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radio therapy

Juliane Kupsch, Thomas Jackisch, Klaus E Matzel, Joerg Zimmer, Andreas Schreiber, Anja Sims, Helmut Witzigmann, Sigmar Stelzner
PURPOSE: Severity of anorectal dysfunction after low anterior resection is associated with various patient- and treatment-related factors. We aimed to quantify anorectal dysfunction after treatment for rectal cancer using the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score. METHODS: We retrieved from a prospective database 331 eligible patients on whom anterior resection for rectal cancer had been performed from 2000 to 2014. All patients were sent a LARS score accompanied by a supplementary questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Simona Bertoli, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandra Petruzzi, Alessandro Leone, Ramona De Amicis, Elena Tramacere, Maddalena Meda, Andrea Foppiani, Antonio Silvani, Elena Lamperti
Nutritional status in adults with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) has been poorly investigated. We studied anthropometrics and fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and body water in HGGs patients also in relation to disease-related variables. Fifty-one patients (17 III and 34 IV-grade) and fifty-one control group (CG) matched for sex, age, and BMI were enrolled. Neurological scales, anthropometry, bioimpedance, and blood sampling were performed and analyzed according to grade, lesion location, extent of resection, phase of treatment, current steroids and antiepileptic therapy, and age of patient...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
M Koëter, M van Putten, R H A Verhoeven, V E P P Lemmens, G A P Nieuwenhuijzen
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to describe treatment patterns and the impact on overall survival among elderly patients (75 years and older) with potentially curable esophageal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2003 and 2013, 13,244 patients from the nationwide population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) were diagnosed with potentially curable esophageal cancer (cT2-3, X, any cN, cM0, X) of which 34% were elderly patients (n = 4501). RESULTS: Surgical treatment with or without neoadjuvant treatment remained stable among elderly patients (around the 16% between 2003 and 2013)...
March 12, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Zhen-Wei Zou, Ting Liu, Yong Li, Peng Chen, Xin Peng, Charlie Ma, Wen-Jie Zhang, Pin-Dong Li
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo...
March 1, 2018: Redox Biology
Lin Wang, Yingze Zhang, Zhaohui Song, Hengrui Chang, Ye Tian, Fei Zhang
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate the novel method of using elastic bionic fixation device in treating the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (DTS) injury. METHODS: From June 2013 to January 2014, 17 subjects with ankle fractures combined with DTS separation were treated by the elastic bionic fixation device. The syndesmotic parameters, healing, functional scores, and possible complications were recorded. RESULTS: All patients had a mean follow-up of 23...
March 9, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Stefano Fanti
As precision medicine evolves, the contribution of molecular imaging to the management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, especially for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, is gaining importance. Highly successful approaches to measure the expression of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced recently. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP-II), is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase that is overexpressed in 90-100% of PCa cells. Due to its selective over-expression, PSMA is a reliable tissue marker for prostate cancer and is considered an ideal target for tumor specific imaging and therapy...
March 8, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ewa Dybkowska, Anna Sadowska, Franciszek Świderski, Rita Rakowska, Katarzyna Wysocka
Over recent years, there has been increasing interest noted in those active substances derived from plants that show potential for preventing cancer development. The most promising candidate is resveratrol which can be found in large amounts in the skin of grapes, tomatoes and in red wine. Its beneficial effects on the human body are seen both in prevention and therapy. The anti-carcinogenic action of resveratrol is linked with its ability to neutralise reactive oxygen species and to modulate cellular processes such as apoptosis, and both cancerous cell proliferation and differentiation...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Feng Wang, Hongyan Li, Ela Markovsky, Ryan Glass, Elisa de Stanchina, Simon N Powell, Gary K Schwartz, Adriana Haimovitz-Friedman
Recent data in our laboratory indicate that engagement of host-derived microenvironmental elements impact tumor response to single high dose radiation therapy (SDRT). In these studies we showed that microvascular endothelial damage plays a critical role in tumor response as regulator of direct lethal damage of SDRT. Using a genetic model of Acid Sphingomyelinase (ASMase)-deficient mice we showed that activation of this enzyme by SDRT-induced damage in the endothelium is mandatory for tumor cure. ASMase activation triggers ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and therein microvascular dysfunction, which increased the vulnerability of tumor cells to lethal damage by radiation...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Farid Bekara, Julian Vitse, Sergiu Fluieraru, Raphael Masson, Antoine De Runz, Vera Georgescu, Guillaume Bressy, Jean Louis Labbé, Benoit Chaput, Christian Herlin
Debridement is a crucial component of wound management. Recent technologies such as hydrosurgery (Versajet), ultrasound therapy (the MIST therapy device), or plasma-mediated bipolar radio-frequency ablation therapy (Coblation) seem to represent interesting alternatives for wound debridement. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe, evaluate, and compare these three recently developed methods for the management of chronic wounds. In January 2016, an electronic database search was conducted of MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and Embase for articles concerning these three innovative methods for the management of chronic wounds...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Amedea B Seabra, Nelson Durán
Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous molecule that plays pivotal physiological and pathophysiological roles, particularly in cancer biology. Generally, low concentrations of NO (pico- to nanomolar range) lead to tumor promotion. In contrast, high NO concentrations (micromolar range) have pro-apoptotic functions, leading to tumor suppression, and in this case, NO is involved in immune surveillance. Under oxidative stress, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) produces high NO concentrations for antineoplastic activities...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kenny Kwok-Hei Yu, Jessica T Taylor, Omar N Pathmanaban, Amir Saam Youshani, Deniz Beyit, Joanna Dutko-Gwozdz, Roderick Benson, Gareth Griffiths, Ian Peers, Peter Cueppens, Brian A Telfer, Kaye J Williams, Catherine McBain, Ian D Kamaly-Asl, Brian W Bigger
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy in adults, yet survival outcomes remain poor. First line treatment is well established, however disease invariably recurs and improving prognosis is challenging. With the aim of personalizing therapy at recurrence, we have established a high content screening (HCS) platform to analyze the sensitivity profile of seven patient-derived cancer stem cell lines to 83 FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs, with and without irradiation...
2018: PloS One
Sylvia Gruber, Katharina Frings, Peter Kuess, Wolfgang Dörr
PURPOSE: Oral mucositis is a frequent, dose-limiting side effect of radio(chemo)therapy of head-and-neck malignancies. The epithelial radiation response is based on multiple tissue changes, which could offer targets for a biologically tailored treatment. The potential of dermatan sulfate (DS) to modulate radiation-induced oral mucositis was tested in an established preclinical mucositis model. METHODS: Irradiation was either applied alone or in combination with daily DS treatment (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) over varying time intervals...
March 1, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Gerlig Widmann
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important imaging technique for otorhinolaryngology. The aim of the present CME contribution for ENT physicians is to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages as well as the possibilities of head and neck MRI and to summarize the main clinical applications of the various MRI sequences. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression sequences (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are the basis for evaluating inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Christine Lundgren, Henrik Lindman, Bo Rolander, Maria Ekholm
INTRODUCTION: Adjuvant endocrine therapy improves recurrence-free and overall survival in primary breast cancer. However, not all patients complete their planned treatment, mostly because of side-effects. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy in a cohort of primary breast cancer patients in Region Jönköping County, Sweden, after 3 and 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Swedish Breast Cancer Register was used to identify patients diagnosed with hormone receptor positive breast cancer in Region Jönköping County between 2009 and 2012...
March 1, 2018: Acta Oncologica
You Quan Li, Eu Tiong Chua, Kevin L M Chua, Melvin L K Chua
Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are chemotherapy- and radiotherapy (RT)-resistant. Here, we report on a novel stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) technique-"Cor Occidere" (Latin), as a potential strategy of overcoming radioresistance of HPC. A 36-year old female presented to our clinic for consideration of a 3rd-course of RT for her recurrent cavernous sinus HPC, following previous cranial RT at 13 and 5 years prior, and a failed 9 months trial of bevacizumab/temozolomide. The tumor-adjacent brain stem and carotid artery risked substantial damage given the cumulative RT doses to these organs...
February 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Thorsten Frenzel, Jordana Siekmann, Carsten Grohmann, Ursula Valentiner, Rüdiger Schmitz, Kristoffer Riecken, Boris Fehse, Udo Schumacher, Tobias Lange, Andreas Krüll
PURPOSE: To investigated the influence of radiation therapy (RT), surgery (OP), radio-chemotherapy (RChT), or chemotherapy (ChT) on small cell lung cancer metastases in 2 xenograft models. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 1 × 106 human small cell lung cancer cells (OH1, H69) were subcutaneously injected into severe combined immunodeficiency mice to form a local primary tumor node at the lower trunk. Radiation therapy, OP, RChT, or ChT were started after development of palpable tumors...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hisaki Aiba, Satoshi Yamada, Jun Mizutani, Norio Yamamoto, Hideki Okamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Akira Kawai, Kenichi Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Otsuka Takanobu
Regional hyperthermia is considered to enhance the antitumor effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we confirmed the efficacy of concomitant radiotherapy, hyperthermia, and chemotherapy (RHC) for neoadjuvant treatment of malignant soft tissue sarcoma (STS). From 1994 to 2013, we performed RHC in 150 patients. This study was limited to 60 patients using the following exclusion criteria: salvage for recurrence or unplanned excision, trunk location, metastasis at initiation, non-STS, and no definitive surgery...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Szymon Darocha, Michał Wilk, Anna Walaszkowska-Czyż, Jarosław Kępski, Rafał Mańczak, Marcin Kurzyna, Adam Torbicki, Sebastian Szmit
BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusion is associated with high mortality in oncology. The etiology of infectious pericarditis and iatrogenic effects of previous radio-/chemotherapy may be always suspected, especially when a subsequent episode is observed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 17 hemodynamically-unstable patients with cancer due to recurrent pericardial bloody effusion after previous pericardiocentesis and analyzed survival determinants after intrapericardial chemotherapy with cisplatin...
March 2018: In Vivo
Wenting Dang, Libu Manjakkal, William Taube Navaraj, Leandro Lorenzelli, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Ravinder Dahiya
Sensor-laden wearable systems that are capable of providing continuous measurement of key physiological parameters coupled with data storage, drug delivery and feedback therapy have attracted huge interest. Here we report a stretchable wireless system for sweat pH monitoring, which is able to withstand up to 53% uniaxial strain and more than 500 cycles to 30% strain. The stretchability of the pH sensor patch is provided by a pair of serpentine-shaped stretchable interconnects. The pH sensing electrode is made of graphite-polyurethane composite, which is suitable for biosensor application...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sumito Yoshida, Hiroaki Shime, Yohei Takeda, Jin-Min Nam, Ken Takashima, Misako Matsumoto, Hiroki Shirato, Masanori Kasahara, Tsukasa Seya
Radiotherapy induces anti-tumor immunity by induction of tumor antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DNA, a representative DAMP in radiotherapy, activates the STING pathway which enhances the immune response. However, the immune response does not always parallel the inflammation associated with radiotherapy. This lack of correspondence may in part explain the radiation-resistance of tumors. Additive immunotherapy is expected to revive tumor-specific CTLs facilitating radiation-resistant tumor shrinkage...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Science
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