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DR TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237037/the-effect-size-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-and-adverse-treatment-outcomes
#1
Lucia Monserrat Perez-Navarro, Blanca I Restrepo, Francisco Javier Fuentes-Dominguez, Ravindranath Duggirala, Jaime Morales-Romero, Juan Carlos López-Alvarenga, Iñaki Comas, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and multi drug resistance (MDR). METHODS: A cohort with 507 individuals with diagnosed TB included 183 with coexistence of T2DM and TB (TB-T2DM). Participants were identified at the time of TB diagnosis and followed during the course of TB treatment. Then we computed relative risks and adjustments by Cox proportional hazards for outcome variables (drug resistance, death, relapse, treatment failure), and the size of their effect as Cohen's-d...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164036/primary-extrapulmonary-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child-presenting-with-pleural-effusion
#2
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal
The developing countries are having a number of public health issues. The situation in these resource-limited countries is scary due to the huge burden of infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB). The latest reports from the WHO shows a high number of drug resistant cases even in the pediatric age groups. Also, the lack of suspicion of drug resistant TB (DR-TB) in the pediatric cases, especially in the absence of a past or family history may lead to delay in diagnosis and flaring-up of the disease. We herein present the very first case of the primary multidrug-resistant TB in an HIV negative child who presented with the left sided pleural effusion...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125692/recurrence-after-successful-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-taiwan
#3
Meng-Yu Chen, Yi-Chun Lo, Wan-Chin Chen, Kwei-Feng Wang, Pei-Chun Chan
Recurrence after successful treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is challenging because of limited retreatment options. This study aimed to determine rates and predictors of MDR-TB recurrence after successful treatment in Taiwan. Recurrence rates were analyzed by time from treatment completion in 295 M DR-TB patients in a national cohort. Factors associated with MDR-TB recurrence were examined using a multivariate Cox regression analysis. Ten (3%) patients experienced MDR-TB recurrence during a median follow-up of 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123960/the-referral-pathway-of-presumptive-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-poor-setting-the-philippines
#4
E Lopez, S Yoshimatsu, A Querri, L Coprada, J Bermejo, M R Paulino, A Medina, A M C Garfin, A Ohkado
Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged urban areas in the Philippines. Objectives: To identify gaps in the referral pathway of presumptive drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients from initial consultation until initiation of treatment. Design: A retrospective study in which a masterlist of presumptive multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients registered in 18 DOTS facilities in Tondo, Manila and Payatas, Quezon City, from October 2012 to September 2013, was analysed and reviewed. Results: Among 378 presumptive DR-TB patients identified and listed in the masterlist, 97% (368/378) were referred, of whom 90% (333/368) were screened at an MDR-TB treatment centre...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050363/first-line-anti-tb-drug-resistance-in-an-urban-area-of-odisha-india
#5
Dasarathi Das, Prakasini Satapathy, Biswanath Murmu
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance is a major cause for increasing the global burden of Tuberculosis (TB). However in countries with larger geographical areas and different climatic conditions like India the prevalence of drug resistance varies from place to place. Information on anti-TB drug resistance patterns particularly among newly diagnosed cases is crucial for planning an effective TB control program. AIM: To determine the prevalence of resistance against first line anti-TB drugs and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043610/thoracic-surgical-interventions-for-dr-tb-and-their-results
#6
Ravindra Kumar Dewan
BACKGROUND: Surgery in DR-TB is a highly contested intervention. However, in suitable selected cases, it has a great role in improving outcomes of treatment as well as symptomatic improvement in the quality of life of the patient. Indications of surgery in this setting will be localized disease with high likelihood of persistent progression or sputum positivity despite adequate therapy. Recurrent hemoptysis, intolerance to drugs or absence of radiological and bacteriological improvement during initial 3-4months of therapy becomes additional indications for surgical intervention...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#7
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#8
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043592/next-generation-sequencing-based-user-friendly-platforms-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnosis-a-promise-for-the-near-future
#9
David L Dolinger, Rebecca E Colman, David M Engelthaler, Timothy C Rodwell
Since 2002, there has been a gradual worldwide 1.3% annual decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB). This is an encouraging statistic; however, it will not achieve the World Health Organization's goal of eliminating TB by 2050, and it is being compounded by the persistent global incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) acquired by transmission and by treatment pressure. One key to effectively control tuberculosis and the spread of multiresistant strains is accurate information pertaining to drug resistance and susceptibility...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043590/use-of-wgs-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-routine-diagnosis
#10
Daniela M Cirillo, Andrea M Cabibbe, Maria Rosaria De Filippo, Alberto Trovato, Tullia Simonetti, Gian Maria Rossolini, Enrico Tortoli
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is becoming affordable with overall costs comparable to other tests currently in use to perform the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and cluster analysis. The WGS approach allows an "all-in-one" approach providing results on expected sensitivity of the strains, genetic background, epidemiological data, and indication of risk of laboratory cross-contamination. METHODS: Although ideal, WGS from the direct diagnostic specimen is not yet standardized, and to date the two most promising approaches are WGS from early positive liquid culture and targeted sequencing from diagnostic specimens using Next-Generation Technology...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043578/using-competing-risks-model-and-competing-events-in-outcome-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Payam Tabarsi, Farid Zayeri
INTRODUCTION: Although tuberculosis (TB) is curable, the rate of failure and mortality is high in comparison to other infectious diseases worldwide. It has been shown that majority of TB patients leave treatment before completing the therapeutic regimen. The aftermath of incomplete regimens might result in drug resistant-TB bacilli (DR-TB), relapses, and death. For this reason, proper knowledge about the disease and associated risk factor is crucial to decreasing TB cases among the general population...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043505/collaboration-between-tuberculosis-control-programs-and-the-action-plan-for-tackling-antimicrobial-resistance-an-opportunity-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#12
Rumina Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Samiha Baghdadi, Alireza Mafi, Mohammad Aziz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter availability of antibiotics together with poor access to diagnostics is recognised to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR) including generation of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). In accordance with the End TB Strategy target of ending TB epidemic by 2030, efforts to control DR-TB are ongoing in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries, a number of which have well-established facilities for diagnostics, disease care and prevention as well as surveillance...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043504/rehabilitation-of-treated-tb-patients-social-psychological-and-economic-aspects
#13
Blessina Amulya Kumar
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To highlight the need for post-treatment rehabilitation of TB patient; including social psychological and economic aspects. METHODS: Patient interaction, informal interviews, field observations and secondary research. The minimum duration of treatment (for drug-susceptible TB) is 6months. Treatment for drug-resistant TB can be from anywhere between 18 and 24months. In some cases treatment can last for more than 5years. Despite this, little attention is given to the social, psychological and economic impact extended treatment can have on the lives of individuals...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998498/tb-management-by-private-practitioners-is-it-bad-everywhere
#14
P S Rakesh, Shibu Balakrishnan, S Jayasankar, R V Asokan
INTRODUCTION: Poor prescribing practice is alleged to be one of the major factors fuelling the drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) emergence. A study in Mumbai revealed the extent of inappropriate tuberculosis (TB) management practices of private practitioners and discussed that with the context of high DR TB. Kerala is rated among the well performing States in India as far as TB control is concerned with evidences for a lower level of TB transmission and DR TB. The current study was done in Kerala State to assess the prescribing practices of private sector doctors in the treatment of TB...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981337/age-related-reference-curves-of-volumetric-bone-density-structure-and-biomechanical-parameters-adjusted-for-weight-and-height-in-a-population-of-healthy-women-an-hr-pqct-study
#15
J C Alvarenga, H Fuller, S G Pasoto, R M R Pereira
: In a cross-sectional cohort of 450 healthy women aged 20 to 85 years, data on the density, structure, and strength of the distal radius and tibia were obtained using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and were adjusted for age, weight, and height. Age-dependent patterns of change differed between the sites and between the trabecular and cortical compartments. In postmenopausal women, the trabecular bone remained relatively stable at the distal tibia, but the cortical compartment changed significantly...
December 15, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931339/mobility-patterns-of-persons-at-risk-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mumbai-india
#16
E Conners, R S Garfein, T C Rodwell, Z F Udwadia, D G Catanzaro
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) hospital in Mumbai, India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mobility patterns of persons with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and to assess whether there were significant differences in demographic or risk characteristics based on mobility. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of TB clinic patients at risk for DR-TB. RESULTS: Among 602 participants, 37% had ever moved from their place of birth; 14% were local movers (within state), and 23% were distant movers, between states or countries...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931054/-tb-screening-of-pregnant-women-in-accordance-with-the-german-protection-against-infection-act
#17
(no author information available yet)
Pregnant women should be tested with immune tests for tuberculosis when they undergo TB screening according to the German Infectious Diseases Protection Act. Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) should be the priority tests used for pregnant refugees and asylum seekers, especially when migrating from high incidence countries (> 20 cases/100.000 population according to the ECDC) or when they fled from crisis regions; positive tuberculin skin tests should be veryfied with IGRA. Once immunological tests are suggesting a latent tuberculosis infection it should be considered that pregnant women have an increased risk of developing active tuberculosis with potential health threats for the unborn child...
December 2016: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#18
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) are critical global health issues. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865394/recent-developments-in-genomics-bioinformatics-and-drug-discovery-to-combat-emerging-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Soumya Swaminathan, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, Alangudi Natarajan Palaniappan, Sujatha Narayanan
Emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a big challenge in TB control. The delay in diagnosis of DR-TB leads to its increased transmission, and therefore prevalence. Recent developments in genomics have enabled whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) from 3-day-old liquid culture and directly from uncultured sputa, while new bioinformatics tools facilitate to determine DR mutations rapidly from the resulting sequences. The present drug discovery and development pipeline is filled with candidate drugs which have shown efficacy against DR-TB...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862137/t-cell-responses-and-regulation-and-the-impact-of-in-vitro-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-modulation-during-treatment-of-active-tuberculosis
#20
Siri L Feruglio, Dag Kvale, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is particularly challenging for the immune system being an intracellular pathogen, and a variety of T cell subpopulations are activated by the host defense mechanism. In the present study we investigated T cell responses and regulation in active TB patients with drug-sensitive Mtb (n=18) during 24 weeks of efficient anti-TB therapy. T cell activation, differentiation, regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets, Mtb induced T cell proliferation and in vitro IL-10 and TGF-β modulation were analysed by flow cytometry at baseline and after 8 and 24 weeks of therapy, while soluble cytokines in culture supernatants were analysed by a 9-plex Luminex assay...
November 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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