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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352250/multi-species-coexistence-in-lotka-volterra-competitive-systems-with-crowding-effects
#1
Maica Krizna A Gavina, Takeru Tahara, Kei-Ichi Tainaka, Hiromu Ito, Satoru Morita, Genki Ichinose, Takuya Okabe, Tatsuya Togashi, Takashi Nagatani, Jin Yoshimura
Classical Lotka-Volterra (LV) competition equation has shown that coexistence of competitive species is only possible when intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition, i.e., the species inhibit their own growth more than the growth of the other species. Note that density effect is assumed to be linear in a classical LV equation. In contrast, in wild populations we can observed that mortality rate often increases when population density is very high, known as crowding effects. Under this perspective, the aggregation models of competitive species have been developed, adding the additional reduction in growth rates at high population densities...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352163/word-mode-a-crowding-free-reading-protocol-for-individuals-with-macular-disease
#2
Stuart Wallis, Yit Yang, Stephen J Anderson
Central retinal loss through macular disease markedly reduces the ability to read largely because identification of a word using peripheral vision is negatively influenced by nearby text, a phenomenon termed visual crowding. Here, we present a novel peripheral reading protocol, termed Word Mode, that eliminates crowding by presenting each word in isolation but in a position that mimics its natural position in the line of text being read, with each new word elicited using a self-paced button press. We used a gaze-contingent paradigm to simulate a central scotoma in four normally-sighted observers, and measured oral reading speed for text positioned 7...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349215/public-health-and-the-economy-could-be-served-by-reallocating-medical-expenditures-to-social-programs
#3
Linda Diem Tran, Frederick J Zimmerman, Jonathan E Fielding
As much as 30% of US health care spending in the United States does not improve individual or population health. To a large extent this excess spending results from prices that are too high and from administrative waste. In the public sector, and particularly at the state level, where budget constraints are severe and reluctance to raise taxes high, this spending crowds out social, educational, and public-health investments. Over time, as spending on medical care increases, spending on improvements to the social determinants of health are starved...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347791/beyond-the-faster-is-slower-effect
#4
I M Sticco, F E Cornes, G A Frank, C O Dorso
The "faster-is-slower" effect arises when crowded people push each other to escape through an exit during an emergency situation. As individuals push harder, a statistical slowing down in the evacuation time can be achieved. The slowing down is caused by the presence of small groups of pedestrians (say, a small human cluster) that temporarily block the way out when trying to leave the room. The pressure on the pedestrians belonging to this blocking cluster increases for increasing anxiety levels and/or a larger number of individuals trying to leave the room through the same door...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347592/diffusion-subdiffusion-and-localization-of-active-colloids-in-random-post-lattices
#5
Alexandre Morin, David Lopes Cardozo, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Denis Bartolo
Combining experiments and theory, we address the dynamics of self-propelled particles in crowded environments. We first demonstrate that motile colloids cruising at constant speed through random lattices undergo a smooth transition from diffusive to subdiffusive to localized dynamics upon increasing the obstacle density. We then elucidate the nature of these transitions by performing extensive simulations constructed from a detailed analysis of the colloid-obstacle interactions. We evidence that repulsion at a distance and hard-core interactions both contribute to slowing down the long-time diffusion of the colloids...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347436/quantification-of-tension-to-explain-bias-dependence-of-driven-polymer-translocation-dynamics
#6
P M Suhonen, J Piili, R P Linna
Motivated by identifying the origin of the bias dependence of tension propagation, we investigate methods for measuring tension propagation quantitatively in computer simulations of driven polymer translocation. Here, the motion of flexible polymer chains through a narrow pore is simulated using Langevin dynamics. We measure tension forces, bead velocities, bead distances, and bond angles along the polymer at all stages of translocation with unprecedented precision. Measurements are done at a standard temperature used in simulations and at zero temperature to pin down the effect of fluctuations...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347251/dynamically-crowded-solutions-of-infinitely-thin-brownian-needles
#7
Sebastian Leitmann, Felix Höfling, Thomas Franosch
We study the dynamics of solutions of infinitely thin needles up to densities deep in the semidilute regime by Brownian dynamics simulations. For high densities, these solutions become strongly entangled and the motion of a needle is essentially restricted to a one-dimensional sliding in a confining tube composed of neighboring needles. From the density-dependent behavior of the orientational and translational diffusion, we extract the long-time transport coefficients and the geometry of the confining tube...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343682/intermittent-c1-inhibitor-deficiency-associated-with-recessive-inheritance-functional-and-structural-insight
#8
Sonia Caccia, Chiara Suffritti, Thomas Carzaniga, Romina Berardelli, Silvia Berra, Vincenzo Martorana, Annamaria Fra, Christian Drouet, Marco Cicardi
C1-inhibitor is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) controlling complement and contact system activation. Gene mutations result in reduced C1-inhibitor functional plasma level causing hereditary angioedema, a life-threatening disorder. Despite a stable defect, the clinical expression of hereditary angioedema is unpredictable, and the molecular mechanism underlying this variability remains undisclosed. Here we report functional and structural studies on the Arg378Cys C1-inhibitor mutant found in a patient presenting reduced C1-inhibitor levels, episodically undergoing normalization...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341743/size-dependent-localization-in-polydisperse-colloidal-glasses
#9
D Heckendorf, K J Mutch, S U Egelhaaf, M Laurati
We have investigated concentrated suspensions of polydisperse hard spheres and have determined the dynamics and sizes of individual particles using confocal microscopy. With increasing concentration, the dynamics of the small and large particles start to differ. The large particles exhibit slower dynamics and stronger localization. Moreover, as the particle size increases, the local volume fraction ϕ_{loc} also increases. In the glass state, the localization length significantly decreases beyond ϕ_{loc}≈0...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341730/polymer-chain-conformation-and-dynamical-confinement-in-a-model-one-component-nanocomposite
#10
C Mark, O Holderer, J Allgaier, E Hübner, W Pyckhout-Hintzen, M Zamponi, A Radulescu, A Feoktystov, M Monkenbusch, N Jalarvo, D Richter
We report a neutron-scattering investigation on the structure and dynamics of a single-component nanocomposite based on SiO_{2} particles that were grafted with polyisoprene chains at the entanglement limit. By skillful labeling, we access both the monomer density in the corona as well as the conformation of the grafted chains. While the corona profile follows a r^{-1} power law, the conformation of a grafted chain is identical to that of a chain in a reference melt, implying a high mutual penetration of the coronas from different particles...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340409/dynamics-of-3d-carcinoma-cell-invasion-into-aligned-collagen
#11
Arja Ray, Rachel K Morford, Nima Ghaderi, David J Odde, Paolo P Provenzano
Carcinoma cells frequently expand and invade from a confined lesion, or multicellular clusters, into and through the stroma on the path to metastasis, often with an efficiency dictated by the architecture and composition of the microenvironment. Specifically, in desmoplastic carcinomas such as those of the breast, aligned collagen tracks provide contact guidance cues for directed cancer cell invasion. Yet, the evolving dynamics of this process of invasion remains poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in continuously capturing both spatial and temporal heterogeneity and progression to invasion in experimental systems...
January 17, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339733/role-of-macromolecular-crowding-on-the-intracellular-diffusion-of-dna-binding-proteins
#12
Pinki Dey, Arnab Bhattacherjee
Recent experiments suggest that cellular crowding facilitates the target search dynamics of proteins on DNA, the mechanism of which is not yet known. By using large scale computer simulations, we show that two competing factors, namely the width of the depletion layer that separates the crowder cloud from the DNA molecule and the degree of protein-crowder crosstalk, act in harmony to affect the target search dynamics of proteins. The impacts vary from nonspecific to specific target search regime. During a nonspecific search, dynamics of a protein is only minimally affected, whereas, a significantly different behaviour is observed when the protein starts forming a specific protein-DNA complex...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339157/drastic-stability-change-of-x-x-mismatch-in-d-cxg-trinucleotide-repeat-disorders-under-molecular-crowding-condition
#13
Ye Teng, Smritimoy Pramanik, Hisae Tateishi-Karimata, Tatsuya Ohyama, Naoki Sugimoto
The trinucleotide repeat d(CXG) (X = A, C, G or T) is the most common sequence causing repeat expansion disorders. The formation of non-canonical structures, such as hairpin structures with X-X mismatches, has been proposed to affect gene expression and regulation, which are important in pathological studies of these devastating neurological diseases. However, little information is available regarding the thermodynamics of the repeat sequence under crowded cellular conditions where many non-canonical structures such as G-quadruplexes are highly stabilized, while duplexes are destabilised...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339081/disorder-to-order-transitions-in-the-molten-globule-like-golgi-reassembly-and-stacking-protein
#14
Luís F S Mendes, Luis G M Basso, Patricia S Kumagai, Raquel Fonseca-Maldonado, Antonio J Costa-Filho
BACKGROUND: Golgi Reassembly and Stacking Proteins (GRASPs) are widely spread among eukaryotic cells (except plants) and are considered as key components in both the stacking of the Golgi cisternae and its lateral connection. Furthermore, GRASPs were also proved essential in the unconventional secretion pathway of several proteins, even though the mechanism remains obscure. It was previously observed that the GRASP homolog in Cryptococcus neoformans has a molten globule-like behavior in solution...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338211/highly-stable-rna-capture-by-dense-cationic-polymer-brushes-for-the-design-of-cytocompatible-serum-stable-sirna-delivery-vectors
#15
Danyang Li, Amir S Sharili, John Connelly, Julien E Gautrot
The high density of polymer brushes confers to these coatings unique physico-chemical properties, in particular for the regulation of biomolecular interaction and the design of highly selective coatings for biosensors and protein patterning. Here we show that high density poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) cationic polymer brushes enable the stable uptake of high levels of oligonucleotides. This is proposed to result from the high degree of crowding and associated increase in entropic driving force for the binding of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acid molecules...
January 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337912/social-incentive-mechanism-based-multi-user-sensing-time-optimization-in-co-operative-spectrum-sensing-with-mobile-crowd-sensing
#16
Xiaohui Li, Qi Zhu
Co-operative spectrum sensing emerging as a significant method to improve the utilization of the spectrum needs sufficient sensing users to participate. Existing related papers consider only the limited secondary users in current sensing system and assume that they will always perform the co-operative spectrum sensing out of obligation. However, this assumption is impractical in the realistic situation where the secondary users are rational and they will not join in the co-operative sensing process without a certain reward to compensate their sensing energy consumption, especially the ones who have no data transmitting in current time slot...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337218/calcium-dependent-disorder-to-order-transitions-are-central-to-the-secretion-and-folding-of-the-cyaa-toxin-of-bordetella-pertussis-the-causative-agent-of-whooping-cough
#17
Darragh P O'Brien, Ana Cristina Sotomayor Perez, Johanna Karst, Sara E Cannella, Véronique Yvette Ntsogo Enguéné, Audrey Hessel, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Alexis Voegele, Orso Subrini, Marilyne Davi, J Inaki Guijarro, Bertrand Raynal, Bruno Baron, Patrick England, Belen Hernandez, Mahmoud Ghomi, Véronique Hourdel, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Patrice Vachette, Dominique Durand, Sébastien Brier, Daniel Ladant, Alexandre Chenal
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) plays an essential role in the early stages of respiratory tract colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Once secreted, CyaA invades eukaryotic cells, leading to cell death. The cell intoxication process involves a unique mechanism of translocation of the CyaA catalytic domain directly across the plasma membrane of the target cell. Herein, we review our recent results describing how calcium is involved in several steps of this intoxication process...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332818/a-novel-dual-labeling-approach-enables-converting-fluorescence-labeling-reagents-into-fluorogenic-ones-via-introduction-of-purification-tags-application-to-determination-of-glyoxylic-acid-in-serum
#18
Mahmoud El-Maghrabey, Masaki Mine, Naoya Kishikawa, Kaname Ohyama, Naotaka Kuroda
Pre-column derivatization with fluorescence labeling reagents involves many problems including crowded chromatograms, possibility of the introduction of analytical errors, and poor selectivity. Herein we report a novel purification tag/fluorophore dual labeling approach based on a multi-component reaction to solve this major problem. Glyoxylic acid was recently identified as an early biomarker for diabetes, thus it was selected as a model analyte for our new dual labeling approach. Using the multi-component Petasis reaction, we could introduce a fluorophore (1-pyreneboronic acid, 1-PyBA) and a purification tag (taurine) to our target analyte (glyoxylic acid) in one step reaction...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331348/effects-of-l-tryptophan-on-the-growth-intestinal-enzyme-activities-and-non-specific-immune-response-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka-exposed-to-crowding-stress
#19
Endong Zhang, Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P < ...
January 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330855/getting-innovative-therapies-faster-to-patients-at-the-right-dose-impact-of-quantitative-pharmacology-towards-first-registration-and-expanding-therapeutic-use
#20
Satyaprakash Nayak, Oliver Sander, Nidal Al-Huniti, Dinesh de Alwis, Anne Chain, Marylore Chenel, Soujanya Sunkaraneni, Shruti Agrawal, Neeraj Gupta, Sandra A G Visser
Quantitative pharmacology (QP) applications in translational medicine, drug-development, and therapeutic use were crowd-sourced by the ASCPT Impact and Influence initiative. Highlighted QP case studies demonstrated faster access to innovative therapies for patients through 1) rational dose selection for pivotal trials; 2) reduced trial-burden for vulnerable populations; or 3) simplified posology. Critical success factors were proactive stakeholder engagement, alignment on the value of model-informed approaches, and utilizing foundational clinical pharmacology understanding of the therapy...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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