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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046050/immunofluorescent-characterization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-mesenteric-lymph-node
#1
Zhongli Shi, Wayne K Greene, Philip K Nicholls, Dailun Hu, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Qionglan Yuan, Changfu Yin, Bin Ma
The central nervous system (CNS) influences the immune system in a general fashion by regulating the systemic concentration of humoral substances, whereas the autonomic nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system according to local interactions. Data concerning the mechanisms of this bidirectional crosstalk of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and immune system remain limited. To gain a better understanding of local interactions of the PNS and immune system, we have used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), coupled with confocal microscopy, to investigate the non-myelinating Schwann cell (NMSC)-immune cell interactions in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045873/nanoscale-membrane-budding-induced-by-ctxb-and-detected-via-polarized-localization-microscopy
#2
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
For endocytosis and exocytosis, membranes transition among planar, budding, and vesicular topographies through nanoscale reorganization of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. However, prior attempts to understand the initial stages of nanoscale bending have been limited by experimental resolution. Through the implementation of polarized localization microscopy, this article reports the inherent membrane bending capability of cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) in quasi-one-component-supported lipid bilayers. Membrane buds were first detected with <50 nm radius, grew to >200 nm radius, and extended into longer tubules with dependence on the membrane tension and CTxB concentration...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045826/a-cell-migration-tracking-tool-supports-coupling-of-tissue-rotation-to-elongation
#3
Dong-Yuan Chen, Justin Crest, David Bilder
Cell migration is indispensable to morphogenesis and homeostasis. Live imaging allows mechanistic insights, but long-term observation can alter normal biology, and tools to track movements in vivo without perturbation are lacking. We develop here a tool called M-TRAIL (matrix-labeling technique for real-time and inferred location), which reveals migration histories in fixed tissues. Using clones that overexpress GFP-tagged extracellular matrix (ECM) components, motility trajectories are mapped based on durable traces deposited onto basement membrane...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045816/assessment-of-bacterial-membrane-fluidity-by-flow-cytometry
#4
Marielle Bouix, Sarrah Ghorbal
It can be interesting to evaluate the cytoplasmic membrane fluidity of bacteria in order to understand the impacts of stresses during processing. Traditionally, membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence anisotropy measured by spectrofluorimetry, but this method does not make it possible to reveal the heterogeneity of bacterial populations. Flow cytometry, as opposed to spectrofluorimetry, has the ability to simultaneously detect different sub-populations. We developed a new method to measure the fluorescence anisotropy of bacterial membranes using flow cytometry...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045795/tbhp-tbai-mediated-oxidative-cascade-reaction-consisting-of-dimerization-cyclization-and-1-2-aryl-migration-metal-free-synthesis-of-pyrrolin-4-ones-and-highly-substituted-pyrroles
#5
Xiaoyuan Zhao, Yong Zhang, Jun Deng, Daisy Zhang-Negrerie, Yunfei Du
Treatment of enamino esters with TBHP (t-butylhydroperoxide) and TBAI (t-butylammonium iodide) in HFIP (hexafluoroisopropanol) was found to afford a variety of substituted pyrrolin-4-one compounds. This metal-free oxidative cascade reaction consists of key steps of coupling of two radical intermediates, intramolecular ring closure, and an exclusive 1,2-aryl radical migration. Upon treatment with base, the obtained pyrrolin-4-ones could be converted to the highly substituted pyrrole compounds.
October 18, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045788/the-importance-of-surface-irox-in-stabilizing-ruo2-for-oxygen-evolution
#6
Maria Escudero-Escribano, Anders F Pedersen, Elisa A Paoli, Rasmus Frydendal, Daniel Friebel, Paolo Malacrida, Jan Rossmeisl, Ifan E L Stephens, Ib Chorkendorff
The high precious metal loading and high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) prevents the widespread utilization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers. Herein we explore the OER activity and stability in acidic electrolyte of a combined IrOx/RuO2 system consisting of RuO2 thin films with sub-monolayer (1, 2 and 4 Å) amounts of IrOx deposited on top. Operando extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on the Ir L-3 edge revealed a rutile type IrO2 structure with some Ir sites occupied by Ru, IrOx being at the surface of the RuO2 thin film...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045717/interaction-between-calcium-and-potassium-modulates-elongation-rate-in-cotton-fiber-cells
#7
Kai Guo, Lili Tu, Yonghui He, Jinwu Deng, Maojun Wang, Hui Huang, Zhonghua Li, Xianlong Zhang, Miriam Gifford
Calcium (Ca2+) is necessary for fiber cell development in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), both as a cell wall structural component and for environmental signaling responses. It is also known that potassium (K+) plays a critical role in cotton fiber cell elongation. However, it is unclear whether Ca2+ integrates its activities with K+ to regulate fiber elongation. Here, we report the novel discovery that Ca2+ deficiency, when integrated with K+ signaling, promotes fiber elongation. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we determined dynamic profiles of the ionome in ovules and fibers at different developmental stages, and found that a high accumulation of macro-elements, but not Ca2+, was associated with longer fibers...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045568/loss-of-protein-kinase-novel-1-pkn1-is-associated-with-mild-systolic-and-diastolic-contractile-dysfunction-increased-phospholamban-thr17-phosphorylation-and-exacerbated-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Asvi A Francois, Kofo Obasanjo-Blackshire, James E Clark, Andrii Boguslavskyi, Mark R Holt, Peter Parker, Michael S Marber, Richard J Heads
Aims: PKN1 is a stress-responsive protein kinase acting downstream of small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Rac family. The aim was to determine its role in endogenous cardioprotection. Methods and Results: Hearts from PKN1 knockout (KO) or wild type (WT) littermate control mice were perfused in Langendorff mode and subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Myocardial infarct size was doubled in PKN1 KO hearts compared to WT hearts. PKN1 was basally phosphorylated on the activation loop Thr778 PDK1 target site which was unchanged during I/R...
October 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045477/tubastatin-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-targeting-the-tgf%C3%AE-pi3k-akt-pathway
#9
Shigeki Saito, Yan Zhuang, Bin Shan, Svitlana Danchuk, Fayong Luo, Martina Korfei, Andreas Guenther, Joseph A Lasky
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and fatal disease. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) alters function and fate of various proteins via deacetylation of lysine residues, and is implicated in TGF-β1-induced EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition). However, the role of HDAC6 in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. METHODS: HDAC6 expression in IPF and control lungs was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblots. Lung fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β1 ± HDAC6 inhibitors (Tubacin, Tubastatin, ACY1215, or MC1568), and fibrotic markers such as type I collagen were assessed using qRT-PCR and immunoblots...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045457/dietary-vitamin-d3-deficiency-exacerbates-sinonasal-inflammation-and-alters-local-25-oh-d3-metabolism
#10
Jennifer K Mulligan, Whitney N Pasquini, William W Carroll, Tucker Williamson, Nicholas Reaves, Kunal J Patel, Elliott Mappus, Rodney J Schlosser, Carl Atkinson
RATIONALE: Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) have been shown to be vitamin D3 (VD3) deficient, which is associated with more severe disease and increased polyp size. To gain mechanistic insights into these observational studies, we examined the impact of VD3 deficiency on inflammation and VD3 metabolism in an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis (Af-CRS). METHODS: Balb/c mice were fed control or VD3 deficient diet for 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045395/single-molecule-imaging-reveals-receptor-g-protein-interactions-at-cell-surface-hot-spots
#11
Titiwat Sungkaworn, Marie-Lise Jobin, Krzysztof Burnecki, Aleksander Weron, Martin J Lohse, Davide Calebiro
G-protein-coupled receptors mediate the biological effects of many hormones and neurotransmitters and are important pharmacological targets. They transmit their signals to the cell interior by interacting with G proteins. However, it is unclear how receptors and G proteins meet, interact and couple. Here we analyse the concerted motion of G-protein-coupled receptors and G proteins on the plasma membrane and provide a quantitative model that reveals the key factors that underlie the high spatiotemporal complexity of their interactions...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045379/discovery-of-new-gpcr-ligands-to-illuminate-new-biology
#12
Bryan L Roth, John J Irwin, Brian K Shoichet
Although a plurality of drugs target G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), most have emerged from classical medicinal chemistry and pharmacology programs and resemble one another structurally and functionally. Though effective, these drugs are often promiscuous. With the realization that GPCRs signal via multiple pathways, and with the emergence of crystal structures for this family of proteins, there is an opportunity to target GPCRs with new chemotypes and confer new signaling modalities. We consider structure-based and physical screening methods that have led to the discovery of new reagents, focusing particularly on the former...
November 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045336/bile-acid-receptors-and-the-kidney
#13
Michal Herman-Edelstein, Talia Weinstein, Moshe Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bile acids act as activating signals of endogenous renal receptors: the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also known as TGR5). In recent years, bile acids have emerged as important for renal pathophysiology by activating FXR and TGR5 and transcription factors relevant for lipid, cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as genes involved in inflammation and renal fibrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Activation of bile acid receptors has a promising therapeutic potential in prevention of diabetic nephropathy and obesity-induced renal damage, as well as in nephrosclerosis...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045291/devices-for-autonomic-regulation-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#14
Benjamin R Wagner, William H Frishman
Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as an increasing economic burden. The persistence of heart failure's risk factors, coupled with an aging population, also leads to an increase in its incidence and prevalence. It is well established that sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic withdrawal are instrumental in the development and worsening of heart failure. Therefore, restoring autonomic balance to the cardiovascular system is an attractive therapeutic approach...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045150/three-dimensional-diabatic-potential-energy-surfaces-for-the-photodissociation-of-thiophenol
#15
Guang-Shuang-Mu Lin, Changjian Xie, Daiqian Xie
New reduced three-dimensional (3D) diabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) involving the ππ, ππ*, and πσ* states for the nonadiabatic photodissociation C6H5SH(S0) + hv → C6H5SH(1ππ*/1πσ*) → H + C6H5S∙(A/X) were constructed at a high computational level, namely explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) method with the cc-pVTZ-F12 basis. The diabatization of the PESs was achieved by a simple, efficient, and reliable "regularized diabatization" method [Köppel, H...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045145/davydov-splitting-and-self-organization-in-a-porphyrin-layer-noncovalently-attached-to-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes
#16
Géraud Delport, Fabien Vialla, Cyrielle Roquelet, Stéphane Campidelli, Christophe Voisin, Jean-Sébastien Lauret
We study the ability of porphyrin molecules to cooperate upon adsorption on the sp(2)curved surface of carbon nanotube. We discuss the role of the phenyl substituents in the cooperativity of the functionalization reaction. Moreover, a specific spatial organization of the molecules around the nanotube is unveiled through polarization sensitive experiments. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the energy splitting of the porphyrin main transition upon the adsorption on the nanotube. This effect, interpreted as a Davydov splitting, is analyzed quantitatively using a dipole-dipole coupling model...
October 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045124/the-effect-of-the-hydrofluoroether-cosolvent-structure-in-acetonitrile-based-solvate-electrolytes-on-li-solvation-structure-and-li%C3%A2-s-battery-performance
#17
Minjeong Shin, Heng-Liang Wu, Badri Narayanan, Kimberly A See, Rajeev S Assary, Lingyang Zhu, Richard T Haasch, Shuo Zhang, Zhengcheng Zhang, Larry A Curtiss, Andrew A Gewirth
We evaluate hydrofluoroether (HFE) cosolvents with varying degrees of fluorination in the acetonitrile-based solvate elec-trolyte to determine the effect of HFE structure on the electrochemical performance of the Li-S battery. Solvates or spar-ingly solvating electrolytes are an interesting electrolyte choice for Li-S battery due to their low polysulfide solubility. The solvate electrolyte with stoichiometric ratio of LiTFSI salt in acetonitrile, (MeCN)2-LiTFSI, exhibits limited polysulfide sol-ubility due to the high concentration of LiTFSI...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045066/fatality-involving-ocfentanil-documented-by-identification-of-metabolites
#18
Nathalie Allibe, Camille Richeval, Mélodie Phanithavong, Amandine Faure, Delphine Allorge, François Paysant, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Hélène Eysseric-Guerin, Jean-Michel Gaulier
New psychoactive substances (NPS) use has rapidly increased over the last decade, and in the last 4 years producers increasingly appear to be targeting non-controlled synthetic opioids, involving fentanyl derivatives such as ocfentanil (OcF). Identification of metabolites is of major importance in the context of NPS use as it could improve detection window in biological matrices in clinical and forensic intoxication cases. Hence, this work aims to report a fatality involving OcF documented by the identification of metabolites...
October 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045065/direct-coupling-of-thermo-and-photo-catalytic-conversion-of-co%C3%A2-h%C3%A2-o-to-fuels
#19
Li Zhang, Guoguo Kong, Yaping Meng, Jinshu Tian, Lijie Zhang, Shaolong Wan, Jingdong Lin, Yong Wang
Photocatalytic CO₂ reduction into renewable hydrocarbon solar fuels is considered as a promising strategy to simultaneously address the global energy and environmental issues. This article focuses on the direct coupling of photocatalytic water splitting and thermo-catalytic hydrogenation of CO₂ in the conversion of CO₂-H₂O to fuels. Specifically, it was found that direct coupling of thermo- and photo-catalysis over Au-Ru/TiO₂ leads to 15 times higher activity (358 K, with ~99% CH₄ selectivity) in the conversion of CO₂-H₂O to fuels than that of photo-catalytic water splitting...
October 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045043/non-oxidative-coupling-of-methane-to-ethylene-using-mo2c-b-zsm-5
#20
Huibo F Sheng, Raul Francisco Lobo
Methane non-oxidative coupling to ethylene was investigated on Mo2C/[B]ZSM-5 catalyst at 923 K and atmospheric pressure. In contrast to Mo2C/[Al]ZSM-5 catalysts for methane aromatization, this material exhibits very high ethylene selectivity (>90%) and low aromatics (benzene and naphthalene) selectivity. The much weaker Brønsted acidity of [B]ZSM-5 leads to a slow rate of ethylene oligomerization. The stability of the catalyst is greatly enhanced with 93% of the initial reaction rate remaining after 18 h of time on stream...
October 16, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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