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Rembecca Lyn Ritter, Dorothy Peprah, Clair Null, Christine L Moe, George Armah, Joseph Ampofo, Nii Wellington, Habib Yakubu, Katharine Robb, Amy E Kirby, Yuke Wang, Katherine Roguski, Heather Reese, Chantal A Agbemabiese, Lady Asantewa B Adomako, Matthew C Freeman, Kelly K Baker
In crowded urban settlements in low-income countries, many households rely on shared sanitation facilities. Shared facilities are not currently considered "improved sanitation" because of concerns about whether hygiene conditions sufficiently protect users from the feces of others. Prevention of fecal exposure at a latrine is only one aspect of sanitary safety. Ensuring consistent use of latrines for feces disposal, especially child feces, is required to reduce fecal contamination in households and communities...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Christopher Vernazza, Lauren Anderson, Andrew Ian Hunter, Helen Christine Leck, Stephen Daniel O'Connor, Gillian Rose Smith, Richard Joseph Stokes, Sarah Rolland
Introduction: Given the limited evidence about the benefits of orthodontic treatment, many health care systems have rationed access to orthodontic care with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) being one tool used to attempt to allocate resources based on need. However, it is not clear whether patient and public valuations of different levels of need (as described by the IOTN) reflect the resource allocation decisions. The aim of this project was therefore to determine the values parents placed on correction of malocclusions at different IOTN levels using the willingness to pay (WTP) technique...
April 1, 2018: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
Federico Brugnami, Alfonso Caiazzo, Pushkar Mehra
Purpose: To assess whether concomitant particulate bone grafting makes a difference in the ability to safely orthodontically reposition teeth outside the bony envelope after corticotomy. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent corticotomy as part of their orthodontic therapy for treatment of severe crowding. Patients were divided as: a) Group 1: corticotomy with bone grafting, and, b) Group 2: corticotomy without bone grafting. CT scan examinations were performed before and at the end of the treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Catrina M Hacker, Emily X Meschke, Irving Biederman
Familiar objects, specified by name, can be identified with high accuracy when embedded in a rapidly presented sequence of images at rates exceeding 10 images/sec. Not only can target objects be detected at such brief presentation rates, they can also be detected under high uncertainty, where their classification is defined negatively, e.g., "Not a Tool." The identification of a familiar speaker's voice declines precipitously when uncertainty is increased from one to a mere handful of possible speakers (Shilowich & Biederman, 2016)...
March 16, 2018: Vision Research
Ian M Thornton, Duangkamol Srismith, Matt Oxner, William G Hayward
In two experiments we examined the performance of Asian and Caucasian participants as they were asked to estimate the ethnic composition of arrays of 16 concurrently presented faces. Across trials we systematically varied the physical proportion of Asian and Caucasian faces presented in the arrays using the method of constant stimuli. The task was to explicitly indicate which group was in the majority. The position of the 16 faces within the array were continuously shuffled using a 4 x 4 moving grid to block explicit enumeration...
March 16, 2018: Vision Research
Cynthia L Miltenburg, Todd F Duffield, Dorothee Bienzle, Elizabeth L Scholtz, Stephen J LeBlanc
The determinants of metabolic and reproductive health disorders in the peripartum period and the degree to which feeding and lying space and management can influence health are only partially understood. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to determine whether providing noncompetitive feeding and lying access in the close-up dry period improves health and immune function. Forty-eight Holstein cows of all parities were randomly assigned to a treatment group of 6 to 10 cows in 1 pen with either 80% cows to stalls and 90 cm of feeding space per cow (understocked) or 120% stocking density and 45 cm of feeding space per cow (overstocked) for 3 wk before expected calving...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
Yani Zhao, Pawel Dabrowski-Tumanski, Szymon Niewieczerzal, Joanna I Sulkowska
The folding of proteins with a complex knot is still an unresolved question. Based on representative members of Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolases (UCHs) that contain the 52 knot in the native state, we explain how UCHs are able to unfold and refold in vitro reversibly within the structure-based model. In particular, we identify two, topologically different folding/unfolding pathways and corroborate our results with experiment, recreating the chevron plot. We show that confinement effect of chaperonin or weak crowding greatly facilitates folding, simultaneously slowing down the unfolding process of UCHs, compared with bulk conditions...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Size Zheng, Katherine S Shing, Muhammad Sahimi
In this paper, the second in a series devoted to molecular modeling of protein aggregation, a mesoscale model of proteins together with extensive discontinuous molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the phenomenon in a confined medium. The medium, as a model of a crowded cellular environment, is represented by a spherical cavity, as well as cylindrical tubes with two aspect ratios. The aggregation process leads to the formation of β sheets and eventually fibrils, whose deposition on biological tissues is believed to be a major factor contributing to many neuro-degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diseases...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Wong, Esther Bejarano, Graeme Carvlin, Katie Fellows, Galatea King, Humberto Lugo, Michael Jerrett, Dan Meltzer, Amanda Northcross, Luis Olmedo, Edmund Seto, Alexa Wilkie, Paul English
Air pollution continues to be a global public health threat, and the expanding availability of small, low-cost air sensors has led to increased interest in both personal and crowd-sourced air monitoring. However, to date, few low-cost air monitoring networks have been developed with the scientific rigor or continuity needed to conduct public health surveillance and inform policy. In Imperial County, California, near the U.S./Mexico border, we used a collaborative, community-engaged process to develop a community air monitoring network that attains the scientific rigor required for research, while also achieving community priorities...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Simon K Schnyder, Jürgen Horbach
Molecular dynamics simulations of interacting soft disks confined in a heterogeneous quenched matrix of soft obstacles show dynamics which is fundamentally different from that of hard disks. The interactions between the disks can enhance transport when their density is increased, as disks cooperatively help each other over the finite energy barriers in the matrix. The system exhibits a transition from a diffusive to a localized state, but the transition is strongly rounded. Effective exponents in the mean-squared displacement can be observed over three decades in time but depend on the density of the disks and do not correspond to asymptotic behavior in the vicinity of a critical point, thus, showing that it is incorrect to relate them to the critical exponents in the Lorentz model scenario...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chiho Watanabe, Miho Yanagisawa
Micrometric membrane confinements and macromolecular crowding of cytoplasm are key factors that regulate molecular diffusion in live cells. Previous studies have shown that macromolecular crowding delays molecular diffusion. However, the effect of cell-size confinement on diffusion in the crowding environment is yet to be elucidated. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we analyzed protein diffusion in microdroplets containing polymer solution covered with lipid membranes that mimic cells. As a result, we found that a synergistic condition of crowding and micrometric confinement results in accelerated protein diffusion on a sub-millisecond time scale...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Huanchen Wang, Chunfang Gu, Ronda J Rolfes, Henning J Jessen, Stephen B Shears
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are 'energetic' intracellular signals that are ubiquitous in animals, plant and fungi; structural and biochemical characterization of PP-InsP metabolic enzymes provides insight into their evolution, reaction mechanisms, and regulation. Here, we describe the 2.35 Å resolution structure of the catalytic core of Siw14, a 5-PP-InsP phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a member of the protein tyrosinephosphatase (PTP) superfamily. Conclusions that we derive from structural data are supported by extensive site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analyses, thereby attributing new functional significance to several key residues...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Susan Williams, Mallory Schneider, Cory Wornell, Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling
This study examined the relationship of students' perceptions of school safety and school avoidance related to feeling unsafe with predictor variables: bullying victimization, student/teacher/parent/administration relations, rule clarity and consistency, school physical environment (negative and positive), and student's belongingness. In a public high school sample ( n = 585), 24.7% of students felt unsafe and 14.4% avoided school due to feeling unsafe during the past month. Being female and experiencing bullying was associated with feeling unsafe...
January 1, 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Jeffrey W Jordan, Carolyn A Stalgaitis, John Charles, Patrick A Madden, Anjana G Radhakrishnan, Daniel Saggese
PURPOSE: Peer crowds are macro-level subcultures that share similarities across geographic areas. Over the past decade, dozens of studies have explored the association between adolescent peer crowds and risk behaviors, and how they can inform public health efforts. However, despite the interest, researchers have not yet reported on crowd size and risk levels from a representative sample, making it difficult for practitioners to apply peer crowd science to interventions. The current study reports findings from the first statewide representative sample of adolescent peer crowd identification and health behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Dennis de Coninck, Thomas H Schmidt, Jan-Gero Schloetel, Thorsten Lang
Plasma membrane proteins organize into structures named compartments, microdomains, rafts, phases, crowds, or clusters. These structures are often smaller than 100 nm in diameter. Despite their importance in many cellular functions, little is known about their inner organization. For instance, how densely are molecules packed? Being aware of the protein compaction may contribute to our general understanding of why such structures exist and how they execute their functions. In this study, we have investigated plasma membrane crowds formed by the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a protein well known for its involvement in Alzheimer's disease...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Mimi Gao, Melanie Berghaus, Simone Möbitz, Vitor Schuabb, Nelli Erwin, Marius Herzog, Karin Julius, Christian Sternemann, Roland Winter
For over 50 years, it has been known that the mitosis of eukaryotic cells is inhibited already at high hydrostatic pressure conditions of 30 MPa. This effect has been attributed to the disorganization of microtubules, the main component of the spindle apparatus. However, the structural details of the depolymerization and the origin of the pressure sensitivity have remained elusive. It has also been a puzzle how complex organisms could still successfully inhabit extreme high-pressure environments such as those encountered in the depth of oceans...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Anthony Banks, Sanbo Qin, Kevin L Weiss, Christopher B Stanley, Huan-Xiang Zhou
Conformational malleability allows intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) to respond agilely to their environments, such as nonspecifically interacting with in vivo bystander macromolecules (or crowders). Previous studies have emphasized conformational compaction of IDPs due to steric repulsion by macromolecular crowders, but effects of soft attraction are largely unexplored. Here we studied the conformational ensembles of the IDP FlgM in both polymer and protein crowders by small-angle neutron scattering...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Hanh Ngo, Roberto Forero, David Mountain, Daniel Fatovich, Wing Nicola Man, Peter Sprivulis, Mohammed Mohsin, Sam Toloo, Antonio Celenza, Gerard Fitzgerald, Sally McCarthy, Ken Hillman
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Western Australian (WA) Government introduced the Four-Hour Rule (FHR) program. The policy stated that most patients presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) were to be seen and either admitted, transferred, or discharged within 4 hours. This study utilised de-identified data from five participating hospitals, before and after FHR implementation, to assess the impact of the FHR on several areas of ED functioning. METHODS: A state (WA) population-based intervention study design, using longitudinal data obtained from administrative health databases via record linkage methodology, and interrupted time series analysis technique...
2018: PloS One
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