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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036932/electrospun-chitosan-gelatin-biopolymer-composite-nanofibers-for-horseradish-peroxidase-immobilization-in-a-hydrogen-peroxide-biosensor
#1
Siriwan Teepoo, Phanphruk Dawan, Naris Barnthip
A biosensor based on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymers nanofibers is found to be effective for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase to detect hydrogen peroxide. The biopolymer nanofibers were fabricated by an electrospining technique. Upon optimization of synthesis parameters, biopolymers nanofibers, an average of 80 nm in diameter, were obtained and were then modified on the working electrode surface. The effects of the concentration of enzyme, pH, and concentration of the buffer and the working potential on the current response of the nanofibers-modified electrode toward hydrogen peroxide were optimized to obtain the maximal current response...
October 15, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036845/sexual-concerns-after-spinal-cord-injury-an-update-on-management
#2
Marcalee Sipski Alexander, Carrie Mlynarczyk Aisen, Sterling Morrison Alexander, Mindy Lipson Aisen
BACKGROUND: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) causes neurological impairment with resultant neurogenic sexual dysfunction which can compound preexisting psychological and medical sexual concerns. Understanding these concerns is important in managing the lifelong needs of persons with SCIs. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the impact of SCI on sexuality along with a framework for treatment of sexual concerns. To briefly review male infertility and its treatments and pregnancy in females after SCI...
October 11, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036762/low-intensity-aerobic-exercise-training-inhibition-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-high-fat-diet-induced-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Hye Jin Kim, Won Jun Lee
PURPOSE: Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036761/effects-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-n-3-and-resistance-training-on-muscle-quality-and-expression-of-atrophy-related-ubiquitin-ligases-in-middle-aged-mice-with-high-fat-dietinduced-obesity
#4
Seung-Lyul Oh, Sang-Rok Lee, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)/n-3 supplements and resistance exercise training (RT) for 20 weeks on muscle quality and genes related to protein synthesis/degradation in middle-aged mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Nine-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to five groups: 1) normal diet (C), 2) high-fat diet (H), 3) H+RT (HRT), 4) H+CLA/n-3 (H-CN), and 5) H+RT+CLA/n-3 (H-RTCN). HFD groups were given a diet containing 60% fat for 20 weeks, and exercised groups underwent progressive RT using weighted ladder climbing...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036735/facile-synthesis-and-characterization-of-l-aspartic-acid-coated-iron-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-ionps-for-biomedical-applications
#5
Marziyeh Salehiabar, Hamed Nosrati, Soodabeh Davaran, Hossein Danafar, Hamidreza Kheiri Manjili
Natural L-aspartic acid coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Asp@IONPs) were prepared by a one pot, in-situ and green co-precipitation method in an aqueous medium. Functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs) were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Cellular toxicity of IONPs was also investigated on HEK-293 cell lines...
October 16, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036687/measuring-deaminated-nucleotide-surveillance-enzyme-itpa-activity-with-an-atp-releasing-nucleotide-chimera
#6
Debin Ji, Elena I Stepchenkova, Jian Cui, Miriam R Menezes, Youri I Pavlov, Eric T Kool
Nucleotide quality surveillance enzymes play important roles in human health, by detecting damaged molecules in the nucleotide pool and deactivating them before they are incorporated into chromosomal DNA or adversely affect metabolism. In particular, deamination of adenine moiety in (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphates, resulting in formation of (d)ITP, can be deleterious, leading to DNA damage, mutagenesis and other harmful cellular effects. The 21.5 kDa human enzyme that mitigates this damage by conversion of (d)ITP to monophosphate, ITPA, has been proposed as a possible therapeutic and diagnostic target for multiple diseases...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036663/metabolomic-and-biochemical-approaches-link-salicylic-acid-biosynthesis-to-cyanogenesis-in-peach-plants
#7
Pedro Diaz-Vivancos, Agustina Bernal-Vicente, Daniel Cantabella, Cesar Petri, José Antonio Hernández
Despite the long-established importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant stress responses and other biological processes, its biosynthetic pathways have not been fully characterized. The proposed SA synthesis originates from chorismate by two distinct pathways: isochorismate and phenylalanine (Phe) ammonia-lyase (PAL) pathways. Cyanogenesis is the process related to the release of hydrogen cyanide from endogenous cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs), and it has been linked to plant plasticity improvement. To date, however, no relationship has been suggested between both pathways...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036662/parp2-controls-double-strand-break-repair-pathway-choice-by-limiting-53bp1-accumulation-at-dna-damage-sites-and-promoting-end-resection
#8
Alexis Fouquin, Josée Guirouilh-Barbat, Bernard Lopez, Janet Hall, Mounira Amor-Guéret, Vincent Pennaneach
Double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most toxic lesions to cells. DSB repair by the canonical non-homologous end-joining (C-EJ) pathway involves minor, if any, processing of the broken DNA-ends, whereas the initiation of DNA resection channels the broken-ends toward DNA repair pathways using various lengths of homology. Mechanisms that control the resection initiation are thus central to the regulation to the choice of DSB repair pathway. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms which regulate the initiation of DNA end-resection is of prime importance...
October 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036654/detection-of-expanded-rna-repeats-using-thermostable-group-ii-intron-reverse-transcriptase
#9
Samuel T Carrell, Zhenzhi Tang, Sabine Mohr, Alan M Lambowitz, Charles A Thornton
Cellular accumulation of repetitive RNA occurs in several dominantly-inherited genetic disorders. Expanded CUG, CCUG or GGGGCC repeats are expressed in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), or familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. Expanded repeat RNAs (ER-RNAs) exert a toxic gain-of-function and are prime therapeutic targets in these diseases. However, efforts to quantify ER-RNA levels or monitor knockdown are confounded by stable structure and heterogeneity of the ER-RNA tract and background signal from non-expanded repeats...
October 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036620/fe-controls-the-transcription-of-downstream-flowering-regulators-through-two-distinct-mechanisms-in-leaf-phloem-companion-cells
#10
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In facultative long-day plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding a mobile hormone florigen plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036441/the-role-of-the-er-stress-response-protein-perk-in-rhodopsin-retinitis-pigmentosa
#11
Dimitra Athanasiou, Monica Aguila, James Bellingham, Naheed Kanuga, Peter Adamson, Michael E Cheetham
Mutations in rhodopsin, the light sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a type of inherited blindness caused by the dysfunction and death of photoreceptor cells. The P23H mutation, the most frequent single cause of RP in the USA, causes rhodopsin misfolding and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive ER stress response and signalling network that aims to enhance the folding and degradation of misfolded proteins to restore proteostasis...
September 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036434/novel-mechanisms-of-eif2b-action-and-regulation-by-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#12
Andrew M Bogorad, Kai Ying Lin, Assen Marintchev
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a heterotrimeric GTPase, which plays a critical role in protein synthesis regulation. eIF2-GTP binds Met-tRNAi to form the eIF2-GTP•Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC), which is recruited to the 40S ribosomal subunit. Following GTP hydrolysis, eIF2-GDP is recycled back to TC by its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), eIF2B. Phosphorylation of the eIF2α subunit in response to various cellular stresses converts eIF2 into a competitive inhibitor of eIF2B, which triggers the integrated stress response (ISR)...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036383/nigral-stress-induced-dopamine-release-in-clinical-high-risk-and-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia
#13
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Jeremy J Watts, Michael Kiang, Ivonne Suridjan, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Background: Striatal dopamine (DA) synthesis capacity and release are elevated in schizophrenia (SCZ) and its putative prodrome, the clinical high risk (CHR) state. Striatal DA function results from the activity of midbrain DA neurons projecting mainly from the substantia nigra (SN). Elevated stress-induced DA release in SCZ and CHR was observed in the striatum; however, whether it is also elevated in the SN is unclear. The current study aims to determine whether nigral DA release in response to a validated stress task is altered in CHR and in antipsychotic-naïve SCZ...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036360/subcellular-localization-and-interactions-among-rubber-particle-proteins-from-hevea-brasiliensis
#14
Daniel Brown, Mistianne Feeney, Mathin Ahmadi, Chiara Lonoce, Roslinda Sajari, Alessandra Di Cola, Lorenzo Frigerio
Natural rubber (polyisoprene) from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is synthesized by specialized cells called laticifers. It is not clear how rubber particles arise, although one hypothesis is that they derive from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Here we cloned the genes encoding four key proteins found in association with rubber particles and studied their intracellular localization by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We show that, while the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT), responsible for the synthesis of long polyisoprene chains, is a soluble, cytosolic protein, other rubber particle proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and Hevea rubber transferase 1-REF bridging protein (HRBP) are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036283/the-science-of-absent-evidence-is-there-such-thing-as-an-effective-responsible-drinking-message
#15
Antony C Moss, Ian P Albery
Aims: To review the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages (RDMs). Methods: We searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE and Google Scholar to June 2016 for studies evaluating the effectiveness of RDMs. Only eight studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Due to a small number of search results and broad inconsistency in methods and outcome measures, quantitative synthesis was not possible so a narrative summary of findings was conducted. Results: A review of findings from these articles suggested a disjointed approach in terms of the format and content of RDMs evaluated, as well as the dependent variables used to judge their effectiveness...
September 20, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036229/cloning-and-characterization-of-the-cerasus-humilis-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-gene-chsps1
#16
Juan Wang, Junjie Du, Xiaopeng Mu, Pengfei Wang
Sucrose is crucial to the growth and development of plants, and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) plays a key role in sucrose synthesis. To understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms of sucrose synthesis in Cerasus humilis, ChSPS1, a homologue of SPS, was cloned using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame (ORF) sequence of ChSPS1 is 3174 bp in length, encoding a predicted protein of 1057 amino acids. The predicted protein showed a high degree of sequence identity with SPS homologues from other species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036220/defective-replication-initiation-results-in-locus-specific-chromosome-breakage-and-a-ribosomal-rna-deficiency-in-yeast
#17
Joseph C Sanchez, Elizabeth X Kwan, Thomas J Pohl, Haley M Amemiya, M K Raghuraman, Bonita J Brewer
A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5). These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45). The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036216/herpesviruses-in-etiopathogenesis-of-aggressive-periodontitis-a-meta-analysis-based-on-case-control-studies
#18
Fei Li, Ce Zhu, Feng-Ying Deng, May Chun Mei Wong, Hai-Xia Lu, Xi-Ping Feng
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have found that herpesviruses are associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP). However, these findings are controversial. This meta-analysis was aimed at clarifying the association between herpesviruses and AgP. METHODS: We identified eligible case-control studies evaluating the association between herpesviruses and AgP from PubMed and Embase databases in October 2015. Original data were extracted and quality assessment was done. Overall odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036116/fast-computer-hologram-generation-by-flexible-ratio-adaptive-point-spread-spherical-wave-synthesis
#19
Yutaka Mori, Yuto Arai
We propose a flexible-ratio adaptive point-spread spherical wave synthesis method for fast computer-generated hologram calculation. The conventional adaptive point-spread algorithm uses a fixed ratio between the major and minor axes of the point source, whereas the proposed method uses flexible-ratio sources, i.e., ellipses, for more effective calculation. Numerical simulation was conducted to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method has the potential to achieve faster calculation, compared to the calculation in conventional methods, without significant image degradation...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036059/modeling-astronomical-adaptive-optics-performance-with-temporally-filtered-wiener-reconstruction-of-slope-data
#20
Carlos M Correia, Charlotte Z Bond, Jean-François Sauvage, Thierry Fusco, Rodolphe Conan, Peter L Wizinowich
We build on a long-standing tradition in astronomical adaptive optics (AO) of specifying performance metrics and error budgets using linear systems modeling in the spatial-frequency domain. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive tool for the calculation of error budgets in terms of residual temporally filtered phase power spectral densities and variances. In addition, the fast simulation of AO-corrected point spread functions (PSFs) provided by this method can be used as inputs for simulations of science observations with next-generation instruments and telescopes, in particular to predict post-coronagraphic contrast improvements for planet finder systems...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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