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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669133/uncovering-susceptibility-risk-to-online-deception-in-aging
#1
Natalie C Ebner, Donovan M Ellis, Tian Lin, Harold A Rocha, Huizi Yang, Sandeep Dommaraju, Adam Soliman, Damon L Woodard, Gary R Turner, R Nathan Spreng, Daniela S Oliveira
Objectives: Fraud in the aged is an emerging public health problem. An increasingly common form of deception is conducted online. However, identification of cognitive and socioemotional risk factors has not been undertaken yet. In this endeavor, this study extended previous work suggesting age effects on susceptibility to online deception. Methods: Susceptibility was operationalized as clicking on the link in simulated spear-phishing emails that young (18-37 years), young-old (62-74 years), and middle-old (75-89 years) Internet users received, without knowing that the emails were part of the study...
April 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597102/communication-compassion-and-computers-adolescents-and-adults-evaluations-of-online-and-face-to-face-deception
#2
Sean O'Rourke, Michelle Eskritt, Sandra Bosacki
We explored Canadian adolescents', emergent adults', and adults' understandings of deception in computer mediated communication (CMC) compared to face to face (FtF). Participants between 13 and 50 years read vignettes of different types of questionable behaviour that occurred online or in real life, and were asked to judge whether deception was involved, and the acceptability of the behaviour. Age groups evaluated deception similarly; however, adolescents held slightly different views from adults about what constitutes deception, suggesting that the understanding of deception continues to develop into adulthood...
June 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345487/on-the-general-acceptance-of-confessions-research-opinions-of-the-scientific-community
#3
Saul M Kassin, Allison D Redlich, Fabiana Alceste, Timothy J Luke
Eighty-seven experts on the psychology of confessions-many of whom were highly published, many with courtroom experience-were surveyed online about their opinions on 30 propositions of relevance to deception detection, police interrogations, confessions, and relevant general principles of psychology. As indicated by an agreement rate of at least 80%, there was a strong consensus that several findings are sufficiently reliable to present in court. This list includes but is not limited to the proposition that the risk of false confessions is increased not only by explicit threats and promises but by 2 common interrogation tactics-namely, the false evidence ploy and minimization tactics that imply leniency by offering sympathy and moral justification...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047152/false-gold-safely-navigating-open-access-publishing-to-avoid-predatory-publishers-and-journals
#4
Terence V McCann, Meg Polacsek
AIM: The aim of this study was to review and discuss predatory open access publishing in the context of nursing and midwifery and develop a set of guidelines that serve as a framework to help clinicians, educators and researchers avoid predatory publishers. BACKGROUND: Open access publishing is increasingly common across all academic disciplines. However, this publishing model is vulnerable to exploitation by predatory publishers, posing a threat to nursing and midwifery scholarship and practice...
April 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301969/the-internet-s-effect-on-personality-traits-an-important-casualty-of-the-internet-addiction-paradigm
#5
Elias Aboujaoude
Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059569/-playing-hooky-health-messages-apprehension-impression-management-and-deception
#6
Ashley Barrett, Melissa Murphy, Kate Blackburn
This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not...
March 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863847/parental-attitudes-about-placebo-use-in-children
#7
Vanda Faria, Joe Kossowsky, Mike P Petkov, Ted J Kaptchuk, Irving Kirsch, Alyssa Lebel, David Borsook
OBJECTIVE: To assess parental attitudes regarding placebo use in pediatric randomized controlled trials and clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: Parents with children under age 18 years living in the US completed and submitted an online survey between September and November 2014. RESULTS: Among all 1300 participants, 1000 (76.9%; 538 mothers and 462 fathers) met the study inclusion criteria. The majority of surveyed parents considered the use of placebos acceptable in some pediatric care situations (86%) and some pediatric trials (91...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818322/an-overview-of-herb-and-dietary-supplement-efficacy-safety-and-government-regulations-in-the-united-states-with-suggested-improvements-part-1-of-5-series
#8
REVIEW
Amy Christine Brown
This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%)...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648986/interactions-with-robots-the-truths-we-reveal-about-ourselves
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth Broadbent
In movies, robots are often extremely humanlike. Although these robots are not yet reality, robots are currently being used in healthcare, education, and business. Robots provide benefits such as relieving loneliness and enabling communication. Engineers are trying to build robots that look and behave like humans and thus need comprehensive knowledge not only of technology but also of human cognition, emotion, and behavior. This need is driving engineers to study human behavior toward other humans and toward robots, leading to greater understanding of how humans think, feel, and behave in these contexts, including our tendencies for mindless social behaviors, anthropomorphism, uncanny feelings toward robots, and the formation of emotional attachments...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635441/deception-detection-the-relationship-of-levels-of-trust-and-perspective-taking-in-real-time-online-and-offline-communication-environments
#10
Catherine Friend, Nicola Fox Hamilton
Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline...
September 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383472/-to-bluff-like-a-man-or-fold-like-a-girl-gender-biased-deceptive-behavior-in-online-poker
#11
Jussi Palomäki, Jeff Yan, David Modic, Michael Laakasuo
Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313549/when-lying-feels-the-right-thing-to-do
#12
Sophie Van Der Zee, Ross Anderson, Ronald Poppe
Fraud is a pervasive and challenging problem that costs society large amounts of money. By no means all fraud is committed by 'professional criminals': much is done by ordinary people who indulge in small-scale opportunistic deception. In this paper, we set out to investigate when people behave dishonestly, for example by committing fraud, in an online context. We conducted three studies to investigate how the rejection of one's efforts, operationalized in different ways, affected the amount of cheating and information falsification...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246116/effects-of-disfluency-in-online-interpretation-of-deception
#13
Jia E Loy, Hannah Rohde, Martin Corley
A speaker's manner of delivery of an utterance can affect a listener's pragmatic interpretation of the message. Disfluencies (such as filled pauses) influence a listener's off-line assessment of whether the speaker is truthful or deceptive. Do listeners also form this assessment during the moment-by-moment processing of the linguistic message? Here we present two experiments that examined listeners' judgments of whether a speaker was indicating the true location of the prize in a game during fluent and disfluent utterances...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26682239/lay-attitudes-toward-deception-in-medicine-theoretical-considerations-and-empirical-evidence
#14
Jonathan Pugh, Guy Kahane, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods : A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon "Mechanical Turk" website...
January 2, 2016: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26632194/validation-of-the-ten-item-internet-gaming-disorder-test-igdt-10-and-evaluation-of-the-nine-dsm-5-internet-gaming-disorder-criteria
#15
Orsolya Király, Pawel Sleczka, Halley M Pontes, Róbert Urbán, Mark D Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the DSM-5 (Section 3) has given rise to much scholarly debate regarding the proposed criteria and their operationalization. The present study's aim was threefold: to (i) develop and validate a brief psychometric instrument (Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test; IGDT-10) to assess IGD using definitions suggested in DSM-5, (ii) contribute to ongoing debate regards the usefulness and validity of each of the nine IGD criteria (using Item Response Theory [IRT]), and (iii) investigate the cut-off threshold suggested in the DSM-5...
January 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610165/trait-predictors-of-placebo-responses-in-itch
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Margot Darragh, Roger J Booth, Nathan S Consedine
This study investigated trait predictors of placebo responses in the context of inflammatory skin reactions. This was a randomized, cross-over, experimental study using a deceptive placebo protocol. A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) completed online personality measures, then attended two laboratory sessions in which short-term inflammatory skin reactions were induced. One was a control session and the other the 'treatment' session in which a placebo cream was administered with the suggestion of a reduced skin reaction...
2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349445/reducing-cyberbullying-a-theory-of-reasoned-action-based-video-prevention-program-for-college-students
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ashley N Doane, Michelle L Kelley, Matthew R Pearson
Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group...
March 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26247702/table-for-two-the-effects-of-familiarity-sex-and-gender-on-food-choice-in-imaginary-dining-scenarios
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amanda Dibb-Smith, Emily Brindal
INTRODUCTION: Existing research suggests that eating behaviours may be used to modify self-presentation and that process may be different for women compared to men. We aimed to assess how people make different food choices in situations of varying self-presentation demand. METHOD: Via an online survey, eligible participants (n = 216; 64% female: not on a restrictive diet or severely obese/underweight) were allocated to one of four experimental conditions manipulating the familiarity (close friend v acquaintance) and sex of an eating companion (same v opposite sex)...
December 2015: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26075918/-a-match-made-online-the-effects-of-user-generated-online-dater-profile-types-free-spirited-versus-uptight-on-other-users-perception-of-trustworthiness-interpersonal-attraction-and-personality
#19
Seunga Venus Jin, Cassie Martin
This study tested the effects of an online dater's profile type (open/free-spirited vs. traditional/uptight) on people's perception of the dater's trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion). Interpersonal deception theory, theories of attraction, and source credibility model inform this research, providing a theoretical foundation for the proposed research questions and hypothesis. This research employed a simple two-group comparison experiment (open/free-spirited dater profile vs...
June 2015: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25415375/self-reported-gambling-problems-and-digital-traces
#20
James G Phillips, James Sargeant, Rowan P Ogeil, Yang-Wai Chow, Alex Blaszczynski
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), lists concealment as one of the symptoms of a gambling disorder. However, some transactions are more likely to leave permanent records of gambling transactions (credit, consumer loyalty schemes) than others (cash, Internet cash, Internet cafes, prepaid phones). An online survey of 815 participants recruited through newspaper and online sites elicited consumer preferences for a variety of transactions and communication media. Hierarchical multiple regression accounted for age, gender, housing status, and involvement in gambling before considering relationships between consumer preferences and scores on the Problem Gambling Severity Index...
December 2014: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
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