-and-behavioral-changes-in-the-animal-model
#14
Jan Vevera, Karel Valeš, Zdeněk Fišar, Jana Hroudová, Namrata Singh, Aleš Stuchlík, Petr Kačer, Tereza Nekovářová
Simvastatin and other statins (HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors) are extensively used in clinical practices and are very effective in decreasing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, their effect on cholesterol synthesis in central nervous system and its behavioral consequences have not been fully understood yet. We have studied selected biologic traits potentially affected by statin treatment - serotonin (5-HT) uptake in platelets, membrane microviscosity in erythrocytes, cholesterol level in the brain (amygdala; hippocampus and prefrontal cortex), as well as behavioral changes in an elevated plus maze and open field test in male Long-Evans rats, which were treated by simvastatin (30mg/kg per day) for 2 or 4weeks...
May 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876759/contrasting-regional-fos-expression-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-rats-following-acute-administration-of-the-antidepressant-paroxetine
#15
Emily A Karanges, Linnet Ramos, Bruno Dampney, Anastasia S Suraev, Kong M Li, Iain S McGregor, Glenn E Hunt
Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg)...
March 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837851/facing-the-fear-clinical-and-neural-effects-of-cognitive-behavioural-and-pharmacotherapy-in-panic-disorder-with-agoraphobia
#16
Carolin Liebscher, André Wittmann, Johanna Gechter, Florian Schlagenhauf, Ulrike Lueken, Jens Plag, Benjamin Straube, Bettina Pfleiderer, Lydia Fehm, Alexander L Gerlach, Tilo Kircher, Thomas Fydrich, Jürgen Deckert, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Andreas Heinz, Volker Arolt, Andreas Ströhle
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatment with selective serotonin or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SSNRI) are regarded as efficacious treatments for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). However, little is known about treatment-specific effects on symptoms and neurofunctional correlates. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: We used a comparative design with PD/AG patients receiving either two types of CBT (therapist-guided (n=29) or non-guided exposure (n=22)) or pharmacological treatment (SSRI/SSNRI; n=28) as well as a wait-list control group (WL; n=15) to investigate differential treatment effects in general aspects of fear and depression (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale HAM-A and Beck Depression Inventory BDI), disorder-specific symptoms (Mobility Inventory MI, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale subscale panic attacks PAS-panic, Anxiety Sensitivity Index ASI, rating of agoraphobic stimuli) and neurofunctional substrates during symptom provocation (Westphal-Paradigm) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779892/synaptic-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-female-rodents-associated-with-resilience-to-anxiety-and-suppression-of-food-restriction-evoked-hyperactivity-in-an-animal-model-for-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Chiye Aoki
Anorexia nervosa is a mental illness that emerges primarily during early adolescence, with mortality rate that is 200 times higher than that of suicide. The illness is characterized by intense fear of gaining weight, heightened anxiety, obstinate food restriction, often accompanied by excessive exercise, in spite of mounting hunger. The illness affects females nine times more often than males, suggesting an endocrine role in its etiology. Its relapse rate exceeds 25%, yet there are no accepted pharmacological treatments to prevent this...
January 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26590419/htr2a-expressing-cells-in-the-central-amygdala-control-the-hierarchy-between-innate-and-learned-fear
#18
Tomoko Isosaka, Tomohiko Matsuo, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kazuo Funabiki, Shigetada Nakanishi, Reiko Kobayakawa, Ko Kobayakawa
Fear is induced by innate and learned mechanisms involving separate pathways. Here, we used an olfactory-mediated innate-fear versus learned-fear paradigm to investigate how these pathways are integrated. Notably, prior presentation of innate-fear stimuli inhibited learned-freezing response, but not vice versa. Whole-brain mapping and pharmacological screening indicated that serotonin-2A receptor (Htr2a)-expressing cells in the central amygdala (CeA) control both innate and learned freezing, but in opposing directions...
November 19, 2015: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26578081/anxiolytic-like-effects-of-increased-ghrelin-receptor-signaling-in-the-amygdala
#19
Morten Jensen, Cecilia Ratner, Olga Rudenko, Søren H Christiansen, Louise J Skov, Cecilie Hundahl, David P D Woldbye, Birgitte Holst
BACKGROUND: Besides the well-known effects of ghrelin on adiposity and food intake regulation, the ghrelin system has been shown to regulate aspects of behavior including anxiety and stress. However, the effect of virus-mediated overexpression of the ghrelin receptor in the amygdala has not previously been addressed directly. METHODS: First, we examined the acute effect of peripheral ghrelin administration on anxiety- and depression-like behavior using the open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and tail suspension tests...
May 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556077/neural-mechanisms-of-exercise-anti-depression-neurogenesis-and-serotonin-signaling
#20
Ti-Fei Yuan, Flávia Paes, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira Rocha, Alberto Souza de Sá Filho, Sergio Machado
Depression is associated with decreased serotonin metabolism and functioning in the central nervous system, evidenced by both animal models of depression and clinical patient studies. Depression is also accompanied by decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in diverse animal models. Neurogenesis is mainly defined in dentate gyrus of hippocampus as well as subventricular zone. Moreover, hypothalamus, amygdala, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex are reported with evidences of adult neurogenesis. Physical exercise is found to modulate adult neurogenesis significantly, and results in mood improvement...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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