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Turgut E Aktepe, Jason M Mackenzie
Flavivirus replication is intimately involved with remodelled membrane organelles that are compartmentalised for different functions during their life cycle. Recent advances in lipid analyses and gene depletion have identified a number of host components that enable efficient virus replication in infected cells. Here we describe the current understanding on the role and contribution of host lipids and membrane bending proteins to flavivirus replication, with a particular focus on the components that bend and shape the membrane bilayer to induce the flavivirus-induced organelles characteristic of infection...
June 22, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Valeria Filippou, Charalampos Tsoumpas
PURPOSE: Printing technology, capable of producing three-dimensional (3D) objects, has evolved in recent years and provides potential for developing reproducible and sophisticated physical phantoms. 3D printing technology can help rapidly develop relatively low cost phantoms with appropriate complexities, which are useful in imaging or dosimetry measurements. The need for more realistic phantoms is emerging since imaging systems are now capable of acquiring multimodal and multiparametric data...
June 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Waldemar Schreiner, Sofiia Gavrychenkova, Wojciech Dudek, Sebastian Lettmaier, Ralf Rieker, Rainer Fietkau, Horia Sirbu
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of so called "salvage" resections after definitive chemoradiation vs. curative resections after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (IT-resection) in patients with stage IIIA/B locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer have rarely been compared. The aim of our study was to compare perioperative results, postoperative and recurrence-free survival and to identify relevant prognostic survival factors for both therapy strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 2008 and May 2017, 43 patients underwent pulmonary resection following induction therapy (group 1) and 14 patients underwent salvage resection after definitive chemoradiation (group 2)...
June 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Sally P Weaver
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Having a research curriculum in addition to hosting a resident research day stimulates research activity in residency programs. Research collaborations outside an individual residency program may also promote research in residency. This paper describes a community-wide health research forum that engages faculty and residents in research while bringing together potential research collaborators from the community. METHODS: A yearly research forum has been held at a large community-based family medicine residency program for the past 10 years...
June 2018: Family Medicine
Everardo D Saad, John R Zalcberg, Julien Péron, Elisabeth Coart, Tomasz Burzykowski, Marc Buyse
Time-to-event end points are the most frequent primary end points in phase III oncology trials, both in the adjuvant and advanced settings. The evaluation of these end points is important to inform clinical practice. However, although different measures can be used to describe the effect of treatment on these end points, we believe that any treatment benefit in a given trial is best reported using various absolute and relative measures. Our goal is to help clinicians understand the strengths and limitations of the traditional and novel measures used to denote the effect of treatment in randomized trials...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Silvana Bastos Cogo, Valéria Lerch Lunardi, Alberto Manuel Quintana, Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon-Perlini, Rosemary Silva da Silveira
To know the advantages related to the applicability of the advance directives of will in the hospital context from the perspective of nurses, doctors and family members. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study with semi structured interviews carried out from October to November 2014, with nurses, doctors and family members of patients in the final stage. Afterwards, a discursive textual analysis was carried out. Four categories emerged: respect for patient's autonomy; support in confrontation of conflicts with and from family members; reduction of conflicts in the team about treatments and conducts; disclosure and instrumentation for application of the Advance Directives of Will...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Keizo Kohno, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Akira Harashima, Toshio Ariyasu, Shimpei Ushio
NK-4 is the main component of the antiallergic drug Lumin, which has been in popular usage since the early 1950s. In this study, we examined whether NK-4 exerts a regulatory effect on the activation and effector function of Th2 cells. NK-4 inhibited IL-4 production by anti-CD3ε mAb-stimulated BALB/c mouse spleen cells, whereas NK-4 had little effect on IFN-γ production. IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by anti-CD3ε mAb- or antigen-stimulated Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) was abrogated by NK-4 without affecting cell numbers, whereas IFN-γ secretion by activated Th1 cells was unchanged...
2018: PloS One
Eric C Leuthardt, Gloria Guzman, S Kathleen Bandt, Carl Hacker, Ananth K Vellimana, David Limbrick, Mikhail Milchenko, Pamela Lamontagne, Benjamin Speidel, Jarod Roland, Michelle Miller-Thomas, Abraham Z Snyder, Daniel Marcus, Joshua Shimony, Tammie L S Benzinger
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool for pre-surgical evaluation of eloquent cortex. Classic task-based paradigms require patient participation and individual imaging sequence acquisitions for each functional domain that is being assessed. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), however, enables functional localization without patient participation and can evaluate numerous functional domains with a single imaging session. To date, post-processing of this resting state data has been resource intensive, which limits its widespread application for routine clinical use...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth A Gazza, Teresa Shellenbarger, Diane F Hunker
AIM: This study explored master of science in nursing students' self-assessed use of the evidence-based knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) of scholarly writing. BACKGROUND: Understanding MSN students' self-assessed use of the KSAs of writing can help faculty better prepare MSN graduates to advance the science of nursing through scholarly writing. METHOD: A descriptive correlational design was used to determine how a national sample of 76 MSN students assessed their ability to demonstrate the KSAs of scholarly writing and to determine associations between select demographic variables and the self-assessment results...
June 21, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Linda Moody, Cynthia Teel, Jill Peltzer
AIM: This project developed a comprehensive set of bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) completion messaging materials that associate degree in nursing (ADN) faculty can use to advise and encourage students to complete the BSN. BACKGROUND: The Future of Nursing report calls for increasing the proportion of baccalaureate-prepared nurses to 80 percent by 2020. Faculty who teach in ADN programs have opportunities to advise students in advancing their nursing education yet often lack information to guide these conversations...
June 21, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Valerie A Yeager, Janna M Wisniewski, Theresa Chapple-McGruder, Brian Castrucci, Elizabeth Gould
CONTEXT: Ensuring adequate and appropriate training of the workforce is a crucial priority for governmental public health. This is particularly important, given the diverse backgrounds of the public health workforce; the vast majority (approximately 83%) do not have formal training in public health, and those that do have formal training in public health have limited training in management and other essential organizational skills. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to identify training needs among public health workers in specific job types and settings...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Liqiu Zhang, Hee-Jeong Jang, Sung Jae Yoo, Sanghyun Cho, Ji Hye Won, Lichun Liu, Sungho Park
Site-selective synthesis of nanostructures is an important topic in the nanoscience community. Normally, the difference between seeds and deposition atoms in terms of crystallinity triggers the deposition atoms to grow initially at the specific site of nucleation. It is more challenging to control the deposition site of atoms that have the same composition as the seeds because the atoms tend to grow epitaxially, covering the whole surface of the seed nanoparticles. Gold (Au) nano-octahedrons used as seeds in this study possess obvious hierarchical surface energies depending on whether they are at vertices, edges, or terraces...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Mohammad M Hassan, Christopher M Carr
The effluent discharged by the textile dyehouses has a seriously detrimental effect on the aquatic environment. Some dyestuffs produce toxic decomposition products and the metal complex dyes release toxic heavy metals to watercourses. Of the dyes used in the textile industry, effluents containing reactive dyes are the most difficult to treat because of their high water-solubility and poor absorption into the fibers. A range of treatments has been investigated for the decolorization of textile effluent and the adsorption seems to be one of the cheapest, effective and convenient treatments...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Paola Perrotta, Besa Emini Veseli, Bieke Van der Veken, Lynn Roth, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease that affects large and medium-sized arteries. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications remain a leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world. There is a considerable difference in safety profile between a stable and a vulnerable, rupture-prone lesion. The need for plaque-stabilizing therapies is high, and for a long time the lack of a suitable animal model mimicking advanced human atherosclerotic plaques made it very difficult to make progress in this area...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Vina P Nguyen, Heather Landau, Karen Quillen, Dina Brauneis, Anthony C Shelton, Lisa Mendelson, Hafsa Rahman, J Mark Sloan, Shayna Sarosiek, Vaishali Sanchorawala
High dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) has been used in patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis for over two decades now with durable responses, prolonged survival, and decreasing treatment related mortality. Historically patients with poorer baseline functional status, advanced age, renal compromise and cardiac involvement have been treated with a risk-adapted modified conditioning dose of melphalan (mHDM) of 100-140 mg/m2 prior to SCT. Due in part to these baseline characteristics, patients receiving mHDM/SCT have had poorer outcomes compared to patients receiving full dose of melphalan at 200 mg/m2 ...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Kenichi Suda, Jihye Kim, Isao Murakami, Leslie Rozeboom, Masaki Shimoji, Shigeki Shimizu, Christopher J Rivard, Tetsuya Mitsudomi, Aik-Choon Tan, Fred R Hirsch
INTRODUCTION: Data regarding the pre-treatment inter-tumor heterogeneity of potential biomarkers in advanced-stage lung cancers is limited. A finding of such heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesions would prove valuable to determine if a metastatic lesion can be a surrogate for the primary tumor, as more biomarkers will likely be used in the future to inform treatment decisions. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing to analyze inter-tumor heterogeneity in thirty specimens (primary tumors, intra-thoracic, and extra-thoracic metastatic lesions) obtained from five treatment-naïve lung cancer patients...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Annette Pisanski, Silvia Pagliardini
Breathing at rest is typically characterized by three phases: active inspiration, post-inspiration (or stage 1 expiration), and passive expiration (or stage 2 expiration). Breathing during periods of increased respiratory demand, on the other hand, engages active expiration through recruitment of abdominal muscles in order to increase ventilation. It is currently hypothesized that different phases of the respiratory rhythm are driven by three coupled oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex, driving inspiration, the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), driving active expiration and the post-inspiratory Complex, driving post-inspiration...
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Filipa Lynce, Ayesha N Shajahan-Haq, Sandra M Swain
Dysregulation of the cyclin dependent kinase pathway in luminal breast cancer creates a new therapeutic opportunity for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Initial pan-CDK inhibitors were associated with extensive toxicities but in recent years, the development of potent specific CDK inhibitors with favorable tolerability has driven renewed interests in this class of targeted therapies. Palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib are specific CDK4/6 inhibitors that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with endocrine therapy for women with advanced hormone receptor positive breast cancer...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Karolina Serhan, Allison Gartung, Dipak Panigrahy
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the disease, as well as the insidious onset of symptoms, timely diagnosis remains extremely challenging. Despite recent advances in chemotherapy regimens for ovarian cancer patients, many still suffer from recurrence and ultimately succumb to the disease; thus, there is an urgent need for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Within this rapidly evolving field, the role of platelets in the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment has garnered increased attention...
June 19, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Tianliu Zhang, Liping Guo, Mingyan Shi, Lingyang Xu, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Huijiang Gao, Junya Li, Xue Gao
Incorrect paternity assignment in cattle can significantly influence the accuracy of genetic evaluation. Recent advances in high-throughput technology have facilitated the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and their applications for filiation and individual identification. We genotyped 1074 bulls from a reference population of Chinese Simmental cattle for genomic selection using a BovineSNP770K BeadChip. Among them, a total of 136 bulls were randomly selected to design a suitable low-density SNP panel for paternity testing in Simmental cattle...
June 19, 2018: Gene
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