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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634463/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-amide-on-blast-induced-increase-in-intracranial-pressure-in-rats
#1
Usmah Kawoos, Richard M McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is associated with acute and possibly chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). The outcome after TBI is dependent on the progression of complex processes which are mediated by oxidative stress. So far, no effective pharmacological protection against TBI exists. In this study, rats were exposed to a single or repetitive blast overpressure (BOP) at moderate intensities of 72 or 110 kPa in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The degree and duration of the increase in ICP were proportional to the intensity and frequency of the blast exposure(s)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632582/the-effect-of-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-partial-aortic-occlusion-and-aggressive-blood-transfusion-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-swine-multiple-injuries-model
#2
M Austin Johnson, Timothy K Williams, Sarah-Ashley E Ferencz, Anders J Davidson, Rachel M Russo, William T O'Brien, Joseph M Galante, J Kevin Grayson, Lucas P Neff
BACKGROUND: Despite clinical reports of poor outcomes, the degree to which resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. We hypothesized that combined effects of increased proximal mean arterial pressure (pMAP), carotid blood flow (Qcarotid), and intracranial pressure (ICP) from REBOA would lead to TBI progression compared with partial aortic occlusion (PAO) or no intervention. METHODS: Twenty-one swine underwent a standardized TBI via computer Controlled cortical impact followed by 25% total blood volume rapid hemorrhage...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631089/targeted-temperature-management-in-the-icu-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel
#3
REVIEW
Alain Cariou, Jean-François Payen, Karim Asehnoune, Gerard Audibert, Astrid Botte, Olivier Brissaud, Guillaume Debaty, Sandrine Deltour, Nicolas Deye, Nicolas Engrand, Gilles Francony, Stéphane Legriel, Bruno Levy, Philippe Meyer, Jean-Christophe Orban, Sylvain Renolleau, Bernard Vigue, Laure De Saint Blanquat, Cyrille Mathien, Lionel Velly
Over the recent period, the use of induced hypothermia has gained an increasing interest for critically ill patients, in particular in brain-injured patients. The term "targeted temperature management" (TTM) has now emerged as the most appropriate when referring to interventions used to reach and maintain a specific level temperature for each individual. TTM may be used to prevent fever, to maintain normothermia, or to lower core temperature. This treatment is widely used in intensive care units, mostly as a primary neuroprotective method...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624572/role-of-beta-catenin-and-endocannabinoids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-extinction-in-rats-exposed-to-shock-and-reminders
#4
Nachshon Korem, Rachel Lange, Cecilia J Hillard, Irit Akirav
The response to a traumatic experience may be rapid recovery or development of psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Impaired extinction of fear memories is thought to contribute to the development of the persistent trauma memories and avoidance. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the endocannabinoid system appear to play significant roles in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Here we examined the involvement of β-catenin in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in extinction in rats exposed to the shock and reminders model of PTSD...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614145/non-human-primate-rhesus-macaque-models-of-severe-pressure-targeted-hemorrhagic-and-poly-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#5
Forest R Sheppard, Antoni R Macko, Jacob J Glaser, Philip J Vernon, Alexander J Burdette, R Madelaine Paredes, Craig A Koeller, Anthony E Pusateri, Douglas K Tadaki, Sylvain Cardin
BACKGROUND: We endeavored to develop clinically translatable non-human primate (NHP) models of severe poly-traumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: NHPs were randomized into five pressure-targeted severe hemorrhagic shock (PTHS) ± additional injuries scenarios: 30-min PTHS (PTHS-30), 60-min PTHS (PTHS-60), PTHS-60 + soft tissue injury (PTHS-60+ST), PTHS-60+ST + femur fracture (PTHS-60+ST+FF) and decompensated PTHS+ST+FF (PTHS-D). Physiologic parameters were recorded and blood samples collected at five time points with animal observation through T = 24hrs...
June 13, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611888/efficacy-and-safety-of-tranexamic-acid-in-prehospital-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-outcomes-of-the-cal-pat-study
#6
Michael M Neeki, Fanglong Dong, Jake Toy, Reza Vaezazizi, Joe Powell, Nina Jabourian, Alex Jabourian, David Wong, Richard Vara, Kathryn Seiler, Troy W Pennington, Joe Powell, Chris Yoshida-McMath, Shanna Kissel, Katharine Schulz-Costello, Jamish Mistry, Matthew S Surrusco, Karen R O'Bosky, Daved Van Stralen, Daniel Ludi, Karl Sporer, Peter Benson, Eugene Kwong, Richard Pitts, John T Culhane, Rodney Borger
INTRODUCTION: The California Prehospital Antifibrinolytic Therapy (Cal-PAT) study seeks to assess the safety and impact on patient mortality of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in cases of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock. The current study further aimed to assess the feasibility of prehospital TXA administration by paramedics within the framework of North American emergency medicine standards and protocols. METHODS: This is an ongoing multi-centered, prospective, observational cohort study with a retrospective chart-review comparison...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606756/lasting-retinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-blast-induced-trauma
#7
Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S Sakaguchi, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Justin J Greenlee, M Heather West Greenlee
Traumatic brain injury due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. Although secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure resulting from blast wave pressure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulting retinal pathologies. Using a compressed air-driven shock tube system, adult male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (43.5 psi) per day for 3 successive days, and euthanized 30 days after injury...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601315/age-related-mortality-in-blunt-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-the-killers-and-the-life-savers
#8
John O Hwabejire, Christine E Nembhard, Tolulope A Oyetunji, Theodros Seyoum, Mayowa P Abiodun, Suryanarayana M Siram, Edward E Cornwell, Wendy R Greene
BACKGROUND: There are sparse data on the association between age and mortality in hemorrhagic shock (HS). We examined this association in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Glue Grant database was analyzed. Patients aged ≥16 y with blunt traumatic HS were stratified into eight age groups (16-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 y) to identify the mortality inflection point. Subsequently, patients were restratified into young age (16-44 y), middle age (45-64 y), and elderly (≥65 y)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601205/remote-damage-control-resuscitation-in-austere-environments
#9
REVIEW
Ronald Chang, Brian J Eastridge, John B Holcomb
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable military and civilian trauma death. Damage control resuscitation with concomitant mechanical hemorrhage control has become the preferred in-hospital treatment of hemorrhagic shock. In particular, plasma-based resuscitation with decreased volumes of crystalloids and artificial colloids as part of damage control resuscitation has improved outcomes in the military and civilian sectors. However, translation of these principles and techniques to the prehospital, remote, and austere environments, known as remote damage control resuscitation, is challenging given the resource limitations in these settings...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600997/genistein-alleviates-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-model-through-enhancing-serotonergic-transmission-in-the-amygdala
#10
Zhong-Min Wu, Gui-Lian Ni, Ai-Min Shao, Rong Cui
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by intense fear, and increased arousal and avoidance of traumatic events. The current available treatments for PTSD have limited therapeutic value. Genistein, a natural isoflavone, modulates a variety of cell functions. In this study, we tested anti-anxiety activity and underlying mechanisms of genistein in a PTSD rat model. The rats were trained to associate a tone with foot shock delivery on day 0, then fear conditioning was performed on day 7, 14 and 21...
June 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599052/tccc-updates-two-decades-of-saving-lives-on-the-battlefield-tactical-combat-casualty-care-turns-20
#11
Frank K Butler
BACKGROUND: Twenty years ago, the original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) article was published in this journal. Since TCCC is essentially a set of bestpractice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield, the presence of a journal with a specific focus on military medicine was a profound benefit to the initial presentation of TCCC to the US Military. METHODS: In the two ensuing decades, which included the longest continuous period of armed conflict in our nation's history, TCCC steadily evolved as the prehospital trauma care evidence base was augmented and as feedback from user medics, corpsmen, and pararescuemen was obtained...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595220/-metachronous-bilateral-hemothorax-due-to-reverse-chance-type-thoracic-fracture
#12
Takehisa Fukada, Katsuhiko Morita, Takayuki Ueki, Nobuharu Hanaoka
Metachronous bilateral hemothorax due to reverse Chance type thoracic fracture is very rare. In this case, we experienced a case of metachronous bilateral hemothorax, triggered by a thoracic fracture in which the anterior component of the spine collapsed, so-called reverse Chance type thoracic fracture. An 83-year-old woman with spinal kyphosis traumatically injured thoracic spine burst fracture, and bone fragments appeared on both sides of the destroyed vertebra. After injury, the left hemothorax also appeared, followed by the right hemothorax causing hemorrhagic shock...
June 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591008/plasma-resuscitation-improved-survival-in-a-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-rat-model-of-sepsis
#13
Ronald Chang, John B Holcomb, Par I Johansson, Shibani Pati, Martin A Schreiber, Charles E Wade
BACKGROUND: The paradigm shift from crystalloid to plasma resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock has improved patient outcomes due in part to plasma-mediated reversal of catecholamine and inflammation-induced endothelial injury, decreasing vascular permeability and attenuating organ injury. Since sepsis induces a similar endothelial injury as seen in hemorrhage, we hypothesized that plasma resuscitation would increase 48-hour survival in a rat sepsis model. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (375-425 g) were subjected to 35% cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (t = 0 h)...
June 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590349/outcomes-following-concomitant-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-a-secondary-analysis-from-the-proppr-trial
#14
Samuel M Galvagno, Erin E Fox, Savitri N Appana, Sarah Baraniuk, Patrick L Bosarge, Eileen M Bulger, Rachel A Callcut, Bryan A Cotton, Michael Goodman, Kenji Inaba, Terence O'Keeffe, Martin A Schreiber, Charles E Wade, Thomas M Scalea, John B Holcomb, Deborah M Stein
BACKGROUND: Often the clinician is faced with a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma in patients with concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS), as rapid deterioration from either can be fatal. Knowledge about outcomes following concomitant TBI and HS may help prioritize the emergent management of these patients. We hypothesized that patients with concomitant TBI and HS (TBI+HS) had worse outcomes and required more intensive care compared to patients with only one of these injuries...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574862/the-role-of-micrornas-in-the-therapeutic-action-of-d-cycloserine-in-a-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-animal-model-an-exploratory-study
#15
Stefanie Malan-Müller, Lorren Fairbairn, Stephanie Hart, Willie M U Daniels, Mahjoubeh Jalali Sefid Dashti, Martin Kidd, Soraya Seedat, Junaid Gamieldien, Sîan M J Hemmings
OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by impaired fear extinction and excessive anxiety. D-Cycloserine (DCS) has previously been shown to facilitate fear extinction and decrease anxiety in animal and human studies. This study utilized a contextual fear-conditioning animal model to investigate the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in fear extinction and the reduction of anxiety, as mediated by the co-administration of DCS and behavioural fear extinction. METHODS: Fear conditioning consisted of an electric foot shock; fear extinction consisted of behavioural fear extinction co-administered with either DCS or saline...
June 1, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559986/severe-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-induces-compromised-immune-barrier-function-of-the-mesenteric-lymph-node-leading-to-an-increase-in-intestinal-bacterial-translocation
#16
Jian Zhang, Yun Zhang, Tao Xu, Sheng-Jing Pan, Gang Nie, Xiao-Yan Miao, Jun-Yu Qiu, Wen-Qiao Yu, Shao-Yang Zhang, Ting-Bo Liang
Critically ill patients have increased susceptibility to translocation of gut bacteria. However, the mechanisms are complicated and remain unclear, and the aim of this study was to explore these mechanisms. Rats exposed to different levels of shock were orally administrated with bioluminescent Citrobacter. We found that severe shock caused an increase in bacterial translocation to the visceral organs, such as liver, spleen and blood, compared with mild shock. Surprisingly, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node (MLN) was unchanged between the two shock groups...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552276/adjuncts-to-blood-component-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-bleeding-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#17
REVIEW
Jerrold H Levy, Kamrouz Ghadimi, Quintin J Quinones, Raquel R Bartz, Ian Welsby
Patients who are critically ill following surgical or traumatic injury often present with coagulopathy as a component of the complex multisystem dysfunction that clinicians must rapidly diagnose and treat in the intensive care environment. Failure to recognize coagulopathy while volume resuscitation with crystalloid or colloid takes place, or an unbalanced transfusion strategy focused on packed red blood cell transfusion can all significantly worsen coagulopathy, leading to increased transfusion requirements and poor outcomes...
April 25, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548614/after-suicide-coming-together-in-kindness-and-support
#18
Ronnie Susan Walker
This article is a personal narrative by Ronnie Walker, MS, LCPC about the suicide of her step-son, Channing, in 1995. It describes the particular journey of shock, despair, disorientation, guilt and anger that Walker began after the death. It also describes the remarkable personal growth and restoration of meaning that emerged for the author as she began what is now the largest online community of suicide loss survivors in the world, the Alliance of Hope ( www.allianceofhope.org ). The article also provides numerous examples of the power of supportive community in helping survivors of suicide loss to not only cope, but to demonstrate post-traumatic growth after the suicide of a loved one...
May 26, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539417/exposure-to-stressors-facilitates-long-term-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-lateral-habenula
#19
Hoyong Park, Jeehae Rhee, Kwanghoon Park, Jung-Soo Han, Roberto Malinow, ChiHye Chung
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small part of the epithalamus that projects to monoamine centers in the brain. Previously, neurotransmission onto the LHb was shown to be abnormally potentiated in animal models of depression. However, synaptic plasticity in this brain area and the effect of stressor exposure on synaptic plasticity of the LHb have not been investigated. Thus, we explored whether the LHb undergoes dynamic changes in synaptic efficacy or not. First, we observed that a moderate long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs in a fraction of LHb neurons obtained from naïve Sprague Dawley rats...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538624/comparison-of-compensatory-reserve-and-arterial-lactate-as-markers-of-shock-and-resuscitation
#20
Michael Johnson, Abdul Alarhayem, Victor Convertino, Robert Carter, Kevin Chung, Ronald Stewart, John Myers, Daniel Dent, Lilian Liao, Ramon Cestero, Susannah Nicholson, Mark Muir, Martin Schwaca, David Wampler, Mark DeRosa, Brian Eastridge
BACKGROUND: During traumatic hemorrhage, the ability to identify shock and intervene prior to decompensation is paramount to survival. Lactate is extremely sensitive to shock and its clearance has been demonstrated a useful gauge of shock and resuscitation status. Though lactate can be measured in the field, logistical constraints render it impractical in certain environments. The Compensatory Reserve represents a new clinical measurement reflecting the remaining capacity to compensate for hypoperfusion...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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