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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352277/influence-of-early-stress-on-memory-reconsolidation-implications-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-treatment
#1
Hélène Villain, Aïcha Benkahoul, Philippe Birmes, Barbara Ferry, Pascal Roullet
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#2
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341131/a-retrospective-study-of-feline-trauma-patients-admitted-to-a-referral-centre
#3
T Hernon, M Gurney, S Gibson
OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic information and provide recommendations for management of feline trauma patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of case records for 185 cats presented as emergency trauma cases to a referral hospital between February 2009 and December 2013. Each case was assigned a severity score from 1 (very minor injuries) to 6 (moribund, dying). The data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U and Spearman's rank correlation tests. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340470/traumatic-rupture-of-liver-hydatid-cysts-into-the-peritoneal-cavity-of-an-11-year-old-boy-a-case-report-from-iran
#4
Sadaf Sabzevari, Alireza Badirzadeh, Reza Shahkaram, Mohammad Seyyedin
This is the first published case report of an 11-year-old patient with a rupture of a liver hydatid cyst (HC) into the peritoneal cavity after an abdominal trauma in Iran. The disease was diagnosed using focused abdominal sonography for trauma. To date, no cases of traumatic ruptures of liver HCs in children have been reported in Iran. In the endemic regions of the world, where patients suffer from a history of trauma and constant abdominal symptoms or anaphylactic shock, early diagnosis of HC is crucial as it may disseminate to other organs...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340154/the-impact-of-sepsis-delirium-and-psychological-distress-on-self-rated-cognitive-function-in-icu-survivors-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Emily Brück, Anna Schandl, Matteo Bottai, Peter Sackey
Background: Many intensive care unit (ICU) survivors develop psychological problems and cognitive impairment. The relation between sepsis, delirium, and later cognitive problems is not fully elucidated, and the impact of psychological symptoms on cognitive function is poorly studied in ICU survivors. The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sepsis, ICU delirium, and later self-rated cognitive function. A second aim was to investigate the association between psychological problems and self-rated cognitive function 3 months after the ICU stay...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332316/how-do-i-implement-a-whole-blood-program-for-massively-bleeding-patients
#6
Mark H Yazer, Andrew P Cap, Philip C Spinella, Louis Alarcon, Darrell J Triulzi
Building on the successful military experience, interest has been rekindled in transfusing whole blood (WB) early in the resuscitation of traumatically injured civilians, often before their ABO group is known. WB efficiently provides treatment for shock and coagulopathy, as well as platelet hemostatic function, to patients losing large volumes of blood. Unlike group O uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs), group O WB contains a substantial amount of plasma, which is incompatible with the RBCs of all non-group O recipients...
January 14, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324486/fibrinolysis-and-antifibrinolytic-treatment-in-the-trauma-patient
#7
Lewis S Gall, Ross A Davenport
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of antifibrinolytics in trauma haemorrhage and early coagulopathy remains controversial with respect to patient selection, dosage, timing of treatment, and risk of thrombotic complications. This review presents our current understanding of the mechanisms of fibrinolysis in trauma, diagnostic evaluation, and the evidence base for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive fibrinolysis following severe injury is a major component of acute traumatic coagulopathy and contributes to the high mortality from trauma haemorrhage...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302596/what-are-the-ethical-issues-in-relation-to-the-role-of-the-family-in-intensive-care
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Quenot, Fiona Ecarnot, Nicolas Meunier-Beillard, Auguste Dargent, Audrey Large, Pascal Andreu, Jean-Philippe Rigaud
A large proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are unable to express themselves, often due to acute illness, shock or trauma, and this precludes any communication and/or consent for care that might reflect their wishes and opinions. In such cases, the only solution for the ICU physician is to include the patient's family in the healthcare decisions. This can represent a significant burden on the family, on top of the psychological distress of the ICU environment and hospitalisation of their relatives, and many family members may suffer from anxiety, depression or symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during or after the hospitalisation and/or death of a loved one in the ICU...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298239/resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-for-pelvic-blunt-trauma-and-life-threatening-hemorrhage-a-20-year-experience-in-a-level-i-trauma-center
#9
Audrey Pieper, Frédéric Thony, Julien Brun, Mathieu Rodière, Bastien Boussat, Catherine Arvieux, Jérôme Tonetti, Jean-François Payen, Pierre Bouzat
BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is increasingly used as a non-invasive clamp of the aorta after diverse post-traumatic injuries. Balloon inflation in zone 3 (from the lower renal artery to the aortic bifurcation) can be performed to stop on-going bleeding after severe pelvic trauma with life-threatening hemorrhage. The aim of our study was to describe our 20-year experience with REBOA in terms of efficacy and safety in patients with a suspicion of severe pelvic trauma and extreme hemorrhagic shock...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287058/activities-of-the-thor-aabb-working-party
#10
Mark H Yazer, Philip C Spinella
The AABB (formerly the American Association of Blood Banks) is an international authority on transfusion medicine and tissue banking. The Trauma, Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research (THOR) Network is an international multidisciplinary network of civilian and military providers ranging from first responders and medics to critical care physicians, and from basic scientists to clinical trialists. The THOR Network's vision is to improve outcomes from traumatic hemorrhagic shock by optimizing the acute phase of resuscitation...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285980/xenon-protects-against-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-in-an-i-in-vitro-i-model
#11
Rita Campos-Pires, Mariia Koziakova, Amina Yonis, Ashni Pau, Warren Macdonald, Katie Harris, Christopher Edge, Nicholas P Franks, Peter Mahoney, Robert Dickinson
The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of the inert gas xenon as a treatment for blast-induced traumatic brain injury in an in vitro laboratory model. We developed a novel blast traumatic brain injury model using C57BL/6N mouse organotypic hippocampal brain-slice cultures exposed to a single shockwave, with the resulting injury quantified using propidium iodide fluorescence. A shock tube blast generator was used to simulate open field explosive blast shockwaves, modeled by the Friedlander waveform...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283920/does-lactate-affect-the-association-of-early-hyperglycemia-and-multiple-organ-failure-in-severely-injured-blunt-trauma-patients
#12
Justin E Richards, Thomas M Scalea, Michael A Mazzeffi, Peter Rock, Samuel M Galvagno
BACKGROUND: Early hyperglycemia is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) after traumatic injury; however, few studies have considered the contribution of depth of clinical shock. We hypothesize that when considered simultaneously, glucose and lactate are associated with MOF in severely injured blunt trauma patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective investigation at a single tertiary care trauma center. Inclusion criteria were patient age ≥18 years, injury severity score (ISS) >15, blunt mechanism of injury, and an intensive care unit length of stay >48 hours...
December 26, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282161/generalisation-of-fear-in-ptsd-related-to-prolonged-childhood-maltreatment-an-experimental-study
#13
Janine Thome, Sophie Hauschild, Georgia Koppe, Lisa Liebke, Sophie Rausch, Julia I Herzog, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Dirk Hermans, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
BACKGROUND: Fear responses are particularly intense and persistent in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and can be evoked by unspecific cues that resemble the original traumatic event. Overgeneralisation of fear might be one of the underlying mechanisms. We investigated the generalisation and discrimination of fear in individuals with and without PTSD related to prolonged childhood maltreatment. METHODS: Sixty trauma-exposed women with (N = 30) and without (N = 30) PTSD and 30 healthy control participants (HC) underwent a fear conditioning and generalisation paradigm...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261592/whole-blood-and-hextend-bookends-of-modern-tactical-combat-casualty-care-field-resuscitation-and-starting-point-for-multi-functional-resuscitation-fluid-development
#14
Forest R Sheppard, Thomas A Mitchell, Antoni R Macko, Darren M Fryer, Leasha J Schaub, Kassandra M Ozuna, Jacob J Glaser
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death in traumatically injured civilian and military populations. Pre-hospital resuscitation largely relies on crystalloid and colloid intra-vascular expansion, as whole blood and component blood therapy are logistically arduous. In this experiment, we evaluated the bookends of Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines recommendations of pre-hospital resuscitation with Hextend and whole blood in a controlled hemorrhagic shock model within non-human primates, as means of a multi-functional resuscitative fluid development...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251715/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-respiratory-adjusted-shock-index-rasi-to-determine-the-presence-of-occult-shock-in-trauma-patients
#15
Nicholas Caputo, James Reilly, Marc Kanter, Jason West
BACKGROUND: The shock index (SI), calculated as HR/SBP, is a simple hemodynamic marker that may be used to assess for the presence of occult shock in trauma patients. The normal range for a healthy adult patient is 0.5 to 0.7. Recently, studies have demonstrated that tachypnea is the most important predictor of cardiac arrest in hospital wards and is an important indicator of derangements across multiple organ systems. As such, we have sought to determine whether the inclusion of the patient's respiratory rate to the already existing shock index (called the Respiratory Adjusted Shock Index- RASI), calculated as HR/SBP*(RR/10), will improve the overall diagnostic accuracy of detecting patients in early occult shock...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251707/transcriptomic-changes-following-valproic-acid-treatment-promote-neurogenesis-and-minimize-secondary-brain-injury
#16
Vahagn C Nikolian, Isabel S Dennahy, Gerald A Higgins, Aaron M Williams, Michael Weykamp, Patrick E Georgoff, Hassan Eidy, Mohamed H Ghandour, Panpan Chang, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Early treatment with valproic acid (VPA) has demonstrated benefit in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including smaller brain lesion size, decreased edema, reduced neurologic disability, and faster recovery. Mechanisms underlying these favorable outcomes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that VPA treatment would upregulate genes involved in cell survival and proliferation and downregulate those associated with cell death and the inflammatory response...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251706/valproic-acid-induces-pro-survival-transcriptomic-changes-in-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#17
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Gerald Higgins, Kiril Chtraklin, Hassan Eidy, Mohamed H Ghandour, Aaron Williams, Brian Athey, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that improves outcomes in large animal models of trauma. However, its protective mechanism of action is not completely understood. We sought to characterize the genetic changes induced by VPA treatment following traumatic injuries. METHODS: Six female Yorkshire swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI, controlled cortical impact), polytrauma (liver and splenic laceration, rib fracture, rectus crush), and hemorrhagic shock (HS, 40% total blood volume)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249934/the-psychoactive-agent-crocin-can-regulate-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity
#18
Sara Asalgoo, Mahdi Tat, Hedayat Sahraei, Gila Pirzad Jahromi
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs following life-threatening events. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which serves as the first line of defense against stress, is dysfunctional in this disorder. The current study aimed to investigate the role of Crocin in normalizing HPA function in an animal model of PTSD induced by electric foot shock. Rats were treated with Crocin 5 min prior to stress induction. The stimulus was re-introduced after 21 days, and we measured individual behaviors such as sniffing, rearing, grooming, and freezing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230306/cultural-shift-in-mental-illness-a-comparison-of-stress-responses-in-world-war-i-and-the-vietnam-war
#19
Rasjid Skinner, Paul M Kaplick
Objectives: Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Design: Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops...
December 2017: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209145/altered-neuroendocrine-immune-responses-a-two-sword-weapon-against-traumatic-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Xuetao Yang, Jianxin Jiang
During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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