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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786797/nmr-based-prostate-cancer-metabolomics
#1
Leslie R Euceda, Maria K Andersen, May-Britt Tessem, Siver A Moestue, Maria T Grinde, Tone F Bathen
Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy, and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men, worldwide. A major unsolved clinical challenge in prostate cancer is the ability to accurately distinguish indolent cancer types from the aggressive ones. Reprogramming of metabolism is now a widely accepted hallmark of cancer development, where cancer cells must be able to convert nutrients to biomass while maintaining energy production. Metabolomics is the large-scale study of small molecules, commonly known as metabolites, within cells, biofluids, tissues, or organisms...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786793/a-method-for-prostate-and-breast-cancer-cell-spheroid-cultures-using-gelatin-methacryloyl-based-hydrogels
#2
Christoph Meinert, Christina Theodoropoulos, Travis J Klein, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
Modern tissue engineering technologies have delivered tools to recreate a cell's naturally occurring niche in vitro and to investigate normal and pathological cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. Hydrogel biomaterials mimic crucial properties of native extracellular matrices, including mechanical support, cell adhesion sites and proteolytic degradability. As such, they are applied as 3D cell culture platforms to replicate tissue-like architectures observed in vivo, allowing physiologically relevant cell behaviors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786786/methodologies-applied-to-establish-cell-cultures-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Anne T Collins
This chapter focuses on primary cultures of the human malignant prostate. Current abilities to isolate and culture stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and secretory luminal cells are described. Advantages and limitations of this model system are also discussed.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786785/methods-to-study-angiogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-prostate-cancer
#4
Ana-Rita Pedrosa, Alexandre Trindade, António Duarte
Angiogenesis is one important hallmark of cancer progression which explains the relevance of developing methods to efficiently analyze the neo-angiogenic process. In this report we make use of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the murine prostate (TRAMP) model, considered a good model for studying clinical prostate cancer progression, to describe in detail the methods used to study angiogenesis in this type of solid tumor development. In this report we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the mouse urogenital sinus (UGS) collection; microdissection of the prostate; preparation of the prostatic samples for immunofluorescence (to analyze vascular density, morphology, maturation, functionality, hypoxia, and others); preparation of prostatic samples to histopathological analysis and/or immunohistochemistry; and endothelial and vascular mural cell sorting and isolation by fluorescent associated cell sorting (FACS) to further analysis (mRNA, protein, or other) or to maintain in culture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786602/microfluidic-system-for-modelling-3d-tumour-invasion-into-surrounding-stroma-and-drug-screening
#5
Zhichang Du, Shengli Mi, Xiaoman Yi, Yuanyuan Xu, Wei Sun
Tumour invasion into the surrounding stroma is a critical step in metastasis, and it is necessary to clarify the role of microenvironmental factors in tumour invasion. We present a microfluidic system that simulated and controlled multi-factors of the tumour microenvironment for three-dimensional (3D) assessment of tumour invasion into the stroma. The simultaneous, precise and continuous arrangement of two 3D matrices was visualised to observe the migration of cancer cell populations or single cells by transfecting cells with a fluorescent protein...
May 22, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786565/modelling-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-human-hepatocyte-like-cells
#6
Marcus J Lyall, Jessy Cartier, John P Thomson, Kate Cameron, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Dagmara Szkolnicka, Baltasar Lucendo Villarin, Yu Wang, Giovanny Rodriguez Blanco, Warwick B Dunn, Richard R Meehan, David C Hay, Amanda J Drake
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in developed countries. An in vitro NAFLD model would permit mechanistic studies and enable high-throughput therapeutic screening. While hepatic cancer-derived cell lines are a convenient, renewable resource, their genomic, epigenomic and functional alterations mean their utility in NAFLD modelling is unclear. Additionally, the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a cell lineage identifier, is rapidly lost during cell culture, alongside expression of the Ten-eleven-translocation ( TET ) methylcytosine dioxygenase enzymes, restricting meaningful epigenetic analysis...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785723/decreased-e-cadherin-in-mcf7-human-breast-cancer-cells-forming-multicellular-spheroids-exposed-to-simulated-microgravity
#7
Jayashree Sahana, Mohamed Zakaria Nassef, Markus Wehland, Sascha Kopp, Marcus Krüger, Thomas J Corydon, Manfred Infanger, Johann Bauer, Daniela Grimm
MCF7 human breast cancer cells were cultured under normal gravity (1g) and on a random positioning machine (RPM) preventing sedimentation. After two weeks, adherent 1g-control and adherent RPM cells (AD) as well as multicellular spheroids (MCS) were harvested. AD and MCS had been exposed to the RPM in the same culture flask. In a subsequent proteome analysis, the majority of the proteins detected showed similar label-free quantification scores (LFQ) in each of the respective subpopulations, but in both AD or MCS cultures, proteins were also found whose LFQs deviated at least twofold from their counterparts in the 1g-control cells...
May 21, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785182/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-human-cells-by-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast-agent
#8
Li Wang, Eric Lin, Mary J Johansen, Timothy Madden, Edward Felix, Karen S Martirosyan, Steven J Frank
The novel positive-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker C4 consists of an aqueous solution of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) complexed with the chelator N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We evaluated whether the presence of C4 or its components would produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, including hydroxyl, peroxyl, or other reactive oxygen species) in cultured cells. Human cancer or normal cells were incubated with 1% (w/v) CoCl2 ·6H2 O or 2% NAC or a combination of both (1% CoCl2 ·6H2 O : 2% NAC in an aqueous solution, abbreviated as Co : NAC) in the presence or absence of H2 O2 ...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785137/andrographolide-potentiates-the-antitumor-effect-of-topotecan-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-through-an-intrinsic-apoptotic-pathway
#9
Mohammad Hassan Hodroj, Achraf Jardaly, Sarah Abi Raad, Annalise Zouein, Sandra Rizk
Background: Topotecan (TP) is an anticancer drug acting as topoisomerase I inhibitor that is used in the treatment of many types of cancers including leukemia, but it has significant side effects. Andrographolide, a compound extracted from Andrographis paniculata , was recently proven to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and can induce apoptosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible synergism between TP and andrographolide in acute myeloid cells in vitro. Materials and methods: U937 acute myeloid leukemic cells were cultured using Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium and then treated for 24 h with TP and andrographolide prepared through the dilution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) stocks with RPMI on the day of treatment...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785122/aloperine-executes-antitumor-effects-through-the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Zhixin Ling, Han Guan, Zonghao You, Can Wang, Ling Hu, Lei Zhang, Yiduo Wang, Shuqiu Chen, Bin Xu, Ming Chen
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant diseases among male patients. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the main treatment for PCa, most patients would inevitably progress to castration-resistant PCa, which is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel antitumor agents are urgently needed. Recent studies demonstrated that aloperine (ALO) as a natural alkaloid showed antitumor effects in other cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of ALO in PCa have not been investigated...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784005/cd8-t-cells-mediate-the-antitumor-activity-of-frankincense-and-myrrh-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Chun Xu, Xian Lu, Wei Liu, Anxian Chen, Gang Meng, Hailin Zhang, Binghua Li, Yonghui Zhang, Junhua Wu, Jiwu Wei
BACKGROUND: Tumor-promoting inflammation is an emerging hallmark of cancer, which participates in both cancer progression and immune escape. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. Frankincense and myrrh are anti-inflammation agents commonly used in clinic. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether extract of frankincense and myrrh (FM) downregulates inflammatory microenvironment of HCC and thereby restores antitumor immune responses...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783929/modulation-the-crosstalk-between-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-inhibit-tumor-migration-and-invasion-by-ginsenoside-rh2
#12
Honglin Li, Nan Huang, Weikang Zhu, Jianchun Wu, Xiaohui Yang, Wenjing Teng, Jianhui Tian, Zhihong Fang, Yingbin Luo, Min Chen, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a critical role in modulating the tumor microenvironment and promote tumor metastases. Our studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2), a monomeric compound extracted from ginseng, is a promising anti-tumor agent in lung cancer cells. However, it remains unclear whetherG-Rh2 can modulate the differentiation of TAMs and its interaction with tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated how G-Rh2 regulates the phenotype of macrophages and affects the migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells...
May 22, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782911/estrogen-deficiency-exacerbates-a%C3%AE-induced-memory-impairment-through-enhancement-of-neuroinflammation-amylodogenesis-and-nf-%C3%A4-b-activation-in-ovariectomized-mice
#13
Jaesuk Yun, In Jun Yeo, Chul Ju Hwang, Dong-Young Choi, Hyung-Sik Im, Ji Youg Kim, Won Rak Choi, Myung Hee Jung, Sang-Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Estrogen is well known to have a preventative effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several studies have demonstrated that nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-ĸB) can contribute to the effects of estrogen on the development of AD. We investigated whether NF-ĸB affects amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced memory impairment in an estrogen-lacking condition. In the present study, nine-week-old Institute cancer research (ICR) mice were ovariectomized to block estrogen stimulation. Ten weeks after the ovariectomization, mice were administered with Aβ (300 pmol) via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion for 2 weeks...
May 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782142/projection-based-3d-printing-of-cell-patterning-scaffolds-with-multi-scale-channels
#14
Dai Xue, Yancheng Wang, Jiaxin Zhang, Deqing Mei, Yue Wang, Shaochen Chen
To fully actualize artificial, cell-laden biological models in tissue engineering, such as 3D organoids and organs-on-a-chip systems, cells need to be patterned such that they can precisely mimic natural microenvironments in vitro. Despite increasing interest in this area, patterning cells at multiscales (~10 μm - 10 mm) remains a significant challenge in bioengineering. Here we report a projection-based 3D printing system that achieves rapid and high-resolution fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds featuring intricate channels for multi-scale cell patterning...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782013/mouse-and-human-derived-primary-gastric-epithelial-monolayer-culture-for-the-study-of-regeneration
#15
Emma Teal, Nina G Steele, Jayati Chakrabarti, Loryn Holokai, Yana Zavros
In vitro studies of gastric wound repair typically involves the use of gastric cancer cell lines in a scratch-wound assay of cellular proliferation and migration. One critical limitation of such assays, however, is their homogenous assortment of cellular types. Repair is a complex process which demands the interaction of several cell types. Therefore, to study a culture devoid of cellular subtypes, is a concern that must be overcome if we are to understand the repair process. The gastric organoid model may alleviate this issue whereby the heterogeneous collection of cell types closely reflects that of the gastric epithelium or other native tissues in vivo...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781726/in-vitro-analysis-of-glucose-and-quercetin-effects-on-m-tor-and-nrf-2-expression-in-hepg2-cell-line-diabetes-and-cancer-connection
#16
Amir Yarahmadi, Fatemeh Khademi, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Fatemeh Zal
Some types of cancers show a strong relationship with diabetes and play a central role in mortality in the patient population suffering from diabetes mellitus. In this study, HepG2 cells have been used to investigate the toxic effects of hyperglycemia and/or quercetin (Q) on mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) expression as central molecules involved in cancer. HepG2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of glucose (5.5, 30, and 50 mM) and/or Q (25 µM) for 48 and 72 h...
May 21, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781033/microarray-analysis-of-circular-rna-expression-profiles-associated-with-gemcitabine-resistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#17
Chao Xu, Yue Yu, Fei Ding
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most malignant tumors of the digestive system due to its rapid progression, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Gemcitabine (GEM) chemotherapy is the first‑choice treatment for advanced PC. However, the effect of GEM‑based chemotherapy on PC is limited due to the development of chemoresistance, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance have yet to be investigated. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which can function as microRNA sponges, have been found to be involved in the development of several types of cancer...
May 17, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780673/breast-fibroblasts-in-both-cancer-and-normal-tissues-induce-phenotypic-transformation-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-a-preliminary-study
#18
Bixiao Wang, Chunfang Xi, Mingwei Liu, Haichen Sun, Shuang Liu, Lei Song, Hua Kang
Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are associated with the invasion of breast cancer. In recent years, studies have demonstrated different phenotypes among BCSCs. Furthermore, BCSCs of diverse phenotypes are present at different tumour sites and different histological stages. Fibroblasts are involved in the phenotypic transformation of BCSCs. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) participate in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, thereby promoting the acquisition of stem cell characteristics, but little is known about the role of normal fibroblasts (NFs) in the phenotypic transformation of BCSCs or about the effect of CAFs and NFs on BCSC phenotypes...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780561/triple-action-pt-iv-derivatives-of-cisplatin-a-new-class-of-potent-anticancer-agents-that-overcome-resistance
#19
Emanuele Petruzzella, Roman Sirota, Irene Solazzo, Valentina Gandin, Dan Gibson
A series of triple action Pt(iv) prodrugs was designed to test the hypothesis that multi-action compounds, where each bioactive moiety intervenes in several cellular processes, might be more effective than a single agent at killing cancer cells. In particular, "triple action" Pt(iv) derivatives of cisplatin, where the axial ligands are inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COXi), histone deacetylase (HDACi) or pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDKi) were developed. All compounds, ctc-[Pt(NH3 )2 (COXi)(PDKi)Cl2 ], ctc-[Pt(NH3 )2 (COXi)(HDACi)Cl2 ] and ctc-[Pt(NH3 )2 (HDACi)(PDKi)Cl2 ], where COXi = aspirin or ibuprofen, PDKi = dichloroacetate and HDACi = valproate or phenylbutyrate, were significantly more cytotoxic than cisplatin against all cell lines of an in-house panel of human cancer cells...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780499/rational-design-of-a-water-soluble-nir-aiegen-and-its-application-in-ultrafast-wash-free-cellular-imaging-and-photodynamic-cancer-cell-ablation
#20
Dong Wang, Huifang Su, Ryan T K Kwok, Xianglong Hu, Hang Zou, Qianxin Luo, Michelle M S Lee, Wenhan Xu, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
The synthesis of water-soluble near-infrared (NIR)-emissive fluorescent molecules with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics and theranostic functions is highly desirable but remains challenging. In this work, we designed and readily prepared for the first time such a molecule with AIE features, good water-solubility and intense emission in the NIR region. This AIE luminogen (AIEgen) is able to specifically "light up" the cell membrane without the involvement of a washing procedure. Interestingly, the staining process can be performed by simply shaking the culture with cells at room temperature for only a few seconds after the addition of the AIEgen, indicating an ultrafast and easy-to-operate staining protocol...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
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