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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#1
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088054/medicinal-versus-recreational-cannabis-use-patterns-of-cannabis-use-alcohol-use-and-cued-arousal-among-veterans-who-screen-positive-for-ptsd
#2
Mallory Loflin, Mitch Earleywine, Marcel Bonn-Miller
INTRODUCTION: The present study is the first to test whether veterans who use cannabis specifically for the purposes of self-medication for their reported PTSD symptoms differ from veterans who use cannabis medicinally for other reasons, or recreationally, in terms of patterns of cannabis use, use of alcohol, and reactivity to written combat trauma reminders. METHODS: Assessment measures were administered online to a sample of veterans with a history of cannabis use (n=1971)...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078810/anti-hcv-activity-from-semi-purified-methanolic-root-extracts-of-valeriana-wallichii
#3
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Anirban Mandal, Sukalyani Debnath, Banasri Hazra, Binay Chaubey
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130-150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant...
January 12, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070330/the-approximated-cardiovascular-reserve-index-complies-with-haemorrhage-related-hemodynamic-deterioration-pattern-a-swine-exsanguination-model
#4
Roy Nadler, Elon Glassberg, Itay E Gabbay, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, Gal Yaniv, David Kushnir, Arik Eisenkraft, Ben-Zion Bobrovsky, Uri Gabbay
BACKGROUND: To estimate the cardiovascular reserve we formulated the Cardiovascular Reserve Index (CVRI) based on physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CVRI in haemorrhage-related haemodynamic deterioration in an animal model simulating combat injury. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a research database of swine exsanguination model in which serial physiological measurements were made under anesthesia in 12 swine of haemorrhagic injury and 5 controls...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065331/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-kansas-results-from-a-statewide-survey
#5
Carrie Poteete, Joseph M Scaletta
BACKGROUND: The availability of effective antibiotics is considered one of the most important developments in medicine. However, many organisms that were once susceptible to common antibiotics are becoming resistant. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are considered to be vital for combating the emergence of resistance. To understand current antimicrobial stewardship practices in Kansas, the authors designed a 36-question survey. Results of this survey will be used to develop a coordinated, public health strategy for improving current practices...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061888/antibacterial-activities-of-the-methanol-extract-fractions-and-compounds-from-elaeophorbia-drupifera-thonn-stapf-euphorbiaceae
#6
Igor K Voukeng, Blaise K Nganou, Louis P Sandjo, Ilhami Celik, Veronique P Beng, Pierre Tane, Victor Kuete
BACKGROUND: Elaeophorbia drupifera (Thonn.) Stapf. (Euphorbiaceae) is used in Cameroonian folk medicine to treat several ailments including bacterial-related diseases such as skin infections. In this study, the methanol extract from the leaves (EDL), fractions (EDLa-d), sub-fractions EDLc1-7 and EDLc31-35 as well as isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes...
January 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059156/genetic-screening-in-arterial-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Gian Paolo Rossi, Giulio Ceolotto, Brasilina Caroccia, Livia Lenzini
Studies involving adoptive families and twins have demonstrated the genetic basis of hypertension and shown that genetic factors account for about 40% of the variance in blood pressure among individuals. Arterial hypertension is genetically complex: multiple genes influence the blood pressure phenotype through allelic effects from single genes and gene-gene interactions. Moreover, environmental factors also modify the blood pressure phenotype. This complexity explains why the identification of the underlying genes has not been as successful in hypertension as in other diseases (such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
January 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052010/a-screen-for-fli-1-transcriptional-modulators-identifies-pkc-agonists-that-induce-erythroid-to-megakaryocytic-differentiation-and-suppress-leukemogenesis
#8
Tangjingjun Liu, Yao Yao, Gang Zhang, Ye Wang, Bin Deng, Jialei Song, Xiaogang Li, Fei Han, Xiao Xiao, Jue Yang, Lei Xia, You-Jun Li, Maksym Plachynta, Mu Zhang, Chen Yan, Shuzhen Mu, Heng Luo, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Xiaojiang Hao, Yaacov Ben-David
The ETS-related transcription factor Fli-1 affects many developmental programs including erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation, and is frequently de-regulated in cancer. Fli-1 was initially isolated following retrovirus insertional mutagenesis screens for leukemic initiator genes, and accordingly, inhibition of this transcription factor can suppress leukemia through induction of erythroid differentiation. To search for modulators of Fli-1, we hereby performed repurposing drug screens with compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal plants...
December 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042681/photodynamic-therapy-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
Ushasri Chilakamarthi, Lingamallu Giribabu
Though we crossed many milestones in the field of medicine and health care in eradicating some deadly diseases over the past decades, cancer remained a challenge taking the lives of millions of people and having adverse effects on the quality of life of survivors. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two existing major treatment modalities, have severe side effects and patients undergoing these treatments experience unbearable pain. Consequently, clinicians and researchers are working for the alternate treatment regimens, which can provide complete cure with minimum or no side effects...
January 2, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035685/a-medicinal-herb-cassia-alata-attenuates-quorum-sensing-in-chromobacterium-violaceum-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
P D Rekha, H S Vasavi, C Vipin, K Saptami, A B Arun
Quorum sensing (QS) has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis in many bacteria and attenuation of QS is one of the targets of antimicrobial therapy with particular interest in combating drug resistance. This study reports the QS inhibitory activity of metabolites from Cassia alata L. (Ca. alata), an important medicinal herb widely used in the treatment of microbial infections. For investigating the QS inhibition (QSI) potential of Ca. alata L., initially, metabolites of the leaves extracted using ethanol were tested against biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and C...
December 30, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031008/action-and-function-of-vitamin-d-in-digestive-tract-physiology-and-pathology
#12
Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler, Auke Pieter Verhaar, Luc J W Van Der Laan
BACKGROUND: The body of biomedical literature on Vitamin D effector mechanisms in gastrointestinal biology and pathophysiology is rapidly expanding. Accordingly, new possibilities of vitamin D biology-based therapeutical intervention in gastroenterological disease are being identified. However, the literature lacks a concise review on these developments, hampering comprehension of the possibilities involved for many in the community. RESULTS: Genetic vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and other VDR biology regulation are involved in predisposition to gastrointestinal cancers and might allow tailored strategies for managing those individuals especially at risk, e...
December 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027557/pathological-personality-development-after-the-chornobyl-disaster-and-the-anti-terrorist-operation
#13
K M Loganovsky, M V Gresko
: Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018353/embracing-complexity-beyond-systems-medicine-a-new-approach-to-chronic-immune-disorders
#14
Anje A Te Velde, Tjitske Bezema, Antoine H C van Kampen, Aletta D Kraneveld, Bert A 't Hart, Henriët van Middendorp, Erik C Hack, Joris M van Montfrans, Clara Belzer, Lilian Jans-Beken, Raymond H Pieters, Karen Knipping, Machteld Huber, Annemieke M H Boots, Johan Garssen, Tim R Radstake, Andrea W M Evers, Berent J Prakken, Irma Joosten
In order to combat chronic immune disorders (CIDs), it is an absolute necessity to understand the bigger picture, one that goes beyond insights at a one-disease, molecular, cellular, and static level. To unravel this bigger picture we advocate an integral, cross-disciplinary approach capable of embracing the complexity of the field. This paper discusses the current knowledge on common pathways in CIDs including general psychosocial and lifestyle factors associated with immune functioning. We demonstrate the lack of more in-depth psychosocial and lifestyle factors in current research cohorts and most importantly the need for an all-encompassing analysis of these factors...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012927/role-of-scoparia-dulcis-linn-on-noise-induced-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos-expression-and-neurotransmitter-assessment-on-motor-function-in-wistar-albino-rats
#15
Wankupar Wankhar, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Loganathan Sundareswaran, Dapkupar Wankhar, Ravindran Rajan, Rathinasamy Sheeladevi
Noise pollution is one of the most widespread and fast growing environmental and occupational menaces in the modern era. Exposure to noise above 100dB is not adaptable through the brain homeostatic mechanism. Yet, the detrimental effects of noise have often been ignored. Developing reliable animal models to understand the neurobiology of noise stress and advance our research in the field of medicine to impede this growing stressor is needed. In this study experimental animals were divided into four groups, (i) Control and (ii) S...
December 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001457/illustrating-and-analyzing-the-processes-of-interprofessional-collaboration-a-lesson-learned-from-palliative-care-in-deconstructing-the-concept
#16
Deborah Witt Sherman, Kinsuk Maitra, Yhovana Gordon, Sharon Simon, Maria Olenick, Salvatore Barbara, Jennifer Doherty-Restrepo, Monica Hough, Marilys Randolph, Arvindar Singh
BACKGROUND: A basic tenet of palliative care is interprofessional collaboration. Palliative care educators and practitioners lead the way in responding to the Institute of Medicine's (2003) challenge to transform educational and health care systems through interprofessional collaboration. Through exemplary commitment to interprofessional collaboration, a college's academic and palliative care leader, in collaboration with Department Chairs and Directors of nursing and allied health professions, can illustrate and analyze the processes of interprofessional collaboration through the development of a simulated case study of a combat veteran with traumatic brain injury...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992217/urea-derivatives-of-2-aryl-benzothiazol-5-amines-a-new-class-of-potential-drugs-for-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#17
Donald A Patrick, J Robert Gillespie, Joshua McQueen, Matthew A Hulverson, Ranae M Ranade, Sharon A Creason, Zackary M Herbst, Michael H Gelb, Frederick S Buckner, Richard R Tidwell
A previous publication from this lab (Patrick, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2016, 24 , 2451 - 2465 ) explored the antitrypanosomal activities of novel derivatives of 2-(2-benzamido)ethyl-4-phenylthiazole (1), which had been identified as a hit against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. While a number of these compounds, particularly the urea analogues, were quite potent, these molecules as a whole exhibited poor metabolic stability. The present work describes the synthesis of 65 new analogues arising from medicinal chemistry optimization at different sites on the molecule...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984161/modulatory-effects-of-cassia-fistula-fruits-against-free-radicals-and-genotoxicity-of-mutagens
#18
Sandeep Kaur, Manish Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Varinder Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur
Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae) fruits are highly recommended in folklore medicine for curing various ailments. In the current study, methanol (CaFM), hexane (CaFH), chloroform (CaFCl), ethyl acetate (CaFE), butanol (CaFB) and aqueous (CaFA) fractions of C. fistula fruits were investigated for their potential to inhibit the genotoxicity of mutagens and free radicals. The antimutagenicity of fractions was evaluated against the reactive carcinogenic ester generating mutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and frame-shift mutation inducing mutagen, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA98 tester strain...
October 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982058/shengmai-formula-suppressed-over-activated-ras-mapk-pathway-in-c-elegans-by-opening-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-via-regulating-cyclophilin-d
#19
Yan Liu, Dejuan Zhi, Menghui Li, Dongling Liu, Xin Wang, Zhengrong Wu, Zhanxin Zhang, Dongqing Fei, Yang Li, Hongmei Zhu, Qingjian Xie, Hui Yang, Hongyu Li
Since about 30% of all human cancers contain mutationally activated Ras, down regulating the over-activation of Ras/MAPK pathway represents a viable approach for treating cancers. Over-activation of Ras/MAPK pathway is accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One approach for developing anti-cancer drugs is to target ROS production and their accumulation. To test this idea, we have employed C. elegans of let-60 (gf) mutant, which contain over-activated let-60 (the homolog of mammalian ras) and exhibit tumor-like symptom of multivulva phenotype, to determine whether anti-oxidants can affect their tumor-like phenotype...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980093/the-application-of-metabolomics-for-herbal-medicine-pharmacovigilance-a-case-study-on-ginseng
#20
REVIEW
Elly Crighton, Ian Mullaney, Robert Trengove, Michael Bunce, Garth Maker
Herbal medicines are growing in popularity, use and commercial value; however, there remain problems with the quality and consequently safety of these products. Adulterated, contaminated and fraudulent products are often found on the market, a risk compounded by the fact that these products are available to consumers with little or no medical advice. Current regulations and quality control methods are lacking in their ability to combat these serious problems. Metabolomics is a biochemical profiling tool that may help address these issues if applied to quality control of both raw ingredients and final products...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
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