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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157286/farmers-perception-of-termites-in-agriculture-production-and-their-indigenous-utilization-in-northwest-benin
#1
Laura Estelle Yêyinou Loko, Azize Orobiyi, Paterne Agre, Alexandre Dansi, Manuele Tamò, Yves Roisin
BACKGROUND: Although termites are considered as agricultural pests, they play an important role in maintaining the ecosystem. Therefore, it matters to investigate the farmers' perception of the impacts of the termites on the agriculture and their indigenous utilization. METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 94 farmers through 10 villages of Atacora department, in the northwestern region of Benin, to obtain information for the development of successful strategies of termite management and conservation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155500/chinese-medicine-for-diabetic-kidney-disease-in-china
#2
REVIEW
Yumin Wen, Meihua Yan, Bingxuan Zhang, Ping Li
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major global public health concern due to its high prevalence and mortality, and high healthcare cost. Conventional Western therapies for DKD fail to provide favourable efficacy. Chinese medicine (CM) has been widely used to combat DKD in China and other Asian countries. The clinical effects and mechanism of CM in treating DKD have not been fully elucidated. This review summarizes current knowledge of CM therapeutic modalities for DKD, especially Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), and potential mechanisms...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154142/child-trafficking-and-the-european-migration-crisis-the-role-of-forensic-practitioners
#3
Zuzana Obertová, Cristina Cattaneo
Trafficking in children is one of the worst forms of human rights violation and is categorised as a serious crime. Children at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking are runaways, children with a history of abuse, and migrant children. Internationally, cases of child trafficking are increasing the most in Europe, which is likely the result of the current migration crisis. In crises, preventing and combating human trafficking needs to be prioritized, considering that the aims of humanitarian action include saving lives, easing suffering and preserving human dignity...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151231/sleep-medicine-is-coming-of-age-in-military-medicine-report-from-the-military-health-system-research-symposium-2017-in-kissimmee-florida
#4
Arn H Eliasson, Christopher Lettieri, Nikolaus Netzer
In August 2017, the US Military Health System held its sixth annual Research Symposium for medical researchers from the US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Public Health Service. The symposium provides a collaborative environment for academia, industry, and military researchers who address advancement in areas of Combat Casualty Care, Military Operational Medicine, Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine, and Military Infectious Diseases. This year, Sleep Medicine received substantial attention with presentations scattered throughout the program, poster presentations as well as a scheduled breakout session with podium presentations...
November 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151063/predation-among-microorganisms-a-huge-potential-of-interspecies-dependencies
#5
Justyna Kowalska, Marcin Włodarczyk
There are many interactions between species (including bacteria) in the environment. One of them is predation, which always leads to the death of a prey. Described in this review Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (Alfaproteobacteria) are uniflagellate, rod shaped and curved obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria. Both species belong to the group of BALOs (Bdellovibrio and like organisms). B. bacteriovorus use periplasmic predatory strategy and M. aeruginosavorus are epibiotic hunters...
November 3, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128848/antimalarial-activity-of-malaria-box-compounds-against-plasmodium-falciparum-clinical-isolates
#6
Jersley D Chirawurah, Felix Ansah, Prince B Nyarko, Samuel Duodu, Yaw Aniweh, Gordon A Awandare
Malaria remains a major cause of childhood deaths in resource-limited settings. In the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs and other interventions have played very significant roles in combating the scourge of malaria. The recent reports of resistance to artemisinin necessitate the need for new antimalarial drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Towards the development of new, affordable and easily accessible antimalarial drugs for endemic regions, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) assembled a total of 400 active antimalarial compounds called the Malaria Box...
October 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127504/glycocalyx-in-atherosclerosis-relevant-endothelium-function-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#7
REVIEW
Ronodeep Mitra, Gerard Leland O'Neil, Ian Chandler Harding, Ming Jie Cheng, Solomon Arko Mensah, Eno Essien Ebong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cell surface-attached extracellular glycocalyx (GCX) layer is a major contributor to endothelial cell (EC) function and EC-dependent vascular health and is a first line of defense against vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight our findings regarding three GCX-dependent EC functions, which are altered when GCX is shed and in atherosclerosis. We discuss why the GCX is a viable option for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: GCX regulated EC activities such as barrier and filtration function, active cell-to-cell communication, and vascular tone mediation contribute to function of the entire vascular wall...
November 10, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119936/recent-patents-on-light-based-anti-infective-approaches
#8
Imran Ahmed, Yanyan Fang, Min Lu, Quan Yan, Ahmed Mohamed Kamel El-Hussein, Michael R Hamblin, Tianhong Dai
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious health threats to modern medicine. The lack of potent antibiotics puts us at a disadvantage in the fight against infectious diseases, especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. To this end, an urgent need to search for alternative antimicrobial approaches has arisen. In the last decade, light-based therapy has made significant strides in this fight to combat antibiotic resistance among various microbial strains...
November 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109061/extraction-fractionation-and-re-fractionation-of-artemisia-nilagirica-for-anticancer-activity-and-hplc-esi-qtof-ms-ms-determination
#9
Neha Sahu, Sanjeev Meena, Vijaya Shukla, Priyank Chaturvedi, Brijesh Kumar, Dipak Datta, K R Arya
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants used in traditional medicines are affordable, easily accessible, safer, less toxic and considered as a rich or efficient source of bioactive molecules for modern therapeutics. Artemisia nilagirica (AR) has a long history of use in Indian traditional medicine to combat a wide variety of diseases including cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: Considering the vast potential of traditional healing plants to deliver safer, less toxic and efficient chemotherapeutics, we have examined anticancer activity of ethanolic extract, bioactive fractions and sub-fractions of AR against different human cancer cell lines along with their phytochemical analysis to understand the insights of novel anticancer activities for further preclinical studies...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099084/essential-oils-and-antifungal-activity
#10
REVIEW
Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, Raffaele Coppola, Vincenzo De Feo
Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production...
November 2, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097176/how-shall-we-transfuse-hippolyta
#11
Brendan C Graham, Lindsey J Graham, Carl H Rose, Jeffrey L Winters
The US Department of Defense recently made the decision to open direct ground combat roles to women. Blood product transfusion is an essential component of the US Military guidelines for tactical combat casualty care and damage control resuscitation, but blood transfusion carries with it the specific side effect of alloimmunization-a uniquely significant side effect for young women who may desire subsequent pregnancies. Presently to be considered are the changes that may need to be made to blood transfusion in the setting of battlefield medicine to optimally care for combat-injured women, as a majority of the existing data regarding the risks of transfusion in the trauma setting involve predominantly men...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091860/eclalbasaponin-i-from-aralia-elata-miq-seem-reduces-oxidative-stress-induced-neural-cell-death-by-autophagy-activation
#12
Wei Wang, Guo-Dong Yao, Xin-Yue Shang, Ji-Chao Gao, Yan Zhang, Shao-Jiang Song
Oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to DNA damage and is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. It has been reported that Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. (A. elata) exhibits an anti-oxidative effect but the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are still unclear. In this study, six known triterpene saponins were isolated from the buds of A. elata, a well-known medicinal and edible plant in Northeast China. Subsequently, the anti-oxidative effects of all six triterpene saponins were screened by H2O2-induced damage in human neuronblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090328/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-engineer-blood-vessels
#13
Xin Yi Chan, Morgan B Elliott, Bria Macklin, Sharon Gerecht
Development of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a remarkable scientific advancement that allows scientists to harness the power of regenerative medicine for potential treatment of disease using unaffected cells. PSCs provide a unique opportunity to study and combat cardiovascular diseases, which continue to claim the lives of thousands each day. Here, we discuss the differentiation of PSCs into vascular cells, investigation of the functional capabilities of the derived cells, and their utilization to engineer microvascular beds or vascular grafts for clinical application...
November 1, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075195/falls-and-fall-prevention-in-older-persons-geriatrics-meets-spaceflight
#14
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami
This paper provides a general overview of key physiological consequences of microgravity experienced during spaceflight and of important parallels and connections to the physiology of aging. Microgravity during spaceflight influences cardiovascular function, cerebral autoregulation, musculoskeletal, and sensorimotor system performance. A great deal of research has been carried out to understand these influences and to provide countermeasures to reduce the observed negative consequences of microgravity on physiological function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064937/a-history-of-us-army-pas
#15
Robyn L Chalupa, W Sanders Marble
The US military has a long tradition of using physician assistants (PAs). The Army began using PAs in 1971 in an effort to supplement the physicians and surgeons in the medical corps. As their numbers grew, PAs gradually replaced general medical officers assigned to battalions. Later, specialty positions developed in aviation medicine, orthopedics, and emergency medicine. The need for a PA serving as an adviser in the major commands slowly developed at all levels of leadership. In 2015, the Army removed limitations on female PAs assigned to combat units...
November 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064815/legal-aspects-of-counteracting-the-trafficking-of-falsified-medicines-in-the-european-union
#16
Vitalii Pashkov, Aleksey Soloviov, Andrii Olefir
INTRODUCTION: The paper identifies key risks associated with the illegal production and sale of medicines. Also there were generalized features of criminal responsibility for acts related to the trafficking of drugs in some Member States of the EU and analyzed legal means of combating the falsified drugs today. The problem concerning falsification of medicines is particularly acute not only in developing countries but also in developed ones. Fake is one in ten - twenty drug. The largest share of falsified drugs comes from the so-called «Asian tigers», already from which they come to the EU market...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053421/development-of-a-novel-herbal-formulation-to-inhibit-biofilm-formation-in-toxigenic-vibrio-cholerae
#17
Diana Jose, N Lekshmi, A K Goel, R Ajay Kumar, Sabu Thomas
Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of the waterborne disease cholera, still threatens a large proportion of world's population. The role of biofilm formation in V. cholerae pathogenesis is well established, as it provides the bacterium enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial agents and increased transmission. In the present study, four medicinal plants used in traditional medicines with antidiarrheal properties were evaluated for its antibiofilm activity. Methanol extracts of these plants (Centella asiatica, Elephantopus scaber, Camellia sinensis, and Holarrhena antidysenterica) showed promising antibiofilm activity against V...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049977/syk-gtp-rac-1-mediated-immune-stimulatory-effect-of-cuscuta-epithymum-ipomoea-batata-and-euphorbia-hirta-plant-extracts
#18
Vanitha Sagar Sudam, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, N J Prameela Subhashini
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNn) are the pivotal mediators of phagocytosis. In addition to neutropenia, impaired neutrophilic function is associated with pathological conditions and immuno-deficiencies. Henceforth, Immuno-stimulatory strategies targeting neutrophilic function are indeed powerful tools in combating obstinate infections. In appreciation towards the usefulness of herbal medicines in therapeutic scenario, the present study was carried out to analyse the immuno-stimulatory effect of Cuscuta epithymum, Ipomoea batata and Euphorbia hirta using in-vitro and in-vivo rodent experimental models...
October 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043618/integrated-microarray-based-tools-for-detection-of-genomic-dna-damage-and-repair-mechanisms
#19
Patrick van Eijk, Yumin Teng, Mark R Bennet, Katie E Evans, James R Powell, Richard M Webster, Simon H Reed
The genetic information contained within the DNA molecule is highly susceptible to chemical and physical insult, caused by both endogenous and exogenous sources that can generate in the order of thousands of lesions a day in each of our cells (Lindahl, Nature 362(6422):709-715, 1993). DNA damages interfere with DNA metabolic processes such as transcription and replication and can be potent inhibitors of cell division and gene expression. To combat these regular threats to genome stability, a host of DNA repair mechanisms have evolved...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039333/antioxidant-antibacterial-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-pumpkin-cucurbit-peel-and-puree-extracts-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Muhammad Asif, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Tauqir A Sherazi, Matloob Ahmad, Ameer Fawad Zahoor, Sohail Anjum Shahzad, Zaib Hussain, Hassan Mahmood, Nasir Mahmood
Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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