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Thalamocortical dysrhythmia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125416/gamma-oscillations-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-a-patient-with-a-phantom-limb-case-report
#1
Diellor Basha, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison
The amputation of an extremity is commonly followed by phantom sensations that are perceived to originate from the missing limb. The mechanism underlying the generation of these sensations is still not clear although the development of abnormal oscillatory bursting in thalamic neurons may be involved. The theory of thalamocortical dysrhythmia implicates gamma oscillations in phantom pathophysiology although this rhythm has not been previously observed in the phantom limb thalamus. In this study, the authors report the novel observation of widespread 38-Hz gamma oscillatory activity in spike and local field potential recordings obtained from the ventral caudal somatosensory nucleus of the thalamus (Vc) of a phantom limb patient undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108430/exploration-of-the-pathophysiology-of-chronic-pain-using-quantitative-eeg-source-localization
#2
Leslie S Prichep, Jaini Shah, Henry Merkin, Emile M Hiesiger
Chronic pain affects more than 35% of the US adult population representing a major public health imperative. Currently, there are no objective means for identifying the presence of pain, nor for quantifying pain severity. Through a better understanding of the pathophysiology of pain, objective indicators of pain might be forthcoming. Brain mechanisms mediating the painful state were imaged in this study, using source localization of the EEG. In a population of 77 chronic pain patients, significant overactivation of the "Pain Matrix" or pain network, was found in brain regions including, the anterior cingulate, anterior and posterior insula, parietal lobule, thalamus, S1, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), consistent with those reported with conventional functional imaging, and extended to include the mid and posterior cingulate, suggesting that the increased temporal resolution of electrophysiological measures may allow a more precise identification of the pain network...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758313/altered-theta-oscillations-in-resting-eeg-of-fibromyalgia-syndrome-patients
#3
N Fallon, Y Chiu, T Nurmikko, A Stancak
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue and cognitive/affective symptoms. Functional imaging studies have revealed that FM and other chronic pain syndromes can affect resting brain activity. This study utilized electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to investigate the relative power of ongoing oscillatory activity in the resting brain. METHODS: A 64-channel EEG was recorded at rest in 19 female FM patients and 18 healthy, age-matched, control subjects...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217089/differential-modulation-of-rhythmic-brain-activity-in-healthy-adults-by-a-t-type-calcium-channel-blocker-an-meg-study
#4
Kerry D Walton, Emeline L Maillet, John Garcia, Timothy Cardozo, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Rodolfo R Llinás
1-octanol is a therapeutic candidate for disorders involving the abnormal activation of the T-type calcium current since it blocks this current specifically. Such disorders include essential tremor and a group of neurological and psychiatric disorders resulting from thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). For example, clinically, the observable phenotype in essential tremor is the tremor itself. The differential diagnostic of TCD is not based only on clinical signs and symptoms. Rather, TCD incorporates an electromagnetic biomarker, the presence of abnormal thalamocortical low frequency brain oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553899/auditory-thalamic-circuits-and-gabaa-receptor-function-putative-mechanisms-in-tinnitus-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Donald M Caspary, Daniel A Llano
Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate...
June 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466345/increased-amplitude-of-thalamocortical-low-frequency-oscillations-in-patients-with-migraine
#6
Duncan J Hodkinson, Sophie L Wilcox, Rosanna Veggeberg, Rodrigo Noseda, Rami Burstein, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
UNLABELLED: For many years, neurobiological theories have emphasized the importance of neuronal oscillations in the emergence of brain function. At the same time, clinical studies have shown that disturbances or irregularities in brain rhythms may relate to various common neurological conditions, including migraine. Increasing evidence suggests that the CNS plays a fundamental role in the predisposition to develop different forms of headache. Here, we present human imaging data that strongly support the presence of abnormal low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in thalamocortical networks of patients in the interictal phase of migraine...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791474/visual-snow-a-thalamocortical-dysrhythmia-of-the-visual-pathway
#7
Jenny L Lauschke, Gordon T Plant, Clare L Fraser
In this paper we review the visual snow (VS) characteristics of a case cohort of 32 patients. History of symptoms and associated co-morbidities, ophthalmic examination, previous investigations and the results of intuitive colourimetry were collected and reviewed. VS symptoms follow a stereotypical description and are strongly associated with palinopsia, migraine and tinnitus, but also tremor. The condition is a chronic one and often results in misdiagnosis with psychiatric disorders or malingering. Colour filters, particularly in the yellow-blue colour spectrum, subjectively reduced symptoms of VS...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791228/chronic-neuropathic-pain-it-s-about-the-rhythm
#8
Zeynab Alshelh, Flavia Di Pietro, Andrew M Youssef, Jenna M Reeves, Paul M Macey, E Russell Vickers, Christopher C Peck, Greg M Murray, Luke A Henderson
The neural mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic neuropathic pain remain unclear. Evidence from human investigations suggests that neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic burst firing and thalamocortical dysrhythmia. Additionally, experimental animal investigations show that neuropathic pain is associated with altered infra-slow (<0.1 Hz) frequency oscillations within the dorsal horn and somatosensory thalamus. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether, in humans, neuropathic pain was also associated with altered infra-slow oscillations within the ascending "pain" pathway...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665004/source-space-cross-frequency-amplitude-amplitude-coupling-in-tinnitus
#9
Oliver Zobay, Peyman Adjamian
The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4-8 Hz). The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz) oscillations ("edge effect") giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26565981/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-mbsr-as-treatment-for-chronic-back-pain-an-observational-study-with-assessment-of-thalamocortical-dysrhythmia
#10
Stefan Schmidt, Sophia Gmeiner, Claudia Schultz, Marc Löwer, Klaus Kuhn, José Raúl Naranjo, Christina Brenneisen, Thilo Hinterberger
BACKGROUND: A pilot study of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on a sample of low back pain patients was conducted in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the intervention as well as changes in an EEG pattern called thalamocortical dysrhythmia which is associated with chronic pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 22 patients with chronic low back pain participated in an MBSR program. Effect sizes were measured for psychological functioning, pain severity, and quality of life...
2015: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557055/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-induces-oscillatory-power-changes-in-chronic-tinnitus
#11
Martin Schecklmann, Astrid Lehner, Judith Gollmitzer, Eldrid Schmidt, Winfried Schlee, Berthold Langguth
Chronic tinnitus is associated with neuroplastic changes in auditory and non-auditory cortical areas. About 10 years ago, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of auditory and prefrontal cortex was introduced as potential treatment for tinnitus. The resulting changes in tinnitus loudness are interpreted in the context of rTMS induced activity changes (neuroplasticity). Here, we investigate the effect of single rTMS sessions on oscillatory power to probe the capacity of rTMS to interfere with tinnitus-specific cortical plasticity...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26180116/common-therapeutic-mechanisms-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-hypo-and-hyperkinetic-movement-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Kevin W McCairn, Atsushi Iriki, Masaki Isoda
Abnormalities in cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) networks can cause a variety of movement disorders ranging from hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), to hyperkinetic conditions, such as Tourette syndrome (TS). Each condition is characterized by distinct patterns of abnormal neural discharge (dysrhythmia) at both the local single-neuron level and the global network level. Despite divergent etiologies, behavioral phenotypes, and neurophysiological profiles, high-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF-DBS) in the basal ganglia has been shown to be effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic disorders...
October 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26109660/enhanced-gabaa-mediated-tonic-inhibition-in-auditory-thalamus-of-rats-with-behavioral-evidence-of-tinnitus
#13
Evgeny A Sametsky, Jeremy G Turner, Deb Larsen, Lynne Ling, Donald M Caspary
Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in the pathology of tinnitus. Opposing hypotheses proposed either a pathologic decrease or increase of GABAergic inhibition in medial geniculate body (MGB). In thalamus, GABA mediates fast synaptic inhibition via synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and persistent tonic inhibition via high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAARs. Given that extrasynaptic GABAARs control the firing mode of thalamocortical neurons, we examined tonic GABAAR currents in MGB neurons in vitro, using the following three groups of adult rats: unexposed control (Ctrl); sound exposed with behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Tin); and sound exposed with no behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Non-T)...
June 24, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106362/thalamocortical-dysrhythmia-a-theoretical-update-in-tinnitus
#14
REVIEW
Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Berthold Langguth, Rodolfo Llinas
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Pathophysiologically it has been attributed to bottom-up deafferentation and/or top-down noise-cancelling deficit. Both mechanisms are proposed to alter auditory -thalamocortical signal transmission, resulting in thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). In deafferentation, TCD is characterized by a slowing down of resting state alpha to theta activity associated with an increase in surrounding gamma activity, resulting in persisting cross-frequency coupling between theta and gamma activity...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25799178/source-space-estimation-of-oscillatory-power-and-brain-connectivity-in-tinnitus
#15
Oliver Zobay, Alan R Palmer, Deborah A Hall, Magdalena Sereda, Peyman Adjamian
Tinnitus is the perception of an internally generated sound that is postulated to emerge as a result of structural and functional changes in the brain. However, the precise pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unknown. Llinas' thalamocortical dysrhythmia model suggests that neural deafferentation due to hearing loss causes a dysregulation of coherent activity between thalamus and auditory cortex. This leads to a pathological coupling of theta and gamma oscillatory activity in the resting state, localised to the auditory cortex where normally alpha oscillations should occur...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25545161/the-effect-of-low-frequency-sound-stimulation-on-patients-with-fibromyalgia-a-clinical-study
#16
Lili Naghdi, Heidi Ahonen, Pasqualino Macario, Lee Bartel
BACKGROUND: The search for effective treatments for fibromyalgia (FM) has continued for years. The present study premises that thalamocortical dysrhythmia is implicated in fibromyalgia and that low-frequency sound stimulation (LFSS) can play a regulatory function by driving neural rhythmic oscillatory activity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of LFSS on FM. METHOD: The present open-label study with no control group used a repeated-measures design with no noncompleters...
January 2015: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24535465/altered-processing-of-sensory-stimuli-in-patients-with-migraine
#17
REVIEW
Marina de Tommaso, Anna Ambrosini, Filippo Brighina, Gianluca Coppola, Armando Perrotta, Francesco Pierelli, Giorgio Sandrini, Massimiliano Valeriani, Daniele Marinazzo, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Jean Schoenen
Migraine is a cyclic disorder, in which functional and morphological brain changes fluctuate over time, culminating periodically in an attack. In the migrainous brain, temporal processing of external stimuli and sequential recruitment of neuronal networks are often dysfunctional. These changes reflect complex CNS dysfunction patterns. Assessment of multimodal evoked potentials and nociceptive reflex responses can reveal altered patterns of the brain's electrophysiological activity, thereby aiding our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine...
March 2014: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24508484/quantitative-electroencephalography-as-a-biomarker-for-proneness-toward-developing-psychosis
#18
Giorgio Fuggetta, Matthew A Bennett, Philip A Duke, Andrew M J Young
The fully dimensional approach to the relationship between schizotypal personality traits and schizophrenia describes schizotypy as a continuum throughout the general population ranging from low schizotypy (LoS) and psychological health to high schizotypy (HiS) and psychosis-proneness. However, no biological markers have yet been discovered that reliably quantify an individual's degree of schizotypy and/or psychosis. This study aimed to evaluate quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) measures of power spectra as potential biomarkers of the proneness towards the development of psychosis in schizotypal individuals...
March 2014: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23899115/habituation-and-sensitization-in-primary-headaches
#19
REVIEW
Gianluca Coppola, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Jean Schoenen, Francesco Pierelli
The phenomena of habituation and sensitization are considered most useful for studying the neuronal substrates of information processing in the CNS. Both were studied in primary headaches, that are functional disorders of the brain characterized by an abnormal responsivity to any kind of incoming innocuous or painful stimuli and it's cycling pattern over time (interictal, pre-ictal, ictal). The present review summarizes available data on stimulus responsivity in primary headaches obtained with clinical neurophysiology...
2013: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23732881/tinnitus-and-musical-hallucinosis-the-same-but-more
#20
Sven Vanneste, Jae-Jin Song, Dirk De Ridder
While tinnitus can be interpreted as a simple or elementary form of auditory phantom perception, musical hallucinosis is a more complex auditory phantom phenomenon not only limited to sound perception, but also containing semantic and musical content. It most often occurs in association with hearing loss. To elucidate the relation between simple and complex auditory phantom percepts a source localized electroencephalography (EEG) study is performed. The analyses showed in both simple and complex auditory phantoms an increase in theta-gamma activity and coupling within the auditory cortex that could be associated with the thalamocortical dysrhythmia model...
November 15, 2013: NeuroImage
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