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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087098/emergency-department-crowding-associated-with-differences-in-cxr-interpretations-between-emergency-physicians-and-radiologists
#1
Bernard P Chang, Darnell Cain, Stephen R Mitroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081570/the-population-ecology-of-technology-an-empirical-study-of-us-biotechnology-patents-from-1976-to-2003
#2
Ad van den Oord, Arjen van Witteloostuijn
A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#3
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078823/hippo-vs-crab-tissue-specific-functions-of-the-mammalian-hippo-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Miki Nishio, Tomohiko Maehama, Hiroki Goto, Keisuke Nakatani, Wakako Kato, Hirofumi Omori, Yosuke Miyachi, Hideru Togashi, Yohei Shimono, Akira Suzuki
The Hippo signaling pathway is a vital suppressor of tumorigenesis that is often inactivated in human cancers. In normal cells, the Hippo pathway is triggered by external forces such as cell crowding, or changes to the extracellular matrix or cell polarity. Once activated, Hippo signaling down-regulates transcription supported by the paralogous cofactors YAP1 and TAZ. The Hippo pathway's functions in normal and cancer biology have been dissected by studies of mutant mice with null or conditional tissue-specific mutations of Hippo signaling elements...
January 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078801/abnormal-pollen-vacuolation1-apv1-is-required-for-male-fertility-by-contributing-to-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation-in-maize
#5
Yamuna Somaratne, Youhui Tian, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Yanqing Huo, Fengge Cao, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are the major protective barriers against various stresses. The proper functioning of genes expressed in the tapetum is vital for the development of pollen exine and anther cuticle. In this study, we report a tapetum-specific gene, Abnormal Pollen Vacuolation1 (APV1), in maize that affects anther cuticle and pollen exine formation. The apv1 mutant was completely male sterile. Its microspores were swollen, less vacuolated, with a flat and empty anther locule. In the mutant, the anther epidermal surface was smooth, shiny, and plate-shaped compared with the three-dimensional crowded ridges and randomly formed wax crystals on the epidermal surface of the wild type...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076811/modeling-the-effect-of-curvature-on-the-collective-behavior-of-cells-growing-new-tissue
#6
Mohd Almie Alias, Pascal R Buenzli
The growth of several biological tissues is known to be controlled in part by local geometrical features, such as the curvature of the tissue interface. This control leads to changes in tissue shape that in turn can affect the tissue's evolution. Understanding the cellular basis of this control is highly significant for bioscaffold tissue engineering, the evolution of bone microarchitecture, wound healing, and tumor growth. Although previous models have proposed geometrical relationships between tissue growth and curvature, the role of cell density and cell vigor remains poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074698/crowd-planning-for-public-safety
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072501/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-respiratory-pathogens-in-warao-amerindians-significant-relationship-with-stunting
#8
Lilly M Verhagen, Meyke Hermsen, Ismar A Rivera-Olivero, María Carolina Sisco, Marien I de Jonge, Peter W M Hermans, Jacobus H de Waard
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0 - 4 years, 227 children aged 5 - 10 years, and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0 - 4 years...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071667/photogate-microscopy-to-track-single-molecules-in-crowded-environments
#9
Vladislav Belyy, Sheng-Min Shih, Jigar Bandaria, Yongjian Huang, Rosalie E Lawrence, Roberto Zoncu, Ahmet Yildiz
Tracking single molecules inside cells reveals the dynamics of biological processes, including receptor trafficking, signalling and cargo transport. However, individual molecules often cannot be resolved inside cells due to their high density. Here we develop the PhotoGate technique that controls the number of fluorescent particles in a region of interest by repeatedly photobleaching its boundary. PhotoGate bypasses the requirement of photoactivation to track single particles at surface densities two orders of magnitude greater than the single-molecule detection limit...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068116/the-crowded-life-is-a-slow-life-population-density-and-life-history-strategy
#10
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
The world population has doubled over the last half century. Yet, research on the psychological effects of human population density, once a popular topic, has decreased over the past few decades. Applying a fresh perspective to an old topic, we draw upon life history theory to examine the effects of population density. Across nations and across the U.S. states (Studies 1 and 2), we find that dense populations exhibit behaviors corresponding to a slower life history strategy, including greater future-orientation, greater investment in education, more long-term mating orientation, later marriage age, lower fertility, and greater parental investment...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067464/analysis-of-six-neuro-enhancing-phenidate-analogs
#11
Helge Klare, Jörg M Neudörfl, Simon D Brandt, Elisabeth Mischler, Sigrid Meier-Giebing, Kathrin Deluweit, Folker Westphal, Tim Laussmann
Six collected phenidates, i.e. 4-methylmethylphenidate, 3,4-dichloromethylphenidate, ethylphenidate, 3,4-dichloroethylphenidate, ethylnaphthidate and N-benzyl-ethylphenidate were fully characterized by means of X-ray, NMR, GC-MS, ESI-MS(2) , ATR-FT-IR and GC solid-state IR analysis. Crystallography revealed the exclusive presence of the threo-configuration. Steric crowding induced by N-benzyl substitution at the piperidine moiety prompted an adoption of an unexpected axial positioning of substituents on the piperidine moiety in the crystal state as opposed to the exclusive equatorial positioning encountered in N-unsubstituted phenidate analogs...
January 9, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066979/when-proteostasis-goes-bad-protein-aggregation-in-the-cell
#12
REVIEW
Mona Radwan, Rebecca J Wood, Xiaojing Sui, Danny M Hatters
Protein aggregation is a hallmark of the major neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and motor neuron and is a symptom of a breakdown in the management of proteome foldedness. Indeed, it is remarkable that under normal conditions cells can keep their proteome in a highly crowded and confined space without uncontrollable aggregation. Proteins pose a particular challenge relative to other classes of biomolecules because upon synthesis they must typically follow a complex folding pathway to reach their functional conformation (native state)...
January 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063647/collective-dynamics-of-cancer-cells-confined-in-a-confluent-monolayer-of-normal-cells
#13
Shao-Zhen Lin, Bo Li, Guang-Kui Xu, Xi-Qiao Feng
Tumorigenesis often involves specific changes in cell motility and intercellular adhesion. Understanding the collective cancer cell behavior associated with these specific changes could facilitate the detection of malignant characteristics during tumor growth and invasion. In this study, a cellular vertex model is developed to investigate the collective dynamics of a disk-like aggregate of cancer cells confined in a confluent monolayer of normal cells. The effects of intercellular adhesion and cell motility on tumor progression are examined...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063447/accelerating-two-dimensional-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-correlation-spectroscopy-via-selective-coherence-transfer
#14
Qimiao Ye, Lin Chen, Wenqi Qiu, Liangjie Lin, Huijun Sun, Shuhui Cai, Zhiliang Wei, Zhong Chen
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of various systems in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, applications of one-dimensional (1)H NMR are often restrained by the presence of severe overlap among different resonances. The advent of two-dimensional (2D) (1)H NMR constitutes a promising alternative by extending the crowded resonances into a plane and thereby alleviating the spectral congestions. However, the enhanced ability in discriminating resonances is achieved at the cost of extended experimental duration due to necessity of various scans with progressive delays to construct the indirect dimension...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061019/metabolic-phenotyping-of-human-plasma-by-1-h-nmr-at-high-and-medium-magnetic-field-strengths-a-case-study-for-lung-cancer
#15
Louis Evelyne, Francois-Xavier Cantrelle, Liesbet Mesotten, Gunter Reekmans, Liene Bervoets, Karolien Vanhove, Michiel Thomeer, Guy Lippens, Peter Adriaensens
Accurate identification and quantification of human plasma metabolites can be challenging in crowded regions of the NMR spectrum with severe signal overlap. Therefore, this study describes metabolite spiking experiments on the basis of which the NMR spectrum can be rationally segmented into well-defined integration regions, and this for spectrometers having magnetic field strengths corresponding to (1) H resonance frequencies of 400 MHz and 900 MHz. Subsequently, the integration data of a case-control dataset of 69 lung cancer patients and 74 controls were used to train a multivariate statistical classification model for both field strengths...
January 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060718/woce-a-framework-for-clustering-ensemble-by-exploiting-the-wisdom-of-crowds-theory
#16
Muhammad Yousefnezhad, Sheng-Jun Huang, Daoqiang Zhang
The wisdom of crowds (WOCs), as a theory in the social science, gets a new paradigm in computer science. The WOC theory explains that the aggregate decision made by a group is often better than those of its individual members if specific conditions are satisfied. This paper presents a novel framework for unsupervised and semisupervised cluster ensemble by exploiting the WOC theory. We employ four conditions in the WOC theory, i.e., diversity, independency, decentralization, and aggregation, to guide both constructing of individual clustering results and final combination for clustering ensemble...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059510/the-multiple-roles-of-waters-in-protein-solvation
#17
Adam Hospital, Michela Candotti, Josep Lluis Gelpi, Modesto Orozco
Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to characterize the multiple roles of water in solvating different types of proteins under different environmental conditions. We analyzed a small set of proteins, representative of the most prevalent meta-folds under native conditions, in the presence of crowding agents, and at high temperature with or without high concentration of urea. We considered also a protein in the unfolded state as characterized by NMR and atomistic MD simulations. Our results outline the main characteristics of the hydration environment of proteins and illustrate the dramatic plasticity of water, and its chameleonic ability to stabilize proteins under a variety of conditions...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058828/quinary-interactions-weaken-the-electric-field-generated-by-protein-side-chain-charges-in-the-cell-like-environment
#18
Ning Zhang, Liaoyuan An, Jingwen Li, Zhijun Liu, Lishan Yao
The intramolecular electric field (e-field) generated by protein GB3 side-chain charges K/E10, K/E19, and D/K40 was measured in the absence or presence of macromolecular crowding. The e-field responds differently to different crowding agents-dextran, Ficoll, BSA, and E. coli cell lysate. Dextran and Ficoll have no effect on the e-field. The lysate generally weakens the e-field but the amplitude of weakening varies greatly. For example, the e-field by K19 is reduced by 67% in the presence of 90 g/L lysate, corresponding to a charge change from 0...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058827/photocycle-of-photoactive-yellow-protein-in-cell-mimetic-environments-molecular-volume-changes-and-kinetics
#19
Cheolhee Yang, Seong Ok Kim, Yonggwan Kim, So Ri Yun, Jungkweon Choi, Hyotcherl Ihee
Using various spectroscopic techniques such as UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transient grating (TG), and transient absorption (TA) techniques, we investigated how cell-mimetic environments made by crowding influence the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) in terms of the molecular volume change and kinetics. Upon addition of molecular crowding agents, the ratio of diffusion coefficients of the blue-shifted intermediate (pB) to the ground species (pG) significantly changes from 0...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057826/the-neurogenetics-of-group-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
REVIEW
Pavan Ramdya, Jonathan Schneider, Joel D Levine
Organisms rarely act in isolation. Their decisions and movements are often heavily influenced by direct and indirect interactions with conspecifics. For example, we each represent a single node within a social network of family and friends, and an even larger network of strangers. This group membership can affect our opinions and actions. Similarly, when in a crowd, we often coordinate our movements with others like fish in a school, or birds in a flock. Contributions of the group to individual behaviors are observed across a wide variety of taxa but their biological mechanisms remain largely unknown...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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