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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260746/-the-spectrum-of-primary-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-relation-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status
#1
V N Zimina, O E Mikova, T A Varetskaya, D A Oborin, S Yu Degtyareva, V I Sergevnin
AIM: To estimate the detection rate and spectrum of primary drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) in patients with tuberculosis (TB) in relation to their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in a region with high HIV infection rates (the Perm Territory) and to compare of drug-resistant MBT (DR-MBT) in patients with HIV/TB co-infection, by using phenotypic and molecular genetic testing (MGT) methods. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The results of sputum bacteriological examination were analyzed in 178 HIV-infected patients and 354 non-HIV-infected individuals with a TB diagnosis made in the period July 1, 2014 to August 1, 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248780/correlation-of-lactate-concentration-in-peripheral-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-with-glasgow-outcome-scale-for-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-complicated-by-acute-hydrocephalus-treated-with-fluid-diversions
#2
Ahmad Faried, Gusman Arief, Muhammad Z Arifin, Heda M Nataprawira
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an endemic infectious disease in developing countries, and it can become a serious illness in children. TBM treatment is more difficult and prone to failure than lung TB. TBM causes hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, global ischemia and neurological deficits, which disturb cellular metabolism and increase lactate levels. Therefore, a reliable and widely available clinical indicator of TBM severity is needed. Successful treatment of TBM is assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)...
December 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226191/time-to-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-prospective-south-african-cohort
#3
Brittney J van de Water, Janet Prvu Bettger, Susan Silva, Janice Humphreys, Coleen K Cunningham, Jason E Farley
This study examined time to treatment initiation by age among a prospective cohort with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Participants aged 13 years or older nested within a cluster-randomized trial in 2 South African provinces were evaluated. Outcomes were treatment initiation within 5 days of DR-TB diagnosis (National Tuberculosis Program guidelines) and days from diagnosis to treatment. A total of 521 participants met inclusion criteria. Eighty-two patients (16%) met national guidelines; median time to treatment was 11 days (range = 0-180)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221522/barriers-to-smoking-cessation-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#4
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197331/genotyping-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterial-isolates-from-population-based-tuberculosis-prevalence-survey-in-ghana
#5
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Gloria Ivy Mensah, Lydia Mosi, Frank Adae Bonsu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively...
December 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181028/comparison-of-the-performance-of-urinary-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-cocktail-esat6-cfp10-and-mpt64-with-culture-and-microscopy-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#6
Dewi Kartika Turbawaty, Adhi Kristianto Sugianli, Arto Yuwono Soeroto, Budi Setiabudiawan, Ida Parwati
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) compared with culture and microscopy. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from January 2014 to October 2016. A total of 141 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli (ZN stain) and mycobacterial culture (LJ); the Mtb antigens cocktail was examined in the urine sample...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172708/a-comparative-study-on-the-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-testing-different-types-of-spinal-tuberculosis-tissue-specimens
#7
Liang Tang, Shiqing Feng, Ruixiao Gao, Chenfu Han, Xiaochen Sun, Yucheng Bao, Wenlong Zhang
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to compare the role of the commercial Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampin (MTB/RIF) test in testing different types of spinal tuberculosis (TB) tissue specimens. METHODS: Pus, granulation tissue, and caseous necrotic tissue specimens from 223 patients who were diagnosed with spinal TB and who underwent curettage were collected for bacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to calculate the positive rate. Bacterial culture and phenotypic drug sensitivity testing (pDST) were adopted as the gold standards to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert bacterial detection and drug resistance (DR) test...
November 27, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145924/pharmacokinetic-interaction-between-bedaquiline-and-clofazimine-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#8
G Maartens, M J E Brill, M Pandie, E M Svensson
<h2>BACKGROUND:</h2>Bedaquiline (BDQ) and clofazimine (CFZ) are both recommended for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). As CFZ is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) in vitro, and BDQ a substrate of CYP3A4, there is a potential for pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interaction that may result in increased BDQ exposure when co-administered with CFZ, which could increase the toxicity of BDQ.<h2>METHODS:</h2>We assessed the effect of co-administered CFZ on BDQ bioavailability, or on clearance of BDQ and its N-monodesmethyl metabolite (M2), in patients with DR-TB using a population PK model developed from data of patients with DR-TB...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142889/rapid-detection-of-streptomycin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-rpsl-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism
#9
Sediqe Karimi, Hossein Mirhendi, Fatemh Riyahi Zaniani, Soroor Erfani Manesh, Mahshd Salehi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Background: Molecular methods for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are potentially more rapid than conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing, facilitating the commencement of appropriate treatment for patients with DR-TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate and develop polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays for the detection of mutations within rpsL, and for the determination of streptomycin (STR) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#10
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137626/treatment-outcomes-of-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#11
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112693/comparison-of-two-cash-transfer-strategies-to-prevent-catastrophic-costs-for-poor-tuberculosis-affected-households-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-economic-modelling-study
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William E Rudgard, Carlton A Evans, Sedona Sweeney, Tom Wingfield, Knut Lönnroth, Draurio Barreira, Delia Boccia
BACKGROUND: Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach)...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110862/low-pre-diagnosis-attrition-but-high-pre-treatment-attrition-among-patients-with-mdr-tb-an-operational-research-from-chennai-india
#13
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Dina Nair, Joel S Klinton, Malik Parmar, J Lavanya, Lakshmi Murali, Vivek Gupta, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there's concern over high pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attritions or delays in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway (DTP). We conducted this operational research among patients with presumptive MDR-TB in north and central Chennai, India to determine attrition and turnaround times (TAT) at various steps of DTP and factors associated with attrition. METHODS: Study was conducted in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047424/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-children-china-2006-2015
#14
Ning-Ning Tao, Xiao-Chun He, Xian-Xin Zhang, Yao Liu, Chun-Bao Yu, Huai-Chen Li
Microbial drug resistance has become a major public health concern worldwide. To acquire epidemiologic data on drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) among children, a major cause of illness and death for this population, we conducted a retrospective study of 2006-2015 data from 36 TB prevention and control institutions in Shandong Province, China. A total of 14,223 new TB cases, among which children (<18 years of age) accounted for only 5.5%, were caused by culture-confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among children with TB, 18...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042338/drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-epidemiology-and-role-of-morphological-alterations
#15
REVIEW
Ali Akbar Velayati, Parissa Farnia, Sven Hoffner
In this brief review, various forms of drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are discussed. The focus of the study is to highlight morphological alterations of DR-TB bacilli at cellular level.
October 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041901/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Vishal Goyal, Vijay Kadam, Prashant Narang, Vikram Singh
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a significant public health issue that considerably deters the ongoing TB control efforts in India. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of DR-TB and understand the regional variation in resistance pattern across India from 1995 to 2015, based on a large body of published epidemiological studies. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies reporting prevalence of DR-TB from biomedical databases (PubMed and IndMed) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038231/evaluation-of-clinical-drug-interaction-potential-of-clofazimine-using-static-and-dynamic-modeling-approaches
#17
Ramachandra Sangana, Helen Gu, Dung Yu Chun, Heidi J Einolf
The 2016 World Health Organization treatment recommendations for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) positioned clofazimine as a core second-line drug. Being identified as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor in vitro, a CYP-mediated drug interaction may be likely when clofazimine is co-administered with substrates of these enzymes. The CYP-mediated drug interaction potential of clofazimine was evaluated using both static (estimation of "R1" and area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratio [AUCR] values) and dynamic (physiologically based pharmacokinetic [PBPK]) modeling approaches...
October 16, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037297/innovative-approach-to-the-design-and-evaluation-of-treatment-adherence-interventions-for-drug-resistant-tb
#18
K Alegria-Flores, B J Weiner, C A Wiesen, K L H Lich, A Van Rie, J E Paul, M A Tovar
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treatment is expensive, lengthy, and can cause severe side effects. Patients face socio-economic, psychosocial, and systemic barriers to adherence; poor adherence results in poor treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of the components of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model on DR-TB treatment adherence. DESIGN: We recruited 326 adults receiving DR-TB treatment and 86 of their health care service providers from 40 health centers in Lima, Peru...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992819/tb-pcr-and-drug-resistance-pattern-in-balf-in-smear-negative-active-pulmonary-tb
#19
K Chavalertsakul, V Boonsarngsuk, S Saengsri, P Santanirand
<h2>SETTING:</h2>A tertiary referral hospital in Bangkok, Thailand.<h2>OBJECTIVES:</h2>To evaluate the efficacy of a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) tuberculosis (TB) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) and the usefulness of a drug-resistant (DR) TB-PCR assay compared with standard drug susceptibility testing (DST).<h2>DESIGN:</h2>BALF samples from 918 patients with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative sputum smears who underwent bronchoscopy for diagnostic evaluations of pulmonary diseases were prospectively determined for specific genetic elements of TB using the Anyplex(TM) MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection kit...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962599/predictors-of-unsuccessful-interim-treatment-outcomes-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients
#20
Muhammad Atif, Arslan Bashir, Nafees Ahmad, Razia Kaneez Fatima, Sehar Saba, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Interim treatment outcomes at 6-months for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment are among the most basic performance monitoring and key evaluation indicators in the Stop and End TB strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the interim treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients in Pakistan. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Programmatic Management Unit for Drug-resistance TB (PMDT) site of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), Pakistan...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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