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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241296/evolving-aptamers-with-unnatural-base-pairs
#1
Michiko Kimoto, Ken-Ichiro Matsunaga, Ichiro Hirao
A novel technology, genetic alphabet expansion, has rapidly advanced through the successful creation of unnatural base pairs that function as a third base pair in replication. Recently, genetic alphabet expansion has been applied to some practical areas. Among them, the application to DNA aptamer generation is a good example of the broad utility of this technology. A hydrophobic unnatural base pair, Ds-Px, which exhibits high fidelity in replication as a third base pair, has been applied to an evolutionary engineering method called SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) to generate DNA aptamers that bind to targets...
December 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241292/the-in-situ-enzymatic-screening-ises-approach-to-reaction-discovery-and-catalyst-identification
#2
Robert A Swyka, David B Berkowitz
The importance of discovering new chemical transformations and/or optimizing catalytic combinations has led to a flurry of activity in reaction screening. The in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) approach described here utilizes biological tools (enzymes/cofactors) to advance chemistry. The protocol interfaces an organic reaction layer with an adjacent aqueous layer containing reporting enzymes that act upon the organic reaction product, giving rise to a spectroscopic signal. ISES allows the experimentalist to rapidly glean information on the relative rates of a set of parallel organic/organometallic reactions under investigation, without the need to quench the reactions or draw aliquots...
December 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241223/tumour-sidedness-and-intrinsic-subtypes-in-patients-with-stage-ii-iii-colon-cancer-analysis-of-nsabp-c-07-nrg-oncology
#3
S Rim Kim, Nan Song, Greg Yothers, Patrick G Gavin, Carmen J Allegra, Soonmyung Paik, Katherine L Pogue-Geile
BACKGROUND: We tested the association of colon tumour sidedness with prognosis and with molecular subtypes recently shown to be predictive of oxaliplatin benefit in stage III colon cancer. METHODS: NSABP/NRG C-07 trial (N=1603) was used to determine association of tumour sidedness with molecular subtypes and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Sidedness was associated with molecular subtypes except stem-like/CMS4 subtype...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241222/flavopiridol-enhances-abt-199-sensitivity-in-unfavourable-risk-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Liang Zhou, Yu Zhang, Deepak Sampath, Joel Leverson, Yun Dai, Maciej Kmieciak, Matthew Nguyen, Robert Z Orlowski, Steven Grant
BACKGROUND: The BCL-2-specific BH3-mimetic ABT-199 (venetoclax) has been reported to be principally active against favourable-risk multiple myeloma (MM) cells, prompting efforts to extend its activity to include more resistant, higher-risk MM subsets. METHODS: Effects of the CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol (FP; alvocidib) on responses to ABT-199 were examined in MM cells. Cell death and protein expression were evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence. Xenograft models were used to study combination effects in vivo...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241190/circrna-expression-profile-in-early-stage-lung-adenocarcinoma-patients
#5
Jiangmin Zhao, Le Li, Qian Wang, Hongxiu Han, Qing Zhan, Ming Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lung adenocarcinoma, a form of non-small cell lung cancer with high lethality at an advanced stage, is becoming more common in women, non- or never-smokers, and even young adults. At present, there are still no effective early diagnosis methods for patients to be cured in a timely manner. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are stable and conserved non-coding RNA in mammalian cells, have been reported to be widely involved in the processes of cancer disease. However, it is still a puzzle as to which specific circRNAs are involved in the development of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241180/high-mobility-group-box1-inhibitor-glycyrrhizic-acid-attenuates-kidney-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#6
Hong Zhang, Ru Zhang, Juan Chen, Min Shi, Wei Li, Xiangcheng Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important mediator of the inflammatory response. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. However, the effects of HMGB1 on diabetic nephropathy remain unclear. Here, we investigated the potential roles and mechanisms of an HMGB1 inhibitor, glycyrrhizic acid (GA), in renal injury with the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model. METHODS: The diabetic rat was generated by intraperitoneal injection of STZ and then treated with the HMGB1 inhibitor GA or saline for 8 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241176/surgery-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#7
James A Balogun, James T Rutka
Gliomas are the most common type of brain cancer in the pediatric patients, constituting about 50% of all childhood intracranial tumors. This is a highly heterogeneous group, varying from the benign WHO histopathological grades I and II to malignant WHO grades III and IV. The histology and location are significant prognostic factors, which influence the decision for surgical intervention, as well as the extent of possible tumor removal. In low-grade gliomas, surgery remains the initial option and should be directed at gross total resection in favorable locations, such as the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241174/surgery-of-insular-gliomas
#8
Hugues Duffau
For a long time, surgery within the insular lobe, especially in cases of intrinsic tumors, was considered as too dangerous. Even though such interventions are still challenging, resection of insular glioma became more popular during the past decade. First of all, this has happened due to better understanding of the functional anatomy of this complex brain region, combined with an improved knowledge of its connectivity. Furthermore, development of advanced intraoperative techniques, especially functional brain mapping with direct electrical stimulation, resulted in increased safety of procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241173/surgical-management-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-cortex
#9
Sherise D Ferguson, Ian E McCutcheon
Gliomas located in eloquent cortex impose a unique surgical obstacle. The oncological benefit of aggressive resection must be balanced with preservation of functional tissue and optimization of surgical outcome. Technical advances in preoperative functional imaging, refinement of intraoperative mapping, and conceptual understanding of cerebral plasticity have significantly improved the outcome of this patient population.
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241170/rationale-for-aggressive-resection-and-general-surgical-principles-for-intracranial-gliomas
#10
Ian E McCutcheon, Mikhail F Chernov
Given the infiltrative nature of gliomas, controversy has long persisted over the value of their aggressive surgical removal. Nevertheless, in recent decades, the balance of opinion in neurosurgical oncology has shifted from a more nihilistic view that led to many patients' receiving stereotactic biopsy or very limited debulking of lesions for tissue diagnosis only, to more extensive tumor resections which relieve mass effect, lower intracranial pressure, reduce accompanying brain edema, and attenuate dependence on steroids...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241169/imaging-of-intracranial-gliomas
#11
Yuko Ono, Mikhail F Chernov, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Kayoko Abe, Hiroshi Iseki
Combined use of contemporary radiological modalities, particularly integration of structural, metabolic, and functional imaging, provides optimal multifaceted information for detailed characterization of intracranial gliomas. It allows differentiation of the tumor from non-neoplastic pathology, its non-invasive histopathological typing and grading, prediction of patient prognosis and clinical course of the disease, detailed planning of surgical resection or biopsy, critical postoperative assessment of the residual lesion, effective surveillance during follow-up with evaluation of effectiveness of the adjuvant therapy and timely identification of recurrence, and even insights into molecular signatures of the neoplasms...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241119/bench-to-bedside-review-possible-role-of-vitamin-d-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Feiyong Jia, Ling Shan, Bing Wang, Honghua Li, Chunyue Miao, Zhida Xu, Ching-Po Lin, Khaled Saad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of dysfunctions in social interaction, communication, and behaviors. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and in individuals increased the risk of ASD. A genetic polymorphism study has pinpointed that genotype AA/A-allele of GC rs4588 in children is associated with ASD, which encodes the vitamin D binding protein. Translating the mentioned points into clinical practice, several clinical trials have demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation can improve the core symptoms in children with ASD...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241095/mathematical-modeling-approaches-to-describe-the-dynamics-of-protein-adsorption-at-solid-interfaces
#13
REVIEW
Jinku Kim
Protein adsorption on solid surfaces play a crucial role in many biological applications. While extensive experimental studies have revealed the dynamics of protein adsorption in detail using newly developed experimental techniques, mathematical modeling approaches provide illustrative insight of such complex processes, which are often difficult to describe experimentally. To advance our understanding of dynamic protein behaviors at interfaces between proteins and solid surfaces, there are needs for additional information about such complex phenomena, especially conformational changes in protein mixture system...
December 7, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241084/neoadjuvant-radiotherapy-combined-with-capecitabine-and-sorafenib-in-patients-with-advanced-kras-mutated-rectal-cancer-a-phase-i-ii-trial-sakk-41-08
#14
Roger von Moos, Dieter Koeberle, Sabina Schacher, Stefanie Hayoz, Ralph C Winterhalder, Arnaud Roth, György Bodoky, Panagiotis Samaras, Martin D Berger, Daniel Rauch, Piercarlo Saletti, Ludwig Plasswilm, Daniel Zwahlen, Urs R Meier, Pu Yan, Paola Izzo, Dirk Klingbiel, Daniela Bärtschi, Kathrin Zaugg
BACKGROUND: KRAS mutation occurs in ∼40% of locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs). The multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib has radiosensitising effects and might improve outcomes for standard preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with KRAS-mutated LARC. METHODS: Adult patients with KRAS-mutated T3/4 and/or N1/2M0 LARC were included in this phase I/II study. The phase I dose-escalation study of capecitabine plus sorafenib and radiotherapy was followed by a phase II study assessing efficacy and safety...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241007/sulfur-doped-laser-induced-porous-graphene-derived-from-polysulfone-class-polymers-and-membranes
#15
Swatantra Pratap Singh, Yilun Li, Jibo Zhang, James M Tour, Christopher J Arnusch
Graphene based materials have profoundly impacted research in nanotechnology and this has significantly advanced biomedical, electronics, energy, and environmental applications. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) is made photothermally and has enabled a rapid route for graphene layers on polyimide surfaces. However, polysulfone (PSU), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) are highly used in numerous applications including medical, energy and water treatment and they are critical components of polymer membranes...
December 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241002/the-future-of-multiplexed-eukaryotic-genome-engineering
#16
David B Thompson, Soufiane Aboulhouda, Eriona Hysolli, Cory J Smith, Stan Wang, Oscar Castanon, George M Church
Multiplex genome editing is the simultaneous introduction of multiple distinct modifications to a given genome. Though in its infancy, maturation of this field will facilitate powerful new biomedical research approaches, and will enable a host of far-reaching biological engineering applications, including new therapeutic modalities and industrial applications, as well as 'genome writing' and de-extinction efforts. In this perspective, we focus on multiplex editing of large eukaryotic genomes. We describe the current state of multiplexed genome editing, the current limits of our ability to multiplex edits, and provide perspective on the many applications that fully-realized multiplex editing technologies would enable in higher eukaryotic genomes...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240999/friction-and-wear-reducing-properties-of-multifunctional-small-molecules
#17
Lelia Cosimbescu, Nick Demas, Joshua W Robinson, Robert A Erck
Nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds were designed empirically and subsequently synthesized, and their rheology, friction and wear performance as multifunctional base oils (MFBOs) was evaluated. Two of the compounds displayed good viscosity/rheology profile without the addition of polymeric viscosity modifiers, displaying high viscosity indexes (VI) above 200. Furthermore, all three MFBOs had lower coefficients of friction compared to well established and accepted benchmarks. The most significant advancement is their impressive wear improvement, by a factor of 5...
December 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240986/the-essential-elements-of-a-risk-governance-framework-for-current-and-future-nanotechnologies
#18
Vicki Stone, Martin Führ, Peter H Feindt, Hans Bouwmeester, Igor Linkov, Stefania Sabella, Finbarr Murphy, Kilian Bizer, Lang Tran, Marlene Ågerstrand, Carlos Fito, Torben Andersen, Diana Anderson, Enrico Bergamaschi, John W Cherrie, Sue Cowan, Jean-Francois Dalemcourt, Michael Faure, Silke Gabbert, Agnieszka Gajewicz, Teresa F Fernandes, Danail Hristozov, Helinor J Johnston, Terry C Lansdown, Stefan Linder, Hans J P Marvin, Martin Mullins, Kai Purnhagen, Tomasz Puzyn, Araceli Sanchez Jimenez, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, George Streftaris, Martie van Tongeren, Nicolas H Voelcker, George Voyiatzis, Spyros N Yannopoulos, P Marijn Poortvliet
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving research and development area...
December 14, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240957/non-coding-rnas-in-cardiac-%C3%AF-brosis-emerging-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#19
Zhongxiu Chen, Chen Li, Ke Lin, Huawei Cai, Weiqiang Ruan, Junyang Han, Li Rao
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules that do not encode proteins. ncRNAs are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, metabolism, and other physiological processes as well as the pathogenesis of diseases. Cardiac fibrosis is increasingly recognized as a common final pathway in advanced heart diseases. Many studies have shown that the occurrence and development of cardiac fibrosis is closely related to the regulation of ncRNAs. This review will highlight recent updates regarding the involvement of ncRNAs in cardiac fibrosis, and their potential as emerging biomarkers and therapeutic targets...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240940/state-of-the-art-in-eukaryotic-nitrogenase-engineering
#20
Stefan Burén, Luis M Rubio
Improving the ability of plants and plant-associated organisms to fix and assimilate atmospheric nitrogen has inspired plant biotechnologists for decades, not only to alleviate negative effects on nature from increased use and availability of reactive nitrogen, but also because of apparent economic benefits and opportunities. The combination of recent advances in synthetic biology and increased knowledge about the biochemistry and biosynthesis of the nitrogenase enzyme has made the seemingly remote and for long unreachable dream more possible...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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