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Proteinase activated receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131007/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-sensitivity-of-amplified-trpa1-activity-in-skeletal-muscle-afferent-nerves-and-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#1
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limb ischemia occurs in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) that regulates blood flow directed to the ischemic limb is exaggerated during exercise in this disease, and transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in thin-fiber muscle afferents contributes to the amplified sympathetic response. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in regulating abnormal TRPA1 function and the TRPA1-mediated sympathetic component of the exercise pressor reflex...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108655/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-distribution-and-expression-in-equine-small-intestine-tracts-following-herniation-through-the-epiploic-foramen
#2
Noemi Romagnoli, Augusta Zannoni, Chiara Bernardini, Thomas Gobbetti, Cristiano Bombardi, Anna Maria Rambaldi, Maria Morini, Francesco Dondi, Riccardo Rinnovati, Carlotta Lambertini, Alessandro Spadari
Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for trypsin and mast cell tryptase; it is highly expressed at the intestinal level with multiple functions, such as epithelial permeability and intestinal motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 in the small intestine during herniation through epiploic foramen. In this prospective clinical study, eight horses admitted for colic and which underwent exploratory laparotomy were considered...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105468/-effect-of-manual-acupuncture-electroacupuncture-and-moxibustion-on-intestinal-motility-and-expression-of-enteric-nervous-activity-related-proteins-in-functional-constipation-rats
#3
Xin Zhang, Xuan-Ping Zhang, Yu-Zhu Du, Hai-Jiao Xing, Rui Jia, Li-Jia Pan, Jing Xu, Chun-Sheng Jia
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of manual acupuncture (MA), electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion interventions on intestinal motility and expression of enteric nervous activity related proteins calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV 1) and proteinase activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) in colon tissue of rats with functional constipation (FC), so as to select a better intervention method for FC. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control (n=8), model (n=11), medication (n=8), MA (n=11), EA (n=11), and moxibustion (n=11) groups...
October 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097110/role-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-converting-enzyme-tace-adam17-and-associated-proteins-in-coronary-artery-disease-and-cardiac-events
#4
REVIEW
Melody Chemaly, Victoria McGilligan, Mark Gibson, Matthias Clauss, Steven Watterson, H Denis Alexander, Anthony John Bjourson, Aaron Peace
Tumour necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) is a member of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of ectodomain shedding proteinases. It regulates many inflammatory processes by cleaving several transmembrane proteins, including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and its receptors tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor 2. There is evidence that TACE is involved in several inflammatory diseases, such as ischaemia, heart failure, arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer as well as neurological and immune diseases...
October 30, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990808/microrna-205-mediates-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-par2-promoted-cancer-cell-migration
#5
Xu Yang, Lan Yang, Yiming Ma, Xinhua Zhao, Hongying Wang
Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) promotes cell migration in cancers, but the exact mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here we report that activation of PAR2 reduced miR-205 expression, whereas inhibition of miR-205 promoted cell migration in cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-205 blocked PAR2-mediated stimulation of cell migration. BMPR1B was identified as a downstream target gene of miR-205. In colorectal carcinoma specimens from patients, the level of PAR2 was negatively correlated with that of miR-205, but it was positively associated with BMPR1B expression...
October 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957707/label-free-visualization-and-quantification-of-single-cell-signaling-activity-using-metal-clad-waveguide-mcwg-based-microscopy
#6
Thomas Söllradl, Frederic A Banville, Ulrike Fröhlich, Michael Canva, Paul G Charette, Michel Grandbois
Label-free biosensing methods are very effective for studying cell signaling cascade activation induced by external stimuli. Assays generally involve a large number of cells and rely on the underlying assumption that cell response is homogeneous within a cell population. However, there is an increasing body of evidence showing that cell behavior may vary significantly even among genetically identical cells. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of metal-clad waveguide (MCWG)-based microscopy for label-free real-time monitoring of signaling activity and morphology changes in a small population of cells, with the ability to resolve individual cells...
September 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940559/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-blockade-inhibits-changes-seen-in-a-chronic-murine-asthma-model
#7
M Asaduzzaman, C Davidson, D Nahirney, Y Fiteih, L Puttagunta, H Vliagoftis
BACKGROUND: Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 ) is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by serine proteinases. We have shown that PAR2 activation in the airways is involved in the development of allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in acute murine models. We hypothesized that functional inhibition of PAR2 prevents allergic inflammation, AHR and airway remodeling in chronic allergic airway inflammation models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed and used a 12 week model of cockroach extract (CE)-mediated AHR, airway inflammation and remodeling in BALB/c mice...
September 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931568/a-cross-talk-between-neuronal-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-astrocytic-upa-receptor-upar-promotes-astrocytic-activation-and-synaptic-recovery-in-the-ischemic-brain
#8
Ariel Diaz, Paola Merino, Luis Guillermo Manrique, Juan Pablo Ospina, Lihong Cheng, Fang Wu, Valerie Jeanneret, Manuel Yepes
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that, upon binding to its receptor (uPAR), catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin on the cell surface. Our previous studies indicate that uPA and uPAR expression increase in the ischemic brain during the recovery phase from an acute ischemic injury and that uPA binding to uPAR promotes neurological recovery after an acute ischemic stroke. Here, we used male mice genetically deficient on either uPA (uPA(-/-)) or uPAR (uPAR(-/-)) or with a four-amino acid substitution into the growth factor domain of uPA that abrogates its binding to uPAR (Plat(GFDhu/GFDhu)) to investigate the mechanism whereby uPA promotes neurorepair in the ischemic brain...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924232/infection-of-microglia-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-promotes-cell-migration-and-an-inflammatory-response-through-the-gingipain-mediated-activation-of-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-mice
#9
Yicong Liu, Zhou Wu, Yurika Nakanishi, Junjun Ni, Yoshinori Hayashi, Fumiko Takayama, Yanmin Zhou, Tomoko Kadawaki, Hiroshi Nakanishi
Despite a clear correlation between periodontitis and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, the precise mechanism underlying the relationship remains unclear. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis produces a unique class of cysteine proteinases termed gingipains that comprises Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp). Rgp and Kgp are important in the bacterial mediated host cell responses and the subsequent intracellular signaling in infected cells. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the potential effects of Rgp and Kgp on the cellular activation of brain-resident microglia...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911149/insulin-like-growth-factor-bioactivity-stanniocalcin-2-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-and-igf-binding-protein-4-in-pleural-fluid-and-serum-from-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ulrick Skipper Espelund, Mette Bjerre, Rikke Hjortebjerg, Torben Riis Rasmussen, Anders Lundby, Andreas Hoeflich, Birgitte Holst Folkersen, Claus Oxvig, Jan Frystyk
Context: Members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system are primarily produced in the liver and secreted into the circulation, but they are also produced, recruited, and activated locally in tissues. Objective: To compare activity and concentrations of IGF system components in pleural fluid and blood. Design: Pathological pleural fluid, secondary to lung cancer or nonmalignant disease, and matching blood samples were collected from 24 patients ages 66...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842394/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-activin-receptor-like-kinase-5-mediated-cell-migration-is-dependent-on-the-protein-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-but-not-on-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-stimulated-gq-calcium-signaling
#11
Hendrik Ungefroren, David Witte, Koichiro Mihara, Bernhard H Rauch, Petra Henklein, Olaf Jöhren, Shirin Bonni, Utz Settmacher, Hendrik Lehnert, Morley D Hollenberg, Roland Kaufmann, Frank Gieseler
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), serine proteinases such as trypsin, and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) promote tumor development by stimulating invasion and metastasis. Previously, we found that in cancer cells derived from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) PAR2 protein is necessary for TGF-β1-dependent cell motility. Here, we show in the same cells that, conversely, the type I TGF-β receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5 is dispensable for trypsin and PAR2 activating peptide (PAR2-AP)-induced migration...
November 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835277/prophylactic-inhibition-of-neutrophil-elastase-prevents-the-development-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-in-osteoarthritic-mice
#12
Milind M Muley, Eugene Krustev, Allison R Reid, Jason J McDougall
BACKGROUND: A subset of osteoarthritis (OA) patients experience joint pain with neuropathic characteristics. Mediators such as neutrophil elastase, a serine proteinase, may be released during acute OA inflammatory flares. We have previously shown that local administration of neutrophil elastase causes joint inflammation and pain via activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of endogenous neutrophil elastase and PAR2 to the development of joint inflammation, pain, and neuropathy associated with monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced experimental OA...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804736/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-its-receptor-upar-promote-neurorepair-in-the-ischemic-brain
#13
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Manuel Yepes
Despite the fact that ischemic stroke has been considered a leading cause of mortality in the world, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ischemic injury and the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients have led to a sharp decrease in the number of stroke deaths. However, this decrease in stroke mortality has also led to an increase in the number of patients that survive the acute ischemic injury with different degrees of disability. Unfortunately, to this date we do not have an effective therapeutic strategy to promote neurological recovery in these growing population of stroke survivors...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771827/glucocorticoids-the-mode-of-action-in-bullous-pemphigoid
#14
REVIEW
Minna E Kubin, Lars Hellberg, Riitta Palatsi
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common of pemphigoid diseases caused by autoantibodies against the structures of dermoepidermal junction followed by complement activation, innate immune cell infiltration, neutrophil proteinase secretion and subepidermal blister formation. The first line treatment of BP is topical and systemic glucocorticoids (GC). Regulation of the immune system and inflammatory cells is the main target of GC actions. GCs act through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates most of the biologic effects of glucocorticoids: cytosolic GR binds GCs and is capable to bind to glucocorticoid response elements in DNA and either transactivate or transrepress genes depending on the tissue and cell-type...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769800/cathepsin-s-is-involved-in-th17-differentiation-through-the-upregulation-of-il-6-by-activating-par-2-after-systemic-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#15
Masato Dekita, Zhou Wu, Junjun Ni, Xinwen Zhang, Yicong Liu, Xu Yan, Hiroshi Nakanishi, Ichiro Takahashi
Positive links have been found between periodontitis and numerous diseases in humans via persistent inflammation throughout the body. However, the main factors responsible for maintaining this pro-inflammatory condition are poorly understood. The spleen, the largest secondary immune organ, is a central hub regulating the immune response/inflammation due to the dendritic cell (DC) response to CD4(+) T cell subtype differentiation, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S (CatS) is known to be involved in DC functions...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754162/sensitization-of-asic3-by-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-signaling-contributes-to-acidosis-induced-nociception
#16
Jing Wu, Ting-Ting Liu, Yi-Mei Zhou, Chun-Yu Qiu, Ping Ren, Ming Jiao, Wang-Ping Hu
BACKGROUND: Tissue acidosis and inflammatory mediators play critical roles in pain. Pro-inflammatory agents trypsin and tryptase cleave and activate proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) expressed on sensory nerves, which is involved in peripheral mechanisms of inflammation and pain. Extracellular acidosis activates acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) to trigger pain sensation. Here, we show that a functional interaction of PAR2 and ASIC3 could contribute to acidosis-induced nociception...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733353/use-of-proteomics-to-investigate-kidney-function-decline-over-5-years
#17
Axel C Carlsson, Erik Ingelsson, Johan Sundström, Juan Jesus Carrero, Stefan Gustafsson, Tobias Feldreich, Markus Stenemo, Anders Larsson, Lars Lind, Johan Ärnlöv
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Using a discovery/replication approach, we investigated associations between a multiplex panel of 80 circulating proteins associated with cardiovascular pathology or inflammation, and eGFR decline per year and CKD incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used two cohorts, the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (PIVUS; n=687, mean age of 70 years, 51% women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n=360 men, mean age of 78 years), with 5-year follow-up data on eGFR...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691579/lipoxin-a4-suppresses-estrogen-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-alxr-dependent-manner-in-endometriosis
#18
Rong-Feng Wu, Zhi-Xiong Huang, Jing Ran, Song-Juan Dai, Dian-Chao Lin, Tai-Wei Ng, Qing-Xi Chen, Qiong-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for embryogenesis, fibrosis, and tumor metastasis. Aberrant EMT phenomenon has been reported in endometriotic tissues of patients with endometriosis (EM). In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of which lipoxin A4 (LXA4) suppresses estrogen (E2)-induced EMT in EM. STUDY DESIGN: The EMT markers were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot in eutopic endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) or investigated by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR in endometriotic lesion of EM mice...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687195/%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-elicits-itch-related-responses-in-mice-through-the-direct-activation-of-primary-afferent-neurons-expressing-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#19
Tsugunobu Andoh, Takahito Maki, Sikai Li, Daisuke Uta
Uremic pruritus is an unpleasant symptom in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. β2-Microglobulin (β2-MG) is well-known as an MHC class I molecule and its level is increased in the plasma of patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this study, we investigated whether β2-MG was a pruritogen in mice. Intradermal injections of β2-MG into the rostral back induced scratching in a dose-dependent manner. Intradermal injection of β2-MG into the cheek also elicited scratching, but not wiping...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662718/thrombin-induced-tnfr-dependent-mir-181c-downregulation-promotes-mll1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-target-gene-expression-in-human-microglia
#20
Min Yin, Zhiying Chen, Yetong Ouyang, Huiyan Zhang, Zhigang Wan, Han Wang, Wei Wu, Xiaoping Yin
BACKGROUND: Controlling thrombin-driven microglial activation may serve as a therapeutic target for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, we investigated microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of thrombin-driven microglial activation using an in vitro thrombin toxicity model applied to primary human microglia. METHODS: A miRNA array identified 22 differential miRNA candidates. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) identified miR-181c as the most significantly downregulated miRNA...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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