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cancer cell culture

Aloma L D'Souza, John R Chevillet, Pejman Ghanouni, Xinrui Yan, Muneesh Tewari, Sanjiv S Gambhir
We have previously shown that low frequency ultrasound can release biomarkers from cells into the murine circulation enabling an amplification and localization of the released biomarker that could be used as a blood-based method to detect cancer earlier and monitor therapy. In this study, we further demonstrate that this technique could be used for characterization of tumors and/or identification of cellular masses of unknown origin due to the release of multiple protein and nucleic acid biomarkers in cells in culture, mice and patients...
2018: PloS One
Haiying Rao, Yuxiang Bai, Qingshu Li, Baimei Zhuang, Yu Yuan, Yamin Liu, Wei Peng, Philip N Baker, Chao Tong, Xin Luo, Hongbo Qi
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy. Adequate migration and invasion of trophoblasts into the uterine wall and spiral arteries to form a functional maternal-fetal interface are pivotal for normal placentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence has revealed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a tumor promoter that participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. However, the expression and function of SATB1 in trophoblasts is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Verena M Throm, David Männle, Thomas Giese, Andrea S Bauer, Matthias M Gaida, Juergen Kopitz, Thomas Bruckner, Konstanze Plaschke, Svetlana P Grekova, Klaus Felix, Thilo Hackert, Nathalia A Giese, Oliver Strobel
Smoking is associated with increased risk and poorer prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Nicotine acts through cholinergic nicotinic receptors, preferentially α7 (CHRNA7) that also binds the endogenous ligand SLURP1 (Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-Related Protein 1). The clinical significance of SLURP1 and its interaction with nicotine in PDAC are unclear. We detected similar levels of SLURP1 in sera from healthy donors and patients with chronic pancreatitis or PDAC; higher preoperative values were associated with significantly better survival in patients with resected tumors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Shibao Wang, Yinghui Huang, Xupeng Mu, Tianyang Qi, Sha Qiao, Zhenxia Lu, Hongjun Li
The present study aimed to explore whether culture method had an influence on DNA methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, CRC cells were cultured in two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and mouse orthotopic transplantation (Tis) cultures. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for global visualization of the three samples. A Venn diagram was applied for intersection and union analysis for different comparisons. The methylation condition of 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) location was determined using unsupervised clustering analysis...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Marija Adzic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
CD73 is a bifunctional glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein which functions as ecto-5'-nucleotidase and a membrane receptor for extracellular matrix protein (ECM). A large body of evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of altered purine metabolism and particularly, increased expression of CD73 in a number of human disorders, including cancer and immunodeficiency. Massive up-regulation of CD73 was also found in reactive astrocytes in several experimental models of human neuropathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Naira F Z Schneider, Claudia Cerella, Jin-Young Lee, Aloran Mazumder, Kyung Rok Kim, Annelise de Carvalho, Jennifer Munkert, Rodrigo M Pádua, Wolfgang Kreis, Kyu-Won Kim, Christo Christov, Mario Dicato, Hyun-Jung Kim, Byung Woo Han, Fernão C Braga, Cláudia M O Simões, Marc Diederich
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC) and high-affinity binding to the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Kati Richter, Teija Paakkola, Daniela Mennerich, Kateryna Kubaichuk, Anja Konzack, Heidi Ali-Kippari, Nina Kozlova, Peppi Koivunen, Kirsi-Maria Haapasaari, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Hanna-Riikka Teppo, Elitsa Y Dimova, Risto Bloigu, Zoltan Szabo, Risto Kerkelä, Thomas Kietzmann
Recent studies suggest that the ubiquitin-specific protease USP28 plays an important role in cellular repair and tissue remodeling, which implies that it has a direct role in carcinogenesis. The carcinogenic potential of USP28 was investigated in a comprehensive manner using patients, animal models, and cell culture. The findings demonstrate that overexpression of USP28 correlates with a better survival in patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Mouse xenograft experiments with USP28-deficient breast cancer cells also support this view...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Sen Xu, Zong-Yuan Yang, Ping Jin, Xin Yang, Xiaoting Li, Xiao Wei, Ya Wang, Sixiang Long, Taoran Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaoyang Sun, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Ovarian cancer (OC) is a devastating disease due to its high incidence of relapse and chemoresistance. The tumor microenvironment, especially the tumor stroma compartment, was proven to contribute tremendously to the unsatisfactory chemotherapeutic efficacy in OC. Cytotoxic agents not only effect tumor cells, but also modulate the phenotype and characteristics of the vast stromal cell population, which can in turn alter the tumor cell response to chemointervention. In this study, we focused on the tumor stroma response to cytotoxic agents and the subsequent effect on the OC tumor cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant phytoconstituents have been a valuable source of clinically important anticancer agents. Antioxidant and anticancerous activity of plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn were explored In vitro antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity of oxidatively stressed tissue, and cell culture studies on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and MCF-7 were carried out. Active plant fractions were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compounds selected on the basis of their abundance were screened in silico with the help of Auto Dock 4...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jun Hao, Xinpei Ci, Hui Xue, Rebecca Wu, Xin Dong, Stephen Yiu Chuen Choi, Haiqing He, Yu Wang, Fang Zhang, Sifeng Qu, Fan Zhang, Anne M Haegert, Peter W Gout, Amina Zoubeidi, Colin Collins, Martin E Gleave, Dong Lin, Yuzhuo Wang
BACKGROUND: Although androgen deprivation therapy is initially effective in controlling growth of hormone-naive prostate cancers (HNPCs) in patients, currently incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) inevitably develops. OBJECTIVE: To identify CRPC driver genes that may provide new targets to enhance CRPC therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of HNPCs that develop CRPC following host castration were examined for changes in expression of genes at various time points after castration using transcriptome profiling analysis; particular attention was given to pre-CRPC changes in expression indicative of genes acting as potential CRPC drivers...
March 12, 2018: European Urology
Xue Xiao, Juan Zou, Yin Fang, Yibo Meng, Chao Xiao, Jiaxin Fu, Shiyu Liu, Peng Bai, Yuan Yao
BACKGROUND: The anti-tumor activities of Natural compounds and their derivatives are of great interest to pharmaceutical industries. Fisetin is one of prospective natural compounds in this regard but unfortunately with poor hydrophilicity. METHODS: The effects of unmodified and modified fisetin in cultured ovarian cancer cells were compared by transmission electronmicroscopy to determine apoptotic bodies, MTT assay to quantitate cell numbers, and fluorescence activated cell sorting analyse of various markers to determine the apoptotic state...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Emily Wonder, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Pablo Scodeller, Ramsey N Majzoub, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Kai K Ewert, Tambet Teesalu, Cyrus R Safinya
Cationic liposome-nucleic acid (CL-NA) complexes, which form spontaneously, are a highly modular gene delivery system. These complexes can be sterically stabilized via PEGylation [PEG: poly (ethylene glycol)] into nanoparticles (NPs) and targeted to specific tissues and cell types via the conjugation of an affinity ligand. However, there are currently no guidelines on how to effectively navigate the large space of compositional parameters that modulate the specific and nonspecific binding interactions of peptide-targeted NPs with cells...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Zengli Zhang, Huiqian Wang, Qifeng Ding, Yufei Xing, Zhonghua Xu, Chun Lu, Dongdong Luo, Longjiang Xu, Wei Xia, Caicun Zhou, Minhua Shi
The prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is poor. One of the reasons for this hampered progress has been a lack of in vitro models that would faithfully recapitulate the heterogeneity of tumors and response to treatment. In this study, surgically resected tumors were obtained from patients with stage I/II NSCLC during curative-intent surgery. Using a 3D patient-derived tumor spheroids culture system, our results demonstrate successful long-term expansion of primary NSCLC cells in vitro (> 120 days)...
2018: PloS One
Matthew G K Benesch, Iain T K MacIntyre, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
A quarter-century after the discovery of autotaxin in cell culture, the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate (LPA)-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis is now a promising clinical target for treating chronic inflammatory conditions, mitigating fibrosis progression, and improving the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Nearly half of the literature on this axis has been published during the last five years. In cancer biology, LPA signaling is increasingly being recognized as a central mediator of the progression of chronic inflammation in the establishment of a tumor microenvironment which promotes cancer growth, immune evasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance...
March 15, 2018: Cancers
Teklab Gebregiworgis, Christopher Boyd Marshall, Tadateru Nishikawa, Nikolina Radulovich, María-José Sandi, Zhenhao Fang, Robert Rottapel, Ming-Sound Tsao, Mitsuhiko Ikura
Small GTPases (sGTPases) are critical switch-like regulators that mediate several important cellular functions and are often mutated in human cancers. They are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which specifically catalyze the exchange of GTP for GDP. GEFs coordinate signaling networks in normal cells, and are frequently deregulated in cancers. sGTPase signaling pathways are complex and interconnected; however, most GEF assays do not reveal such complexity. In this communication, we describe the development of a unique real-time NMR-based multiplexed GEF assay that employs distinct isotopic labeling schemes for each sGTPase protein to enable simultaneous observation of six proteins of interest...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Dao-Ming Zhu, Lei Wu, Meng Suo, Song Gao, Wei Xie, Ming-Hui Zan, Ao Liu, Bei Chen, Wen-Tao Wu, Li-Wei Ji, Li-Ben Chen, Hui-Ming Huang, Shi-Shang Guo, Wen-Feng Zhang, Xing-Zhong Zhao, Zhi-Jun Sun, Wei Liu
Filtration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is of proven importance for early cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, metastasis diagnosis, and prognostic evaluation. However, currently available strategies for enriching CTCs, such as magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), face serious problems with purity due to nonspecific interactions between beads and leukocytes in the process of capturing. In the present study, the tumor-targeting molecule folic acid (FA) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) by hydrophobic interaction and chemical conjugation, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Michael E Paulaitis, Kitty Agarwal, Serge Patrick Nana-Sinkam
A model is proposed for characterizing exosome size distributions based on dynamic scaling of domain growth on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies in the established exosome biogenesis pathway. The scaling exponent in this model captures the asymmetry of exosome size distributions, which are notably right-skewed to larger vesicles independent of the minimum detectable vesicle size. Analyses of exosome size distributions obtained by cryo-TEM imaging and nanoparticle tracking (NTA) show, respectively, that the scaling exponent is sensitive to the state of the cell source for exosomes in cell culture supernatants, and can distinguish exosome size distributions in serum samples taken from cancer patients relative to those from healthy donors...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Han Zhang, Hong-Tao Zhu, Dong Wang, Chong-Ren Yang, Ying-Jun Zhang
Twelve indolyl diketopiperazines 1-12 were isolated from the mycelia culture of Aspergillus penicilliodes Speg., a dominant microorganism from the post fermentation process of ripe Pu-er tea. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Among them, trypostatins C (1) and D (2) featuring with a rare methyl vinyl ketone side chain at C-2 are new compounds, while 3 and 4 were obtained for the first time from nature source. The isolates 3-12 did not show obvious cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines at a concentration of 40 μM...
March 14, 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
Heather L Lehman, Michal Kidacki, Joshua I Warrick, Douglas B Stairs
Four out of five patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) will die within five years. This is primarily a result of the aggressive invasive potential of the disease. Our research is focused on the interplay between tumor suppressors and oncogenes in the invasive process. Specifically, EGFR and p120-catenin (p120ctn) are commonly dysregulated genes that are indicative of poor prognosis in ESCC. In a previous study we demonstrated that in our 3D organotypic culture model, only when EGFR overexpression is combined with p120ctn inactivation do the cells transform and invade - as opposed to either event alone...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
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