Read by QxMD icon Read


D J Mibei, J W Kiarie, A Wairia, M Kamene, M E Okumu
SETTING: Successful treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is crucial in preventing disease transmission and reducing related morbidity and mortality. A standardised DR-TB treatment regimen is used in Kenya. Although patients on treatment are monitored, no evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcomes has yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: To analyse treatment outcomes of DR-TB patients in Kenya and factors associated with successful outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of secondary data from Kenya's National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Lung disease programme...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Keertan Dheda, Kwok Chiu Chang, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Jennifer Furin, H Simon Schaaf, Dumitru Chesov, Aliasgar Esmail, Christoph Lange
Globally there is a burgeoning epidemic of drug mono-resistant tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Almost 20% of all TB strains worldwide are resistant to at least 1 major TB drug including isoniazid. In several parts of the world there is an increasing incidence of MDR-TB, and alarmingly almost a third of MDR-TB cases globally are resistant to either a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycocide. This trend cannot be ignored because DR-TB is associated with greater morbidity compared to drug-sensitive TB, it accounts for almost 25% of global TB mortality, is extremely costly to treat, consuming substantial portions of budgets allocated to national TB programmes in TB endemic countries, and is a major threat to healthcare workers who are already in short supply in resource-poor settings...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Esin Aktas Cetin, Leyla Pur Ozyigit, Yusuf Metin Gelmez, Erkan Cakir, Ahmet Hakan Gedik, Gunnur Deniz
OBJECTIVES: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yanan Li, Yuling Wang, Zhi Zhang, Huixia Gao, Haibin Wang, Jinfeng Cao, Shumin Zhang, Yuzhen Liu, Jianhua Lu, Zungui Xu, Erhei Dai
Ethambutol (EMB) is an essential first-line drug for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Nucleotide substitutions at embB codon 306 have been proposed as a potential marker for EMB resistance and a predictor for broad drug resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates. However, discordant findings about the association between embB306 mutation and EMB resistance were reported. The Hebei province is located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration region; however, little information about the genetic diversity of embB locus is available in this area...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Raditya Perdhana, Sutrisno Sutrisno, Yani Jane Sugiri, Siti Candra Windu Baktiyani, Arsana Wiyasa
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which can affect various organs, including human's genital organs such as the endometrium. Tuberculosis endometritis can cause clinical symptoms of secondary amenorrhea and infertility. Infertility in genital TB caused by the involvement of the endometrium. The case presentation is 33-year-old woman from dr. Saiful Anwar Public Hospital to consult that she has not menstruated since 5 years ago (28 years old). The diagnosis was done by performing a clinical examination until the diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis is obtained...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
Gobinda Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Saroj Khatiwada, Binod Lekhak, Bhawana Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem in Nepal. It is a major obstacle for the control of the tuberculosis. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and to evaluate the drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from previously treated and newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to August 2013 at German-Nepal tuberculosis project (GENETUP) laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Francesco Porpiglia, Matteo Manfredi, Fabrizio Mele, Marco Cossu, Enrico Bollito, Andrea Veltri, Stefano Cirillo, Daniele Regge, Riccardo Faletti, Roberto Passera, Cristian Fiori, Stefano De Luca
BACKGROUND: An approach based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) might increase the detection rate (DR) of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). OBJECTIVE: To compare an mpMRI-based pathway with the standard approach for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and csPCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between November 2014 and April 2016, 212 biopsy-naïve patients with suspected PCa (prostate specific antigen level ≤15 ng/ml and negative digital rectal examination results) were included in this randomized clinical trial...
August 27, 2016: European Urology
Nurul-Ain Ismail, Mohd Fazli Ismail, Siti Suraiya Md Noor, Siti Nazrina Camalxaman
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a public health issue that is of major concern on a global scale. The characterisation of clinical isolates may provide key information regarding the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance, and helps to augment therapeutic options. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of gene mutations associated with Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazid (INH) resistance among nine clinical isolates. METHODS: A total of nine drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates were screened for genetic mutations in rpoB and katusing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Chloé Wyndham-Thomas, Véronique Corbiere, Elodie Selis, Marie-Christine Payen, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Jean-Paul Van Vooren, Françoise Mascart, Violette Dirix
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the influence of M. tuberculosis infection on immune-activation biomarkers, both in HIV-infected and -uninfected subjects. METHODS: Forty-eight treatment naïve HIV-infected patients and 74 HIV-uninfected subjects were recruited and divided into groups according to their M. tuberculosis-infection status: latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), active tuberculosis (TB) and no evidence of M. tuberculosis infection. The expression of cellular markers CD38 and HLA-DR on circulating CD8 T-lymphocytes and the plasmatic levels of soluble markers IL-6, sCD14 and D-Dimer were measured and compared between groups...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Richard F Silver, Amy J Myers, Jessica Jarvela, JoAnne Flynn, Tara Rutledge, Tracey Bonfield, Philana Ling Lin
Immune cells of the distal airways serve as "first responders" of host immunity the airborne pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb infection of cynomolgus macaques recapitulates the range of human outcomes from clinically silent latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active tuberculosis (TB) of varying degrees of severity. To further advance the application of this model to human studies, we compared profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of humans and cynomolgus macaques before and after Mtb infection...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Sungmo Je, Hailian Quan, Yirang Na, Sang-Nae Cho, Bum-Joon Kim, Seung Hyeok Seok
Mycobacterium massiliense (M. mass), belonging to the M. abscessus complex, is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that is known to cause tuberculous-like lesions in humans. To better understand the interaction between host cells and M. mass, we used a recently developed in vitro model of early granuloma-like cell aggregates composed of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs formed granuloma-like, small and rounded cell aggregates when infected by live M. mass Microscopic examination showed monocytes and macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes, which resembled cell aggregation induced by M...
2016: Biology Open
I D Otchere, A Asante-Poku, S Osei-Wusu, A Baddoo, E Sarpong, A H Ganiyu, S Y Aboagye, A Forson, F Bonsu, A I Yahayah, K Koram, S Gagneux, D Yeboah-Manu
We spoligotyped and screened 1490 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from Northern and Greater Accra regions of Ghana against INH and RIF using the microplate alamar blue phenotypic assay. Specific drug resistance associated genetic elements of drug resistant strains were analyzed for mutations. A total of 111 (7.5%), 10 (0.7%) and 40 (2.6%) were mono-resistant to INH, RIF, and MDR, respectively. We found the Ghana spoligotype to be associated with drug resistance (INH: 22.1%; p = 0.0000, RIF: 6...
July 2016: Tuberculosis
Rebecca E Colman, Julia Anderson, Darrin Lemmer, Erik Lehmkuhl, Sophia B Georghiou, Hannah Heaton, Kristin Wiggins, John D Gillece, James M Schupp, Donald G Catanzaro, Valeriu Crudu, Ted Cohen, Timothy C Rodwell, David M Engelthaler
Increasingly complex drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major global health concern and one of the primary reasons why TB is now the leading infectious cause of death worldwide. Rapid characterization of a DR-TB patient's complete drug resistance profile would facilitate individualized treatment in place of empirical treatment, improve treatment outcomes, prevent amplification of resistance, and reduce the transmission of DR-TB. The use of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to obtain drug resistance profiles directly from patient sputum samples has the potential to enable comprehensive evidence-based treatment plans to be implemented quickly, rather than in weeks to months, which is currently needed for phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) results...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Carole D Mitnick, Carly A Rodriguez, Marita L Hatton, Grania Brigden, Frank Cobelens, Martin P Grobusch, Robert Horsburgh, Christoph Lange, Christian Lienhardt, Eyal Oren, Laura J Podewils, Barbara Seaworth, Susan van den Hof, Charles L Daley, Agnes C Gebhard, Fraser Wares
INTRODUCTION: There are numerous challenges in delivering appropriate treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the evidence base to guide those practices remains limited. We present the third updated Research Agenda for the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT), assembled through a literature review and survey. METHODS: Publications citing the 2008 research agenda and normative documents were reviewed for evidence gaps. Gaps were formulated into questions and grouped as in the 2008 research agenda: Laboratory Support, Treatment Strategy, Programmatically Relevant Research, Epidemiology, and Management of Contacts...
2016: PloS One
Arne von Delft, Angela Dramowski, Zolelwa Sifumba, Thato Mosidi, Tiong Xun Ting, Dalene von Delft, Alimuddin Zumla
"Occupational MDR-TB"  …  "XDR-TB"  …  "Treatment-induced hearing loss": 3 life-changing messages imparted over the phone. Three personal accounts are shared highlighting the false belief held by many healthcare workers (HCWs) and students in low-resource settings-that they are immune to tuberculosis despite high levels of occupational tuberculosis exposure. This misconception reflects a lack of awareness of tuberculosis transmission and disease risk, compounded by the absence of accurate occupational tuberculosis estimates...
May 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
S B Georghiou, M Seifert, D Catanzaro, R S Garfein, F Valafar, V Crudu, C Rodrigues, T C Victor, A Catanzaro, T C Rodwell
Molecular diagnostic assays, with their ability to rapidly detect resistance-associated mutations in bacterial genes, are promising technologies to control the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Sequencing assays provide detailed information for specific gene regions and can help diagnostic assay developers prioritize mutations for inclusion in their assays. We performed pyrosequencing of seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene regions (katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, gyrA, rrs, and eis) for 1,128 clinical specimens from India, Moldova, and South Africa...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"