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oxidized low density lipoprotein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785900/insulin-suppresses-the-ampk-signaling-pathway-to-regulate-lipid-metabolism-in-primary-cultured-hepatocytes-of-dairy-cows
#1
Xinwei Li, Yu Li, Hongyan Ding, Jihong Dong, Renhe Zhang, Dan Huang, Lin Lei, Zhe Wang, Guowen Liu, Xiaobing Li
Dairy cows with type II ketosis display hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia, but the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of lipid metabolism by insulin in cow hepatocytes. In vitro, cow hepatocytes were treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 nm insulin in the presence or absence of AICAR (an AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) activator). The results showed that insulin decreased AMPKα phosphorylation. This inactivation of AMPKα increased the gene and protein expression levels of carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782323/role-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Zhiyou Cai, Pei-Feng Qiao, Cheng-Qun Wan, Min Cai, Nan-Kai Zhou, Qin Li
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BBB is a highly selective semipermeable structural and chemical barrier which ensures a stable internal environment of the brain and prevents foreign objects invading the brain tissue. BBB dysfunction induces the failure of Aβ transport from brain to the peripheral circulation across the BBB. Especially, decreased levels of LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and increased levels of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) at the BBB can cause the failure of Aβ transport...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777873/cinnamaldehyde-protects-vsmcs-against-ox-ldl-induced-proliferation-and-migration-through-s-arrest-and-inhibition-of-p38-jnk-mapks-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#3
Weifeng Li, Wenbing Zhi, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Fang Liu, Xiaofeng Niu
Cinnamaldehyde (Cin), as a traditional flavor constituent isolated from the bark of Cinnamonum cassia Presl, has been commonly used for - digestive, cardiovascular and immune system diseases. The pathology of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis. In our study, we found that cinnamaldehyde significantly suppressed ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory cytokine overproduction, as well as foam cell formation in VSMCs and macrophages. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and p65 NF-κB and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity...
May 16, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777706/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-via-the-ppar-%C3%AE-cpt-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-parenteral-nutrition
#4
Feng Tian, Jiwei Wang, Haifeng Sun, Jianbo Yang, Peng Wang, Songlin Wan, Xuejin Gao, Li Zhang, Jieshou Li, Xinying Wang
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the basic therapies for patients with intestinal failure; however, hepatic steatosis associated with PN limits the long-term use of PN. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used to improve clinical outcomes of patients receiving PN; however, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs ameliorate hepatic steatosis remain unclear. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, namely, enteral nutrition (EN), n-3 PUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776838/hot-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-lasianthera-africana-icacinaceae-attenuates-rifampicin-isoniazid-induced-hepatotoxicity
#5
Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: The hepatoprotective effects of hot aqueous L. africana (HALA) leaf extract (0.1-1 g/kg) and silymarin (50 mg/kg) were assessed in a model of oxidative liver damage induced by RIF and INH (100 mg/kg each) in Wistar rats for 28 days. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775676/malondialdehyde-modified-ldl-related-variables-are-associated-with-diabetic-kidney-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
Shoko Furukawa, Hiroaki Suzuki, Kazuya Fujihara, Kazuto Kobayashi, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Yoko Sugano, Shigeru Yatoh, Motohiro Sekiya, Naoya Yahagi, Hitoshi Shimano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) causes the development of atherosclerosis and kidney injury. Although circulating oxLDL levels were reportedly increased in type 2 diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria, it remains unclear whether albuminuria or the reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is independently associated with the circulating oxLDL level. This study aimed to elucidate the association between the stage of diabetic nephropathy and serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) and the ratio of MDA-LDL to LDL-cholesterol (MDA-LDL/LDL)...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773990/atorvastatin-inhibits-inflammatory-response-attenuates-lipid-deposition-and-improves-the-stability-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaques-by-modulating-autophagy
#7
Shi Peng, Long-Wei Xu, Xin-Yu Che, Qing-Qing Xiao, Jun Pu, Qin Shao, Ben He
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease comprising intima malfunction and arterial inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy could inhibit inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and exert subsequent atheroprotective effects. Our previous study also demonstrated the role of autophagy in the inhibition of inflammation by atorvastatin in vitro . Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to determine whether atorvastatin could upregulate autophagy to inhibit inflammatory cytokines secretion, lipid accumulation, and improve vulnerable plaque stability, both in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773098/-polydatin-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-expressions-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-thp-1-cells-induced-by-ox-ldl-via-up-regulating-sirt1
#8
Yi Ma, Yunjun Ruan, Yuyan Wang, Saizhu Wu
Objective To investigate the effects of polydatin on cell proliferation and cytokine expression in THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), and the possible mechanisms. Methods MDMs were divided into the control group (only treated with ordinary culture medium), ox-LDL group (treated wtih 80 μmol/L ox-LDL for 24 hours), polydatin treatment group (treated with 100 μmol/L polydatin for 2 hours prior to the treatment with 80 μmol/L ox-LDL for 24 hours) and EX-527 treatment group (treated with 10 μmol/L SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 for 2 hours prior to the treatment with ox-LDL and polydatin)...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772481/vascular-peroxide-1-promotes-ox-ldl-induced-programmed-necrosis-in-endothelial-cells-through-a-mechanism-involving-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
Yin-Zhuang Zhang, Lei Wang, Jie-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Ming Xiong, Di Zhang, Xuan-Meng Tang, Xiu-Ju Luo, Qi-Lin Ma, Jun Peng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) plays a key role in mediation of cardiovascular oxidative injury. This study aims to determine whether VPO1 can promote programmed necrosis of endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 100 μg/mL) for 48 h to induce cell injury, which showed an elevation in cell necrosis (reflected by the increased propidium iodide (PI) positive-staining cells, LDH release and decreased cell viability), concomitant with an increase in programmed necrosis-relevant proteins including receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/3 (RIPK1/3), p-RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL); these phenomena were attenuated by necrostatin-1(Nec-1) and RIPK3 siRNA...
May 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765452/effects-and-potential-mechanism-of-atorvastatin-treatment-on-lp-pla2-in-rats-with-dyslipidemia
#10
Dongdan Zheng, Anping Cai, Rulin Xu, Zhuocheng Mai, Yingling Zhou, Fanfang Zeng, Liwen Li, Weiyi Mai
Introduction: The effects of statins on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) are controversial, and the present study aimed to investigate whether atorvastatin could reduce Lp-PLA2 in rats with dyslipidemia. Material and methods: A high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was prescribed to produce a dyslipidemia model. Thereafter, low-dose atorvastatin (5 mg/kg/day), high-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) or saline (without-treatment group) was prescribed for 14 days...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761474/lipids-apolipoproteins-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-cv-risk-what-have-we-learned
#11
David Rhainds, Mathieu R Brodeur, Jean-Claude Tardif
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the first cause of death in the world. CVD risk is influenced by multiple factors, some non-modifiable such as age, sex and genetic background, and others modifiable. Great progress has been made over the last decades in the identification of biomarkers of incident or recurrent CV risk and surrogate endpoints of CV outcomes. We present the current state of knowledge for CV biomarkers in plasma including lipids, apolipoproteins, inflammation-related, and emerging omics-based biomarkers...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760294/breath-profiles-of-children-on-ketogenic-therapy
#12
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Péter Kalapos, Christine Schmidl, Daniela Karall, Sabine Scholl-Buergi, Matthias Baumann
Ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to clinical practice as alimentary approaches with the aim to control drug-resistant epilepsies. Therapy control, particularly at initiation, happens through regular blood analysis and control of urine ketone levels. However, there is a lack of fast, reliable and preferably non-invasive methods of analysis. The exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can be modified by diet. The instrumental development of VOC detection converges in the direction of low cost sensors, which can facilitate the self-monitoring of the patients in the future if reliable breath markers are available...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755479/lysophosphatidylcholine-promotes-phagosome-maturation-and-regulates-inflammatory-mediator-production-through-the-protein-kinase-a-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Hyo-Ji Lee, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Dong-Kun Song, Yu-Jin Jung
Tuberculosis is caused by the infectious agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb has various survival strategies, including blockade of phagosome maturation and inhibition of antigen presentation. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and is involved in various cellular responses, such as activation of second messengers and bactericidal activity in neutrophils. In this study, macrophages were infected with a low infectious dose of Mtb and treated with LPC to investigate the bactericidal activity of LPC against Mtb...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754388/consumption-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-mtcc-5898-fermented-milk-attenuates-dyslipidemia-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-male-rats-fed-on-cholesterol-enriched-diet
#14
Radha Yadav, Suhail Hakeem Khan, Sanusi Bello Mada, Sunita Meena, Rajeev Kapila, Suman Kapila
There is a growing and alarming prevalence that increased serum cholesterol is closely related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Probiotic consumption could be a safe and natural strategy to combat. Therefore, we sought to examine the cholesterol-lowering potential of co-supplementation of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898-fermented buffalo milk (2.5% fat) in rats fed cholesterol-enriched diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups on the basis of feed, viz. group 1, fed standard diet (SD); group 2, fed cholesterol-enriched diet (CED); and group 3, fed cholesterol-enriched diet along with L...
May 13, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753234/effect-of-short-term-hazelnut-consumption-on-dna-damage-and-oxidized-ldl-in-children-and-adolescents-with-primary-hyperlipidemia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Federica Guaraldi, Valeria Deon, Cristian Del Bo', Stefano Vendrame, Marisa Porrini, Patrizia Riso, Ornella Guardamagna
Children with primary hyperlipidemia are prone to develop premature atherosclerosis, possibly associated with increased oxidative stress. Nutritional therapy is the primary strategy in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and associated conditions. Dietary interventions with bioactive-rich foods, such as nuts, may contribute to the modulation of both lipid profile and the oxidative/antioxidant status. Our study aimed to assess the impact of a dietary intervention with hazelnuts on selected oxidative stress markers in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750307/exosomal-malat1-derived-from-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-treated-endothelial-cells-promotes-m2-macrophage-polarization
#16
Chaoyang Huang, Jie Han, Yutao Wu, Shan Li, Qiwen Wang, Wenjuan Lin, Jianhua Zhu
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced injury and apoptosis of endothelial cells are important initial events in numerous cardiovascular diseases. Following activation by oxLDL, monocytes adhere to endothelial cells, migrate into the subendothelial spaces and then undergo differentiation into macrophages, which subsequently induces the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of macrophage differentiation by oxLDL-treated endothelial cells remain unclear...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750293/downregulation-of-microrna%C3%A2-34a-inhibits-oxidized-low%C3%A2-density-lipoprotein%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#17
Xiaoming Zhong, Peng Li, Juan Li, Ruili He, Guanchang Cheng, Yanming Li
Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL) promotes endothelial cell dysfunction, which is a primary risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. A previous study reported that microRNA (miRNA/miR)‑34a is upregulated in atherosclerotic samples. However, its function and underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to investigate the miRNA expression profile in atherosclerotic plaque tissues and examine the role of miR‑34a in ox‑LDL‑induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746866/cav-1-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-activating-jnk-associated-signaling
#18
Dong-Xia Wang, Yong-Quan Pan, Bing Liu, Li Dai
The objective of the study is to calculate the role and underlying the molecular mechanisms of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in atherosclerosis (AS). Cav-1 was mainly expressed in the endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both human patients and apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/- ) mice. Cav-1 deficiency (Cav-1-/- ) attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice, supported by the reduced aortic plaques. Cav-1-/- reduced the macrophage content and decreased the release of inflammation-related cytokines or chemokine in serum or abdominal aortas, accompanied with the inactivation of inhibitor κB kinase κ (IKKβ)/p65/IκBα signaling pathway...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746008/exogenously-added-oxyphytosterols-do-not-affect-macrophage-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#19
Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Tom Houben, Mike L J Jeurissen, Albert V Bitorina, Maurice Konings, Sabine Baumgartner, Jogchum Plat, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Although phytosterols, plant-derived sterol-like components, are well known for their cholesterol-lowering properties, their atherogenic potential is still under debate. Although they are known to share structural similarities with cholesterol, it is unclear whether their oxidized forms (oxyphytosterols) have the capacity to mediate proinflammatory responses in macrophages. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins, oxyphytosterols (7keto-sito/campesterol [7keto-sit/camp] or 7-beta-hydroxy-sito/campesterol [7βOH-sit/camp]), nonoxidized phytosterol (β-sitosterol), or carrier-control (cyclodextrin) in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 10, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743343/multiple-effects-of-cold-exposure-on-livers-of-male-mice
#20
Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, Wieneke Dijk, Jacobie Steenbergen, Gardi J Voortman, Selmar Leeuwenburgh, Theo J Visser, Sander Kersten, Edith Ch Friesema, Axel Pn Themmen, Jenny A Visser
Cold exposure of mice is a common method to stimulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) that has beneficial effects on whole body lipid metabolism, including reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The liver is a key regulatory organ in lipid metabolism as it can take up as well as oxidize fatty acids. The liver can also synthesize, store and secrete triglycerides (TGs) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. The effects of cold exposure on murine hepatic lipid metabolism have not been addressed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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