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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776830/pharmacological-modulation-of-radiation-induced-oral-mucosal-complications
#1
S Bockel, A Vallard, A Lévy, S François, M Bourdis, C Le Gallic, D Riccobono, P Annede, M Drouet, Y Tao, P Blanchard, É Deutsch, N Magné, C Chargari
Radiation-induced mucositis is a common toxicity, especially in patients with head and neck cancers. Despite recent technological advances in radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiation-induced mucositis is still causing treatment disruptions, negatively affecting patients' long and short term quality of life, and impacting medical resources use with economic consequences. The objective of this article was to review the latest updates in the management of radiation-induced mucositis, with a focus on pharmaceutical strategies for the prevention or treatment of mucositis...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770193/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-adjunctive-strategy-in-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#2
REVIEW
Lei Huang, Warren Boling, John H Zhang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of malignant intracranial tumor in adults. Tumor tissue hypoxia, high mitotic rate, and rapid tumor spread account for its poor prognosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) may improve the sensitivity of radio-chemotherapy by increasing oxygen tension within the hypoxic regions of the neoplastic tissue. This review summarizes the research of HBOT applications within the context of experimental and clinical GBM. Limited clinical trials and preclinical studies suggest that radiotherapy immediately after HBOT enhances the effects of radiotherapy in some aspects...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769143/clinical-outcome-of-elderly-patients-%C3%A2-70-years-with-esophageal-cancer-undergoing-definitive-or-neoadjuvant-radio-chemo-therapy-a-retrospective-single-center-analysis
#3
Franziska Walter, David Böckle, Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann, Rebecca Köpple, Sabine Gerum, Stefan Boeck, Martin Angele, Claus Belka, Falk Roeder
BACKGROUND: To analyse the outcome of elderly patients (≥70 years) with esophageal cancer treated with curative intent radio(chemo)therapy. METHODS: Fifty five patients (median 75 years) receiving curative intent radio(chemo)therapy for esophageal cancer from 1999 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients showed locally advanced disease (T3/4:78%, N+:58%) with squamous cell histology (74%). Charlson comorbidity score was > 1 in 27%. 48 patients (87%) received definitive treatment while 7 patients were treated neoadjuvantly...
May 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767284/diagnostic-accuracy-of-mri-in-assessing-tumor-regression-and-identifying-complete-response-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-treatment
#4
Medhat Aker, Darren Boone, Anuradha Chandramohan, Bruce Sizer, Roger Motson, Tan Arulampalam
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in restaging locally advanced rectal cancers (LARC) after neoadjuvant chemo-radio therapy (NCRT) has been under recent scrutiny. There is limited data on the accuracy of MRI and its timing in assessing tumor regression grade (TRG) and in identifying patients with complete response (CR). NCRT seems to cause tissue inflammation and oedema which renders reading the scans difficult for radiologist. AIM: This study aims to assess the accuracy of MRI at different time intervals after NCRT in staging TRG and in identifying CR...
May 16, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764118/longitudinal-assessment-of-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-evaluating-the-radio-sensitivity-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-with-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#5
Youping Xiao, Ying Chen, Yunbin Chen, Zhuangzhen He, Yiqi Yao, Jianji Pan
Purpose: Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) was evaluated regarding its ability to preliminarily predict the short-term treatment response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) following intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Methods: IVIM-DWI with 14 b-factors (0-1,000 s/mm2) was performed with a 3T MR system on 47 consecutive NPCs before, during (end of the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, and 25th fractions), and after fractional radiotherapy...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764016/-a-retrospective-study-on-combined-modality-therapy-with-or-without-surgery-for-advanced-hypopharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-119-cases
#6
Y X Zhang, H H Peng, X X Zhang, J D Zhao, W M Wu, J L Wang, D L Huang, L Zong, L W Chen, C Q Liu, M B Liu
Objective: To compare the treatment outcomes for locally advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma between surgery plus radio(chemo) therapy(SRT) and non-surgery chemoradiotherapy(CRT). Methods: A total of 119 patients diagnosed with advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma without distant metastases between 2010 and 2014 were identified in the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, and they were divided into 2 groups: 42 cases in SRT group and 77 cases in CRT group. Patients' clinical information was collected...
May 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752513/oligorecurrent-prostate-cancer-limited-to-lymph-nodes-getting-our-ducks-in-a-row-nodal-oligorecurrent-prostate-cancer
#7
Andrei Fodor, Andrea Lancia, Francesco Ceci, Maria Picchio, Morten Hoyer, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Piet Ost, Paolo Castellucci, Elena Incerti, Nadia Di Muzio, Gianluca Ingrosso
PURPOSE: Oligorecurrent prostate cancer with exclusive nodal involvement represents a common state of disease, amenable to local therapy. New radio-labeled tracers have enriched the possibility of cancer detection and treatment. In this review, we aim to illustrate the main nuclear medicine diagnostic options and the role of radiotherapy in this setting of patients. METHODS: We performed a PubMed search referring to the PRISMA guidelines to analyze the performance of PSMA- and choline-PET in detecting oligorecurrence limited to lymph nodes, and to review the main studies supporting either ablative stereotactic body radiotherapy or regional lymph node irradiation in this clinical setting...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751571/aptamers-promising-tools-for-cancer-diagnosis-and-therapy
#8
EDITORIAL
Laura Cerchia
The most common approaches to cancer treatment have been, for decades, based on surgical excision, radio- and/or chemotherapy, which, in spite of their modest survival benefits, still encounter several limitations, in part due to their lack of specificity.[...].
May 3, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743062/-we-don-t-want-our-clothes-to-smell-smoke-changing-malaria-control-practices-and-opportunities-for-integrated-community-based-management-in-baringo-kenya
#9
Jacinter A Amadi, Daniel O Olago, George O Ong'amo, Silas O Oriaso, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya...
May 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740110/naked-gold-nanoparticles-and-hot-electrons-in-water
#10
Khashayar Ghandi, Furong Wang, Cody Landry, Mehran Mostafavi
The ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of gold nanoparticles, stabilized by electrostatic non-covalent intermolecular forces and steric interactions, with antimicrobial compounds, are investigated with picosecond pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an aqueous solution containing very low concentrations of gold nanoparticles with naked surfaces available in water (not obstructed by chemical bonds), a change to Cerenkov spectrum over a large range of wavelengths are observed and pre-solvated electrons are captured by gold nanoparticles exclusively (not by ionic liquid surfactants used to stabilize the nanoparticles)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728517/a-first-in-man-study-of-68-ga-nanocolloid-pet-ct-sentinel-lymph-node-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-demonstrates-aberrant-lymphatic-drainage-pathways
#11
Jacki A Doughton, Michael S Hofman, Peter Eu, Rodney J Hicks, Scott G Williams
Purpose: To assess feasibility, safety and utility of a novel 68 Ga-nanocolloid radio-tracer with PET-CT lymphoscintigraphy for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). Methods: Pilot study of patients from a tertiary cancer hospital who required insertion of gold fiducials for prostate cancer radiation therapy. Participation did not affect cancer management. Ultrasound-guided transperineal intra-prostatic injection of PET tracer (iron oxide nanocolloid labelled with gallium-68) after placement of fiducials...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728233/multifunctional-chitosan-capped-gold-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-cancer-chemo-radiotherapy-an-invitro-study
#12
Mohamed Mahmoud Fathy, Fayrouz S Mohamed, NihalSaad Elbialy, Wael M Elshemey
Over the last decade, chemo-radiotherapy represented a well-established paradigm for cancer treatment. Developing new strategies to promote the therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxic side effects of chemo-radiotherapy is a main research objective in cancer therapy. A promising new oncological strategy for enhancing chemo-radiotherapy against cancer involves the utilization of multifunctional nanoparticles (nanocarriers and radiosensitizers). In this work, Chitosan-Capped Gold Nanoparticles (CS-GNPs) were synthesized and loaded with an anticancer agent, Doxorubicin (CS-GNPs-DOX)...
April 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721063/photoacoustic-imaging-as-an-early-biomarker-of-radio-therapeutic-efficacy-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
Laurie J Rich, Austin Miller, Anurag K Singh, Mukund Seshadri
The negative impact of tumor hypoxia on radiotherapeutic efficacy is well recognized. However, an easy to use, reliable imaging method for assessment of tumor oxygenation in routine clinical practice remains elusive. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a relatively new imaging technique that utilizes a combination of light and ultrasound (US) to enable functional imaging of tumor hemodynamic characteristics in vivo . Several clinical trials are currently evaluating the utility of PAI in cancer detection for breast, thyroid, and prostate cancer...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719480/nuclear-medicine-in-prostate-cancer-a-new-era-for-radiotracers
#14
REVIEW
Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Giuseppe Danilo Di Stasio, Luigi Mansi
Natural history of prostate cancer (PCa) is extremely variable, as it ranges from indolent and slow growing tumors to highly aggressive histotypes. Genetic background and environmental factors co-operate to the genesis and clinical manifestation of the tumor and include among the others race, family, specific gene variants (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations), acute and chronic inflammation, infections, diet and drugs. In this scenario, remaining actual the clinical interest of bone scan (BS) in detecting skeletal metastases, an important role in diagnostic imaging may be also carried out by, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), which combine morphological information provided by CT and MRI with functional and metabolic data provided by PET acquisitions...
April 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717261/antagonizing-cd105-enhances-radiation-sensitivity-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Anisha Madhav, Allen Andres, Frank Duong, Rajeev Mishra, Subhash Haldar, Zhenqiu Liu, Bryan Angara, Roberta Gottlieb, Zachary S Zumsteg, Neil A Bhowmick
Radiation therapy is the primary intervention for nearly half of the patients with localized advanced prostate cancer and standard of care for recurrent disease following surgery. The development of radiation-resistant disease is an obstacle for nearly 30-50% of patients undergoing radiotherapy. A better understanding of mechanisms that lead to radiation resistance could aid in the development of sensitizing agents to improve outcome. Here we identified a radiation-resistance pathway mediated by CD105, downstream of BMP and TGF-β signaling...
May 2, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715575/advances-in-therapeutic-targeting-of-the-dna-damage-response-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Amar Desai, Yan Yan, Stanton L Gerson
The DNA damage response (DDR) is a series of pathways and processes required to repair lesions to DNA. These pathways range from repairing strand breaks to the double helix, damaged bases formed after oxidation or deamination, inaccurate DNA replication resulting in mispaired base alignment, intrastrand crosslinks that trigger cell death, and a plethora of other genomic insults. The DDR is believed to be a critical component of radio and chemoresistance in many cancers as well, with the tumor's ability to repair therapy induced damage being an important tool used to survive traditional chemotherapeutic agents...
April 23, 2018: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710490/anti-metastatic-potential-of-a-proton-beam-is-regulated-by-p38-mapk-c-fos-signaling-pathway-in-tpa-treated-hepg2-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
So-Young Chun, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam, Kyu-Shik Lee
A proton beam therapy is considered the next generation radio-therapeutic tool for liver cancer treatments. However, its effect on metastasis has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we assessed the effects of a proton beam on the metastatic potential in HepG2, Hep3B and SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinomas. The result showed that a proton beam suppressed TPA-induced cell migration and invasion in HepG2 cells, but not in Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and mRNA expressions were reversed by proton beam irradiation in TPA-treated HepG2 cells only...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707354/fiducial-marker-placement-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-via-convex-probe-endobronchial-ultrasound-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin J Seides, John P Egan, Kim D French, Kevin L Kovitz, Neeraj R Desai
Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) are valuable tools in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic malignancies. With widespread clinical adoption, novel uses of CP-EBUS beyond mediastinal diagnosis and staging continue to be discovered. SBRT is an attractive treatment strategy in early-stage lung cancer and oligo-metastatic disease of the chest when a surgical approach is either not feasible or desirable. Accurate application of SBRT is aided by the placement of radio-opaque fiducial markers (FM) to compensate for respiratory cycle movements...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707301/lymph-node-metastases-near-the-celiac-trunk-should-be-considered-separately-from-other-nodal-metastases-in-patients-with-cancer-of-the-esophagus-or-gastroesophageal-junction-after-neoadjuvant-treatment-and-surgery
#19
Sjoerd M Lagarde, Martinus C J Anderegg, Suzanne S Gisbertz, Sybren L Meijer, Maarten C C M Hulshof, Jacques J G H M Bergman, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen
Background: The aim of the present study is to identify the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk in patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy followed by esophagectomy. Methods: Between March 1994 and September 2013 a total of 462 consecutive patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) who underwent potentially curative esophageal resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=88; 19...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698666/ovatodiolide-suppresses-yes-associated-protein-1-modulated-cancer-stem-cell-phenotypes-in-highly-malignant-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapy-in-vitro
#20
Hang-Lung Chang, Hsin-An Chen, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kwai-Fong Lee, Yew-Min Tzeng, Wei-Hwa Lee, Jo-Ting Tsai
The cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory recently became a focus of heightened attention in cancer biology, with the proposition that CSCs may constitute an important therapeutic target for effective anticancer therapy, because of their demonstrated role in tumor initiation, chemo-, and radio-resistance. Liver CSCs are a small subpopulation of poorly- or undifferentiated liver tumor cells, implicated in tumorigenesis, metastasis, resistance to therapy and disease relapse, enriched with and associated with the functional markers corresponding to the CSCs-enriched side population (SP), high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and enhanced formation of in vitro liver CSCs models, referred to herein as hepatospheres...
April 23, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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