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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165441/dna-crowded-enzyme-complexes-with-enhanced-activities-and-stabilities
#1
John Collins, Ting Zhang, Sung Won Oh, Robert Maloney, Jinglin Fu
We present a robust and simple method to prepare DNA-crowded enzyme complexes by directly assembling long DNA duplexes on the enzyme surface. DNA-crowded enzyme complexes show boosted substrate turnover numbers, and increased stabilities against various storage conditions. They could be potentially scaled up for applications in biomaterials and biotechnology.
November 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165156/total-arsenic-and-speciation-analysis-of-saliva-and-urine-samples-from-individuals-living-in-a-chronic-arsenicosis-area-in-china
#2
Dapeng Wang, Yasuyo Shimoda, Sanxiang Wang, Zhenghui Wang, Jian Liu, Xing Liu, Huanyu Jin, Fenfang Gao, Jian Tong, Kenzo Yamanaka, Jie Zhang, Yan An
BACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that the determination of harmful chemical compounds excreted into saliva is useful for assessing their exposure levels. The aim of the present study was to compare the total arsenic and its species in saliva and urine samples collected from the people residing in an arsenic-contaminated area of China and to further verify the feasibility of using salivary arsenic as a new biomarker of arsenic exposure. METHODS: Total arsenic and speciation analyses in urine and saliva samples among 70 residents exposed to arsenic from drinking water in Shanxi, China were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP/MS)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162943/leukaemia-crowd-control
#3
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162721/loss-of-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-function-in-zebrafish-reveals-critical-roles-in-the-development-of-the-lens-and-stress-resistance-of-the-heart
#4
Sanjay Mishra, Shu-Yu Wu, Alexandra W Fuller, Zhen Wang, Kristie L Rose, Kevin L Schey, Hassane S Mchaourab
Genetic mutations in the human small heat shock protein αB-crystallin have been implicated in autosomal cataracts and skeletal myopathies, including heart muscle diseases (cardiomyopathy). While these mutations lead to modulation of their chaperone activity in vitro, the in vivo functions of αB-crystallin in the maintenance of both lens transparency and muscle integrity remain unclear. This lack of information has hindered a mechanistic understanding of these diseases. To better define the functional roles of αB-crystallin, we generated loss-of-function zebrafish mutant lines by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically disrupt the two αB-crystallin genes, αBa and αBb We observed lens abnormalities in the mutant lines of both genes and the penetrance of the lens phenotype was higher in αBa than αBb mutants...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162104/elimination-kinetics-of-eugenol-in-grass-carp-in-a-simulated-transportation-setting
#5
Dong-Hao Zhao, Chang-Liang Ke, Qi Liu, Xu-Feng Wang, Qiang Wang, Liu-Dong Li
BACKGROUND: Fish are vulnerable to stress from over-crowding during transportation and eugenol is the most common sedative used to minimize fish injury. The ADI value of 2.5 mg/kg is recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The aim of this work was to study the elimination kinetics of eugenol following exposure of grass carp to a eugenol bath in a simulated transportation setting. RESULTS: Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (120 fish) were exposed for 24 h to a 10 mg/L eugenol bath...
November 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160349/average-interradicular-sites-for-miniscrew-insertion-should-dental-crowding-be-considered
#6
Michele Tepedino, Paolo M Cattaneo, Francesco Masedu, Claudio Chimenti
OBJECTIVE: To define a map of interradicular spaces where miniscrew can be likely placed at a level covered by attached gingiva, and to assess if a correlation between crowding and availability of space exists. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs and digital models of 40 patients were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Interradicular spaces were measured on panoramic radiographs, while tooth size-arch length discrepancy was assessed on digital models. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate if interradicular spaces are influenced by the presence of crowding...
September 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154795/vision-improvement-in-pilots-with-presbyopia-following-perceptual-learning
#7
Anna Sterkin, Yuval Levy, Russell Pokroy, Maria Lev, Liora Levian, Ravid Doron, Oren Yehezkel, Moshe Fried, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Barak Gordon, Uri Polat
Israeli Air Force (IAF) pilots continue flying combat missions after the symptoms of natural near-vision deterioration, termed presbyopia, begin to be noticeable. Because modern pilots rely on the displays of the aircraft control and performance instruments, near visual acuity (VA) is essential in the cockpit. We aimed to apply a method previously shown to improve visual performance of presbyopes, and test whether presbyopic IAF pilots can overcome the limitation imposed by presbyopia. Participants were selected by the IAF aeromedical unit as having at least initial presbyopia and trained using a structured personalized perceptual learning method (GlassesOff application), based on detecting briefly presented low-contrast Gabor stimuli, under the conditions of spatial and temporal constraints, from a distance of 40 cm...
November 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153702/mechanical-cell-competition
#8
REVIEW
Catarina Brás-Pereira, Eduardo Moreno
Maintenance of tissue organization is crucial to ensure normal organ function and organism viability. Tissues are loaded with the ability to sense the available space, measuring cell density and adapting their behaviour accordingly. To keep homeostasis, compression pressure generated by local cell density increment triggers cell elimination. During mechanical cell competition, winner cells compress the neighbouring cells, promoting tissue crowding, which leads to cell elimination. Thus, the hypersensitivity to crowding may confer a loser status, whereas resistance to mechanical-induced elimination may favour a winner status...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152915/standing-out-from-the-crowd-spotting-your-targets-in-a-mixed-plankton-sample
#9
Alice E Harada, Ronald S Burton
The diversity of marine organisms is staggering, and this fact is readily appreciated by microscopic examination of the contents of a plankton net after a short tow across the ocean surface. Although this diversity is beautiful, it can present a significant problem for those seeking to extract information about a single species of interest. Enumeration of the eggs and larvae of a specific target species can provide a quantitative window into reproductive dynamics that are of great use for fisheries stock assessment and management...
November 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151611/for-love-or-reward-characterising-preferences-for-giving-to-parents-in-an-experimental-setting
#10
Maria Porter, Abi Adams
Understanding the motivations behind intergenerational transfers is an important and active research area in economics. The existence and responsiveness of familial transfers have consequences for the design of intra and intergenerational redistributive programmes, particularly as such programmes may crowd out private transfers amongst altruistic family members. Yet, despite theoretical and empirical advances in this area, significant gaps in our knowledge remain. In this article, we advance the current literature by shedding light on both the motivation for providing intergenerational transfers, and on the nature of preferences for such giving behaviour, by using experimental techniques and revealed preference methods...
December 2016: Economic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151345/slow-down-in-diffusion-in-crowded-protein-solutions-correlates-with-transient-cluster-formation
#11
Grzegorz Nawrocki, Po-Hung Wang, Isseki Yu, Yuji Sugita, Michael Feig
For a long time the effect of crowded cellular environment on protein dynamics has been largely ignored. Recent experiments indicate that proteins diffuse much slower in a living cell than in a diluted solution and further studies suggest that the diffusion depends on the local surrounding. Here, detailed insight into how diffusion depends on protein-protein contacts is presented based on extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of concentrated villin head piece solutions. After force field adjustments in the form of increased protein-water interactions to reproduce experimental data, translational and rotational diffusion was analyzed in detail...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151207/rapid-prediction-of-multi-dimensional-nmr-data-sets-using-fandas
#12
Siddarth Narasimhan, Deni Mance, Cecilia Pinto, Markus Weingarth, Alexandre M J J Bonvin, Marc Baldus
Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) can provide structural information at the most detailed level and, at the same time, is applicable in highly heterogeneous and complex molecular environments. In the last few years, ssNMR has made significant progress in uncovering structure and dynamics of proteins in their native cellular environments [1-4]. Additionally, ssNMR has proven to be useful in studying large biomolecular complexes as well as membrane proteins at the atomic level [5]. In such studies, innovative labeling schemes have become a powerful approach to tackle spectral crowding...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151184/analysis-of-an-optimal-public-transport-structure-under-a-carbon-emission-constraint-a-case-study-in-shanghai-china
#13
Linling Zhang, Ruyin Long, Hong Chen, Tong Yang
Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149678/housing-conditions-and-birth-outcomes-the-national-child-development-study
#14
Emily W Harville, Felicia A Rabito
BACKGROUND: Despite their importance to respiratory and other health outcomes, housing conditions have been little-studied with respect to perinatal outcomes. METHODS: 1927 participants in the British National Child Development Study reported on housing conditions and pregnancy outcomes, including presence/severity of mold/dampness; type of heating; and whether remodeling of various sorts had been conducted. Crowding, based on the number of people in the residence and the number of rooms, was also considered...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148723/dna-microviscosity-characterization-with-particle-diffusometry-for-downstream-dna-detection-applications
#15
Katherine Noel Clayton, Gregory D Berglund, Jacqueline C Linnes, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem, Steven T Wereley
Analytical characterization of DNA microviscosity provides critical biophysical insights into nuclear crowding, nucleic acid-based pharmaceutical development, and nucleic acid-based biosensor device design. However, most viscosity characterization methods require large sample volumes and destructive testing. In contrast, particle diffusometry, permits in situ analysis of DNA microviscosity with short measurement times (8 seconds) using small volumes (< 3L) which are compatible with DNA preparatory procedures...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143795/deep-see-joint-object-detection-tracking-and-recognition-with-application-to-visually-impaired-navigational-assistance
#16
Ruxandra Tapu, Bogdan Mocanu, Titus Zaharia
In this paper, we introduce the so-called DEEP-SEE framework that jointly exploits computer vision algorithms and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect, track and recognize in real time objects encountered during navigation in the outdoor environment. A first feature concerns an object detection technique designed to localize both static and dynamic objects without any a priori knowledge about their position, type or shape. The methodological core of the proposed approach relies on a novel object tracking method based on two convolutional neural networks trained offline...
October 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143194/the-role-of-crowding-in-parallel-search-peripheral-pooling-is-not-responsible-for-logarithmic-efficiency-in-parallel-search
#17
Anna Madison, Alejandro Lleras, Simona Buetti
Recent results from our laboratory showed that, in fixed-target parallel search tasks, reaction times increase in a logarithmic fashion with set size, and the slope of this logarithmic function is modulated by lure-target similarity. These results were interpreted as being consistent with a processing architecture where early vision (stage one) processes elements in the display in exhaustive fashion with unlimited capacity and with a limitation in resolution. Here, we evaluate the contribution of crowding to our recent logarithmic search slope findings, considering the possibility that peripheral pooling of features (as observed in crowding) may be responsible for logarithmic efficiency...
November 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142223/active-diffusion-and-advection-in-drosophila-oocytes-result-from-the-interplay-of-actin-and-microtubules
#18
Maik Drechsler, Fabio Giavazzi, Roberto Cerbino, Isabel M Palacios
Transport in cells occurs via a delicate interplay of passive and active processes, including diffusion, directed transport and advection. Despite progress in super-resolution microscopy, discriminating and quantifying these processes is a challenge, requiring tracking of rapidly moving, sub-diffraction objects in a crowded, noisy environment. Here we use differential dynamic microscopy with different contrast mechanisms to provide a thorough characterization of the dynamics in the Drosophila oocyte. We study the movement of vesicles and the elusive motion of a cytoplasmic F-actin mesh, a known regulator of cytoplasmic flows...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142102/prolines-in-the-%C3%AE-helix-confer-the-structural-flexibility-and-functional-integrity-of-importin-%C3%AE
#19
Masahiro Kumeta, Hide A Konishi, Wanzhen Zhang, Sayuri Sakagami, Shige H Yoshimura
The karyopherin family of nuclear transport receptors is composed of a long array of amphiphilic α-helices and undergoes flexible conformational changes to pass through the hydrophobic crowding barrier of the nuclear pore. Here, we focused on the characteristic enrichment of prolines in the middle of the outer α-helices of importin β. When these prolines were substituted with alanine, nuclear transport activity was reduced drastically in vivo and in vitro, and caused a severe defect in mitotic progression...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141703/pilot-of-an-elementary-school-cough-etiquette-intervention-acceptability-feasibility-and-potential-for-sustainability
#20
Farhana Sultana, Fosiul A Nizame, Dorothy L Southern, Leanne Unicomb, Peter J Winch, Stephen P Luby
Schools convene many people together for a prolonged time, facilitating spread of respiratory pathogens and amplifying epidemics. Crowded Bangladeshi schools lack the infrastructure to support optimal cough etiquette behaviors. We collected formative data on current practices from four elementary schools, and developed and piloted a low-cost cough etiquette intervention, promoting coughing and sneezing into upper sleeves at four additional schools. We trained teachers to lead behavior change sessions during regular hygiene classes for 4 weeks...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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