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Lamiaa Z Mohamed, Wafaa A Ghanem, Omayma A El Kady, Mohamed M Lotfy, Hafiz A Ahmed, Fawzi A Elrefaie
The oxidation behavior of two types of inhomogeneous nickel was investigated in air at 1273 K for a total oxidation time of 100 h. The two types were porous sintered-nickel and microstructurally inhomogeneous cast-nickel. The porous-nickel samples were fabricated by compacting Ni powder followed by sintering in vacuum at 1473 K for 2 h. The oxidation kinetics of the samples was determined gravimetrically. The topography and the cross-section microstructure of each oxidized sample were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
Sophie Zaaijer, Assaf Gordon, Daniel Speyer, Robert Piccone, Simon Cornelis Groen, Yaniv Erlich
DNA re-identification is used for a broad suite of applications, ranging from cell line authentication to forensics. However, current re-identification schemes suffer from high latency and limited access. Here, we describe a rapid, inexpensive, and portable strategy to robustly re-identify human DNA called 'MinION sketching'. MinION sketching requires as few as 3 min of sequencing and 60-300 random SNPs to re-identify a sample enabling near real-time applications of DNA re-identification. Our method capitalizes on the rapidly growing availability of genomic reference data for cell lines, tissues in biobanks, and individuals...
November 28, 2017: ELife
Lucas A Portelli, Karsten Falldorf, György Thuróczy, Jan Cuppen
Experiments on cell cultures exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-300 Hz) magnetic fields are often subject to multiple sources of uncertainty associated with specific electric and magnetic field exposure conditions. Here we systemically quantify these uncertainties based on exposure conditions described in a group of bioelectromagnetic experimental reports for a representative sampling of the existing literature. The resulting uncertainties, stemming from insufficient, ambiguous, or erroneous description, design, implementation, or validation of the experimental methods and systems, were often substantial enough to potentially make any successful reproduction of the original experimental conditions difficult or impossible...
November 24, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
Clare Fiala, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Scientific irreproducibility is a major issue that has recently increased attention from publishers, authors, funders and other players in the scientific arena.  Published literature suggests that 50-80% of all science performed is irreproducible.  While various solutions to this problem have been proposed, none of them are quick and/or cheap.  Here, we propose one way of reducing scientific irreproducibility by asking authors to revisit their previous publications and provide a commentary after five years...
2017: F1000Research
Shikui Tang, Limin Song, Jared D Sturgeon, Chang Chang
A challenging case was reported for a patient treated in decubitus position with proton pencil beam scanning. A regular robust plan with the consideration of the uncertainties of translational alignment and range accuracy cannot ensure the target coverage as revealed in two verification computed tomography (CT) scans during the first week of the treatment. The irreproducibility of daily alignment and anatomical variations in such a position is mainly due to patient's roll. To mitigate the interfractional effect on the target coverage, a novel robust optimization against the patient's angular setup uncertainties was implemented to improve the plan quality by introducing two artificial CT image sets by rolling the planning CT three degrees in both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions and adding them into robust optimization scenarios, which was shown to be an effective and simple way to mitigate target dose degradation with respect to interfractional variations...
September 20, 2017: Curēus
David J Glass, Jeffrey S Flier
One of the barriers to revising the literature when new data are produced, demonstrating the lack of reproducibility of particular published findings, is the stigma associated with the current tools available, most notably the use of retractions. We suggest an additional tool: revisions, which could be linked to prior manuscripts by the original authors and by others (upon peer review). We hope new approaches such as the ability to revise prior reports will help to keep the literature up-to-date and representative of the most complete understanding of an issue...
November 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
Ho Yeon Son, Kyeong Rak Kim, Jun Bae Lee, Trang Huyen Le Kim, Jihui Jang, Su Ji Kim, Moung Seok Yoon, Jin Woong Kim, Yoon Sung Nam
Noble metal nanostructures have been intensively investigated as active substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) from visible to near-IR wavelengths. However, metal nanoparticle-based SERS analysis in solutions is very challenging due to uncontrollable and irreproducible colloid aggregation. Here we report the templated synthesis of porous gold-silica hybrid microspheres and their application as reusable colloidal SERS substrates. Mesoporous polymer microspheres are synthesized and used as templates for the synthesis of non-aggregated gold nanoparticles, followed by polydopamine-mediated silicification to fabricate mesoporous gold-silica hybrid microspheres...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brian Dean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Tasha B Toro, Samantha A Edenfield, Brandon J Hylton, Terry J Watt
Acetylation is an important regulatory mechanism in cells, and emphasis is being placed on identifying substrates and small molecule modulators of this post-translational modification. However, the reported in vitro activity of the lysine deacetylase KDAC8 is inconsistent across experimental setups, even with the same substrate, complicating progress in the field. We detected trace levels of zinc, a known inhibitor of KDAC8 when present in excess, even in high-quality buffer reagents, at concentrations that are sufficient to significantly inhibit the enzyme under common reaction conditions...
October 31, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Cristina Cocco, Carla Brancia, Giulia Corda, Gian-Luca Ferri
This review summarized different studies reporting the presence of autoantibodies reacting against cells of the pituitary (APAs) and/or hypothalamus (AHAs). Both APAs and AHAs have been revealed through immunofluorescence using different kinds of substrates. Autoantibodies against gonadotropic cells were mainly found in patients affected by cryptorchidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism while those against prolactin cells were found in different kinds of patients, the majority without pituitary abnormalities...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Darwin, WipaCharles, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch
Organic acid analysis of fermentation samples can be readily achieved by gas chromatography (GC), which detects volatile organic acids. However, lactic acid, a key fermentation acid is non-volatile and can hence not be quantified by regular GC analysis. However the addition of periodic acid to organic acid samples has been shown to enable lactic acid analysis by GC, as periodic acid oxidizes lactic acid to the volatile acetaldehyde. Direct GC injection of lactic acid standards and periodic acid generated inconsistent and irreproducible peaks, possibly due to incomplete lactic acid oxidation to acetaldehyde...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Gerhard Franz, Florian Schamberger, Hamideh Heidari Zare, Sara Felicitas Bröskamp, Dieter Jocham
Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters. Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly(p-xylylene)...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Sebastian Bette, Reinhard K Kremer, Gerhard Eggert, Chiu C Tang, Robert E Dinnebier
Known synthesis approaches for basic copper(ii) acetates, the main components of historic verdrigis pigments were reinvestigated and revealed to be partially irreproducible. A modification of the reaction conditions led to the successful and reproducible synthesis of the 1-2-0 phase (Cu3(CH3COO)2(OH)4 = 1Cu(CH3COO)2·2Cu(OH)2·0H2O). The phase composition was derived from elemental and thermal analysis and confirmed by the crystal structure solution using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data. The 1-2-0 phase crystallises in space group Pbca with lattice parameters of a = 20...
November 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Clare Fiala, Eleftherios P Diamandis
We discuss in depth six causes of scientific irreproducibility and their ramifications for the clinical sciences: fraud, unfounded papers published by prominent authorities, bias, technical deficiencies, fragmented science and problems with big data. Some proposed methods to combat this problem are briefly described, including an effort to replicate results from some high impact papers and a proposal that authors include detailed preclinical data in papers with supposedly high translational value. We here advocate for a 5-year reflection on papers with seemingly high clinical/translational potential, published alongside the original paper where authors reflect on the quality, reproducibility and impact of their findings...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Alexey A Pakhomov, Vladimir I Martynov, Alexander N Orsa, Alena A Bondarenko, Rita V Chertkova, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Alexander G Petrenko, Igor E Deyev
Fluorescent protein Dendra2 is a monomeric GFP-like protein that belongs to the group of Kaede-like photoconvertible fluorescent proteins with irreversible photoconversion from a green- to red-emitting state when exposed to violet-blue light. In an acidic environment, photoconverted Dendra2 turns green due to protonation of the phenolic group of the chromophore with pKa of about 7.5. Thus, photoconverted form of Dendra2 can be potentially used as a ratiometric pH-sensor in the physiological pH range. However, incomplete photoconversion makes ratiometric measurements irreproducible when using standard filter sets...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Joshua I Warrick
Pathologists have identified many "histologic variants" of bladder cancer (BCA): histologic patterns that differ from conventional urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma). Several of these are biologically aggressive, and their identification may aid in clinical decision-making. This article reviews several histologic variants and their value in deciding management of cT1 disease and predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Diagnostic issues are also addressed, such as interobserver variability among pathologists...
October 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Sabrina M Hodgson, Stuart A McNelles, Leonora Abdullahu, Ian A Marozas, Kristi S Anseth, Alex Adronov
A common issue with hydrogel formulations is batch-to-batch irreproducibility originating from poorly defined polymer precursors. Here, we report the use of dendritic polymer end-groups to address this issue and maintain reproducibility between batches of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Specifically, we synthesized two end-functionalized PEG chains: one with azide-terminated first- and second-generation dendrons and the other with strained cyclooctynes. The two complementary azide and alkyne polymers react via strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) to produce hydrogels quickly in the absence of additional reagents or catalyst at low polymer concentrations...
October 26, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Gaorui Bian, Gregory B Gloor, Aihua Gong, Changsheng Jia, Wei Zhang, Jun Hu, Hong Zhang, Yumei Zhang, Zhenqing Zhou, Jiangao Zhang, Jeremy P Burton, Gregor Reid, Yongliang Xiao, Qiang Zeng, Kaiping Yang, Jiangang Li
The microbiota of the aged is variously described as being more or less diverse than that of younger cohorts, but the comparison groups used and the definitions of the aged population differ between experiments. The differences are often described by null hypothesis statistical tests, which are notoriously irreproducible when dealing with large multivariate samples. We collected and examined the gut microbiota of a cross-sectional cohort of more than 1,000 very healthy Chinese individuals who spanned ages from 3 to over 100 years...
September 2017: MSphere
Nathalie Percie du Sert, Ian Bamsey, Simon T Bate, Manuel Berdoy, Robin A Clark, Innes Cuthill, Derek Fry, Natasha A Karp, Malcolm Macleod, Lawrence Moon, S Clare Stanford, Brian Lings
Addressing the common problems that researchers encounter when designing and analysing animal experiments will improve the reliability of in vivo research. In this article, the Experimental Design Assistant (EDA) is introduced. The EDA is a web-based tool that guides the in vivo researcher through the experimental design and analysis process, providing automated feedback on the proposed design and generating a graphical summary that aids communication with colleagues, funders, regulatory authorities, and the wider scientific community...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
Michael V Cohen, James M Downey
Scientists and clinicians have been concerned by the lack of a clinically suitable strategy for cardioprotection in patients with acute myocardial infarction despite decades of intensive pre-clinical investigations and a surprising number of clinical trials based on those observations which have uniformly been disappointing. However, it would be a mistake to abandon this search. Rather it would be useful to examine these past efforts and determine reasons for the multiple failures. It appears that earlier clinical trials were often based on results from a single experimental laboratory, thus minimizing the importance of establishing reproducibility in multiple laboratories by multiple scientists and in multiple models...
September 26, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
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