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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098631/after-the-fall-the-tapestry-of-disturbance-and-recovery
#1
Nalini M Nadkarni
On July 3, 2015, Nalini Nadkarni, a world-renowned ecologist who had been studying the biologic processes of ecosystem disturbance and recovery, sustained a catastrophic 50-foot free-fall from the top of the rainforest canopy to the forest floor at her remote field research site. She lost consciousness in shock and sustained life-threatening injuries. Her accompanying students hiked out, radio-called 911, and the Harborview Medical Center (Seattle) Medivac team arrived 4 hours later to rescue her. Her prognosis was extremely grim; her family gathered in anticipation of her death as she underwent four operations during her 10 days in the ICU...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096917/assessment-of-histopathological-features-of-needle-biopsy-in-recurrent-prostate-cancer-following-salvage-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#2
Michele Billia, Khurram M Siddiqui, Susanne Chan, Fan Li, Ali Al-Zahrani, Jose A Gomez, Joseph L Chin
INTRODUCTION: Local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) following radiotherapy may be treated with curative intent using salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (s-HIFU). The interpretation of needle core biopsy specimens following s-HIFU is a daunting task, even for experienced pathologists. We describe various histopathological features encountered in biopsy specimens following whole-gland s-HIFU in one of the largest descriptive studies to date. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven localized radio-recurrent PCa underwent s-HIFU and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostatic needle biopsies at 180 days post-treatment...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088075/development-of-a-hypoxia-triggered-and-hypoxic-radiosensitized-liposome-as-a-doxorubicin-carrier-to-promote-synergetic-chemo-radio-therapy-for-glioma
#3
Hongmei Liu, Yandong Xie, Yafei Zhang, Yifan Cai, Baiyang Li, Honglin Mao, Yingguo Liu, Jun Lu, Longzhen Zhang, Rutong Yu
The treatment of malignant primary brain tumors is challenging. Concomitant radiochemotherapy has become the standard clinical treatment for malignant glioma, but there are two critical challenges to overcome in order to increase efficacy. First, glioma is known to have increased resistant to radiation due to its intra-tumoral hypoxia. In addition, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the distribution of the chemotherapeutic agent to the brain. Therefore, we developed a hypoxic radiosensitizer-prodrug liposome (MLP), in order to deliver DOX to the tumor and to overcome the above challenges, achieving a synergistic chemo-/radiotherapy treatment of malignant glioma...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070830/mesenchymal-subtype-of-glioblastomas-with-high-dna-pkcs-expression-is-associated-with-better-response-to-radiotherapy-and-temozolomide
#4
Baptiste Pinel, Mathilde Duchesne, Julie Godet, Serge Milin, Antoine Berger, Michel Wager, Lucie Karayan-Tapon
A better understanding of the relationship between glioblastomas molecular subtypes and radio-chemotherapy is needed for the development of individualized strategies. In this study, we aimed to assess whether non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein expression is associated and could predict responses to treatment of mesenchymal (MES) and proneural (PN) subtypes. Tumors from 122 patients with a glioblastoma treated at the University Hospital of Poitiers between 2002-2013 by an association of radiotherapy and temozolomide were collected...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064436/mir-181b-5p-ets1-and-c-met-pathway-exacerbates-the-prognosis-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-after-radiation-therapy
#5
Hideo Tomihara, Daisaku Yamada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Takehiro Noda, Tadafumi Asaoka, Hiroshi Wada, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Yutaka Takeda, Masahiro Tanemura, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has emerged as a reasonable strategy that shows good prognostic impact. However, after preoperative CRT, resected specimens exhibited remnant tumor cells, which indicated that some tumor cells had acquired or were selected for resistance to CRT. Recently, two oncological mechanisms, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) were reported to be associated with resistance in various cancers...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064229/outcomes-after-radio-chemo-therapy-for-non-metastatic-bile-duct-cancer
#6
Louisa Bolm, Lukas Kaesmann, Tobias Bartscht, Steven E Schild, Dirk Rades
BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of radio(chemo) therapy for non-metastatic bile duct cancer is not well defined. This study provides additional data for this rare situation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of eight patients receiving radio(chemo)therapy for non-metastatic bile duct cancer were retrospectively analyzed regarding local control, metastases-free survival and overall survival. In addition to the entire cohort, five tumor- or treatment-related factors were investigated: tumor stage, histologic grading, point in time of radio(chemo)therapy, upfront surgery and concurrent chemotherapy...
January 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055970/genomic-analysis-of-exceptional-responders-to-radiotherapy-reveals-somatic-mutations-in-atm
#7
Jennifer Ma, Jeremy Setton, Luc Morris, Pedro Blecua Carrillo Albornoz, Christopher Barker, Benjamin H Lok, Eric Sherman, Nora Katabi, Kathryn Beal, Ian Ganly, Simon N Powell, Nancy Lee, Timothy A Chan, Nadeem Riaz
Radiation therapy is a mainstay of cancer treatment, yet the molecular determinants of clinical response are poorly understood. We identified exceptional responders to radiotherapy based on clinical response, and investigated the associated tumor sequencing data in order to identify additional patients with similar mutations. Among head and neck squamous cell cancer patients receiving palliative radiotherapy at our institution, we identified one patient with documented complete metabolic response. Targeted sequencing analysis of the tumor identified a somatic frame-shift mutation in ATM, a gene known to be associated with radio-sensitivity in the germline...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054526/cellular-and-spectroscopic-characterization-of-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-derived-from-a549-lung-carcinoma
#8
Murali M S Balla, Raghumani S Ningthoujam, Mukesh Kumar, Jayant R Bandekar, Badri N Pandey
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are increasingly being realized to play a significant role in the mechanism of chemo-, radio-resistance, and metastasis of cancer. However, studies for spectral markers of CSCs using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy are limited in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, CSCs obtained from single cell assay of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells were characterized using CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype expression, Hoechst 33342 dye efflux assay, and expression of stemness genes...
July 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048850/su-g-brc-14-multi-lesion-multi-rx-brain-radiosurgery-with-novel-single-isocenter-technique
#9
N Honig, S Alani, A Schlocker, N Shtraus, A Kanner
PURPOSE: There is a strong trend to treat multiple brain metastases with radiosurgery rather than whole brain irradiation. This feasibility study investigates a novel planning technique for radio-surgical treatment of multiple brain lesions with differing dose prescriptions, a single isocenter, and dynamic conformal arcs. The novel technique will be compared to the well-established single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique commonly used for treating brain lesions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047906/su-c-202-01-incorporating-time-dependent-hypoxia-in-imrt-planning
#10
A Roy, O Nohadani
PURPOSE: To incorporate uncertainties in oxygenation of tumor cells into radiation therapy planning via robust optimization. The model is demonstrated using a clinical prostate cancer case. METHODS: The tumor oxygenation levels are determined based on pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. To account for oxygenation changes, we use a radio-sensitivity factor for the effective dose necessary to treat hypoxic cells. Due to the unpredictable nature of re-oxygenation of hypoxic cells, the radio-sensitivity factor and its change is modeled to reside in a time-dependent uncertainty set...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047853/su-c-204-03-dft-calculations-of-the-stability-of-dota-based-radiopharmaceuticals
#11
A R Khabibullin, A Karolak, M M Budzevich, L M Woods, M V Martinez, M L McLaughlin, D L Morse
PURPOSE: Application of the density function theory (DFT) to investigate the structural stability of complexes applied in cancer therapy consisting of the 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelated to Ac225, Fr221, At217, Bi213, and Gd68 radio-nuclei. METHODS: The possibility to deliver a toxic payload directly to tumor cells is a highly desirable aim in targeted alpha particle therapy. The estimation of bond stability between radioactive atoms and the DOTA chelating agent is the key element in understanding the foundations of this delivery process...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047568/we-fg-bra-12-research-work-of-the-radio-dynamic-treatment-mechanism
#12
Quanshi Zhang, Q Y Sun, G P Xiao, J Zeng, L Wang, L L Chen, C M C Ma
PURPOSE: The finite penetration depth of Laser light has limited clinical applications for PDT. This present work investigates the activation of photosensitizers using Cerenkov light emission from 45MV photon beams produced in an LA45 cancer therapy accelerator. We have named this new treatment technique Radio-Dynamic Therapy (RDT). METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were made on various Cerenkov emission energies and their spectroscopy in excited target areas in order to estimate their photosensitizer inner activation efficiency...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047364/su-f-j-202-secondary-radiation-measurements-for-charged-particle-therapy-monitoring-fragmentation-of-therapeutic-he-c-and-o-ion-beams-impinging-on-a-pmma-target
#13
A Rucinski, G Battistoni, F Collamati, F Collini, E De Lucia, R Faccini, P Frallicciardi, C Mancini-Terracciano, M Marafini, S Muraro, R Paramatti, V Patera, L Piersanti, D Pinci, A Russomando, A Sarti, A Sciubba, E Solfaroli Camillocci, M Toppi, G Traini, C Voena
PURPOSE: In Charged Particle Therapy (CPT), besides protons, there has been recently a growing interest in 4He, 12C and 16O beams. The secondary radiation produced in the interaction of those beams with a patient could be potentially used for on-line monitoring of range uncertainties in order to fully exploit the advantages of those light ions resulting from increased Radio Biological Effectiveness, reduced multiple scattering and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio. The study and precise characterization of secondary radiation (beta+, prompt gamma, charged fragments) is the cornerstone of any R&D activity aiming for online monitoring development and purpose of the analysis presented here...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046887/we-fg-bra-02-docetaxel-eluting-brachytherapy-spacers-for-local-chemo-radiation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer
#14
J Belz, R Kumar, G Makrigiorgos, A D'Amico, P Nguyen, R Cormack, S Sridhar
PURPOSE: We propose an innovative combinatorial treatment strategy of Local ChemoRadiation Therapy (LCRT) using a sustained drug delivery platform in the form of a spacer to locally radio-sensitize the prostate with Docetaxel (DTX) enabling a synergistic cure with the use of lower radiation doses. These biodegradable spacers are physically similar to the inert spacers routinely used in prostate brachytherapy but are now loaded with formulations of DTX. METHODS: Spacers were loaded with ∼500µg Docetaxel (DTX) for prostate cancer studies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046522/su-c-204-05-magnetic-resonance-induced-adaptive-response-to-orthovoltage-radiation-therapy-in-fsa-and-sa-nh-mouse-tumor-cell-lines
#15
K Mendel, R Miller, J Murley, M Sadinski, D Grdina
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of pre-treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on cell survival following orthovoltage radiation therapy. METHODS: This in vitro study examined the survival of FSa cells (extracted from methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in the flank of a C3H female mouse) and SA-NH cells (derived from a spontaneously arising murine sarcoma tumor) having undergone an MRI scan prior to radiation exposure. Cell cultures were kept at 37 C, in a humidified environment with 5% CO2, and were grown to confluence prior to the start of the experiment...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046346/su-g-tep3-05-in-vitro-demonstration-of-endothelial-dose-enhancement-due-to-gold-nanoparticles-during-low-voltage-radiotherapy
#16
S Yasmin-Karim, M Moreau, R Kumar, G M Makrigiorgos, J Hanlon, M Arnoldussen, J Hempstead, J Celli, W Ngwa
PURPOSE: Oraya Therapy uses low-voltage, stereotactic, highly targeted X-rays for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - offering a new option for patients worldwide. Neovascular endothelial cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this disease. This in-vitro study investigates the potential of gold nanoparticles (GNP) to enhance endothelial cell damage during low-voltage radiotherapy towards potential applications in the treatment of wet-AMD. METHODS: Primary human umbilical cord vein endothelium cells (HUVEC) were treated with 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044470/gold-nanoparticles-as-dose-enhancement-agent-for-kilovoltage-x-ray-therapy-of-melanoma
#17
So-Ra Kim, Eun-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Melanoma is mainly treated by surgery and rarely with radiation because of the high radio-resistance of this tumor. Nevertheless, radiotherapy is the preferred treatment modality for unresectable lesions and avoiding cosmetic disfigurement caused by surgical excision. This study investigated the therapeutic advantage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for kilovoltage X-ray treatment of melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercial AuNPs were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cellular internalization...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042781/mir-21-an-oncogenic-target-mirna-for-cancer-therapy-molecular-mechanisms-and-recent-advancements-in-chemo-and-radio-resistance
#18
Sanaz Javanmardi, Mahmoud Reza Aghamaali, Samira Sadat Abolmaali, Samaneh Mohammadi, Ali Mohammad Tamaddon
In the past decade, miRNAs have been extensively attracted the scientist's attentions as tumor suppressors or oncogenes that have been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis and intrinsic resistance to various cancer therapies. microRNA-21 (miR-21) demonstrates a potential oncogenic function and target tumor inhibitor proteins in almost all types of cancer. miR-21 overexpression has been studied in terms of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis regulation.Inhibition of miRNA expression using antisense technology by various nanovectors of different sizes, shapes and compositions has been evolved progressively to overcome the barriers confronted by miRNA delivery...
January 1, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042332/enhancing-nanoparticle-accumulation-and-retention-in-desmoplastic-tumors-via-vascular-disruption-for-internal-radiation-therapy
#19
Andrew B Satterlee, Juan D Rojas, Paul A Dayton, Leaf Huang
Aggressive, desmoplastic tumors are notoriously difficult to treat because of their extensive stroma, high interstitial pressure, and resistant tumor microenvironment. We have developed a combination therapy that can significantly slow the growth of large, stroma-rich tumors by causing massive apoptosis in the tumor center while simultaneously increasing nanoparticle uptake through a treatment-induced increase in the accumulation and retention of nanoparticles in the tumor. The vascular disrupting agent Combretastatin A-4 Phosphate (CA4P) is able to increase the accumulation of radiation-containing nanoparticles for internal radiation therapy, and the retention of these delivered radioisotopes is maintained over several days...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040056/the-regulatory-effects-of-autophagy-to-the-cne2-cells-radio-sensitization
#20
B-X Li, X-F Cao, C-Y Weng, X-S Fang, H-B Mao, M-M Guan, G-L Liu
To investigate the effects of autophagy activator and autophagy inhibitor on the CNE2 radiation sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. RNA interference technology was used to silence the atg5 gene and autophagy inhibition cell model was constructed. Rapamycin and chloroquine were treated respectively on cells with X-ray 5Gy irradiation. Cells' growth status were observed for 8 days and control group was set. The cell viability was detected by MTT assay and colony formation assay, and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry...
November 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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