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Ankur Gupta-Wright, Gillian S Tomlinson, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Helen A Fletcher
On 24th March, the world commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced his discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Over 130 years later, tuberculosis (TB) continues to affect individuals, communities, and entire health systems and economies. Koch unsuccessfully tried to 'cure' TB, and despite major advances in other areas of medicine, control of TB remains elusive- in 2016 TB was the leading infectious cause of death. The STOP TB partnership and World Health Organization (WHO) have announced their theme for World TB Day 2018 "Wanted: Leaders for a TB-Free World...
2018: F1000Research
Mathieu Bastard, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Philipp du Cros, Atadjan Karimovich Khamraev, Nargiza Parpieva, Mirzagaleg Tillyashaykov, Armen Hayrapetyan, Kamene Kimenye, Shazina Khurkhumal, Themba Dlamini, Santiago Fadul Perez, Alex Telnov, Cathy Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis (DR-TB) drugs and the HIV epidemic represent a serious threat for reducing the global burden of TB. Although data on HIV-negative DR-TB treatment outcomes are well published, few data on DR-TB outcomes among HIV co-infected people is available despite the great public health importance. METHODS: We retrospectively reported and compared the DR-TB treatment outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients treated with an individualized regimen based on WHO guidelines in seven countries: Abkhazia, Armenia, Colombia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Swaziland and Uzbekistan...
2018: PloS One
Nallely Lopez-Lopez, Ana Gabriela Ramos Martinez, Mariana Haydee Garcia-Hernandez, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Julio Enrique Castañeda-Delgado, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Céline Cougoule, Olivier Neyrolles, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Monica Alejandra Valtierra-Alvarado, Marisela Rubio-Caceres, Jose Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Carmen Judith Serrano
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB), although the associated mechanisms are not known. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between T2D and the basal phenotype of macrophages, and their immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: We evaluated the influence of T2D on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to Mtb in patients with T2D (n = 10) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9), before and after infection with Mtb clinical isolates bearing different degrees of virulence...
February 19, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Shukrat O Salisu-Olatunji, Funmilade O Adepoju, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: Nigeria is one of the ten countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden globally and is experiencing an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance (DR-TB) among patients screened at the TB clinic of a tertiary institution in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria. METHODS: A review of records of 840 patients with suspected drug-resistant TB was carried out from Gene Xpert test clinic register at a tertiary health facility from November 2013 to April 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
C M Smith, R Lessells, A D Grant, K Herbst, F Tanser
SETTING: Incidencerates of tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa are among the highest in the world, and drug resistance is a major concern. Understanding geographic variations in disease may guide targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the spatial distribution of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and to test for clustering. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional analysis of DR-TB patients managed at a rural district hospital from 2011 to 2015...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Viboon Boonsarngsuk, Khattiya Mangkang, Pitak Santinirand
BACKGROUND: Physicians are usually aware of the occurrence of drug-resistant (DR) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), but lack concern about DR-extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Data regarding the prevalence and risk factors of DR-EPTB remain limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of DR-EPTB. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in patients who had culture-proven Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from various specimens between January 2013 and December 2015...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Deepashri Rao, Manjunatha M Venkataswamy, Ravi Vasanthapuram, P Satishchandra, Anita Desai
One of the commonest HIV-associated opportunistic infections of the central nervous system is neurotuberculosis. Interaction between HIV, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host immune system in co-infected individuals may result in altered frequencies of immune cells, thereby modulating dissemination and disease progression. We examined the frequencies of natural killer (NK) cell and dendritic cell (DC) subsets in HIV infected individuals with neurotuberculosis (HIVNTB) as compared to individuals with HIV associated systemic TB (HIVSTB), asymptomatic HIV, non-HIV NTB, non-HIV STB and healthy controls...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Caihong Xu, Yu Pang, Renzhong Li, Yunzhou Ruan, Lixia Wang, Mingting Chen, Hui Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome and the risk factors associated with poor outcome of MDR-TB patients receiving standardized second-line treatment regimen in China. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2010, a total of 12,100 clinical diagnosed TB cases at high risk of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) were enrolled in this study. Routine follow-up tests were conducted every month during the 6-month intensive phase, and every two months during the 18-month continuation phase...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
Navisha Dookie, Santhuri Rambaran, Nesri Padayatchi, Sharana Mahomed, Kogieleum Naidoo
Drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) remains a significant challenge in TB treatment and control programmes worldwide. Advances in sequencing technology have significantly increased our understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to anti-TB drugs. This review provides an update on advances in our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms to new, existing drugs and repurposed agents. Recent advances in WGS technology hold promise as a tool for rapid diagnosis and clinical management of TB. Although the standard approach to WGS of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is slow due to the requirement for organism culture, recent attempts to sequence directly from clinical specimens have improved the potential to diagnose and detect resistance within days...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
V N Zimina, O E Mikova, T A Varetskaya, D A Oborin, S Yu Degtyareva, V I Sergevnin
AIM: To estimate the detection rate and spectrum of primary drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) in patients with tuberculosis (TB) in relation to their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in a region with high HIV infection rates (the Perm Territory) and to compare of drug-resistant MBT (DR-MBT) in patients with HIV/TB co-infection, by using phenotypic and molecular genetic testing (MGT) methods. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The results of sputum bacteriological examination were analyzed in 178 HIV-infected patients and 354 non-HIV-infected individuals with a TB diagnosis made in the period July 1, 2014 to August 1, 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Ahmad Faried, Gusman Arief, Muhammad Z Arifin, Heda M Nataprawira
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an endemic infectious disease in developing countries, and it can become a serious illness in children. TBM treatment is more difficult and prone to failure than lung TB. TBM causes hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, global ischemia and neurological deficits, which disturb cellular metabolism and increase lactate levels. Therefore, a reliable and widely available clinical indicator of TBM severity is needed. Successful treatment of TBM is assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)...
December 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Brittney J van de Water, Janet Prvu Bettger, Susan Silva, Janice Humphreys, Coleen K Cunningham, Jason E Farley
This study examined time to treatment initiation by age among a prospective cohort with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Participants aged 13 years or older nested within a cluster-randomized trial in 2 South African provinces were evaluated. Outcomes were treatment initiation within 5 days of DR-TB diagnosis (National Tuberculosis Program guidelines) and days from diagnosis to treatment. A total of 521 participants met inclusion criteria. Eighty-two patients (16%) met national guidelines; median time to treatment was 11 days (range = 0-180)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Gloria Ivy Mensah, Lydia Mosi, Frank Adae Bonsu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively...
December 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dewi Kartika Turbawaty, Adhi Kristianto Sugianli, Arto Yuwono Soeroto, Budi Setiabudiawan, Ida Parwati
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) compared with culture and microscopy. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from January 2014 to October 2016. A total of 141 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli (ZN stain) and mycobacterial culture (LJ); the Mtb antigens cocktail was examined in the urine sample...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
Liang Tang, Shiqing Feng, Ruixiao Gao, Chenfu Han, Xiaochen Sun, Yucheng Bao, Wenlong Zhang
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of the commercial Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampin (MTB/RIF) test for evaluating different types of spinal tuberculosis (TB) tissue specimens. METHODS: Pus, granulation tissue, and caseous necrotic tissue specimens from 223 patients who were diagnosed with spinal TB and who underwent curettage were collected for bacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to calculate the positive rate. Bacterial culture and phenotypic drug sensitivity testing (pDST) were adopted as the gold standards to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert bacterial detection and drug resistance (DR) test...
December 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
G Maartens, M J E Brill, M Pandie, E M Svensson
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline (BDQ) and clofazimine (CFZ) are both recommended for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). As CFZ is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) in vitro, and BDQ a substrate of CYP3A4, there is a potential for pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interaction that may result in increased BDQ exposure when co-administered with CFZ, which could increase the toxicity of BDQ. METHODS: We assessed the effect of co-administered CFZ on BDQ bioavailability, or on clearance of BDQ and its N-monodesmethyl metabolite (M2), in patients with DR-TB using a population PK model developed from data of patients with DR-TB...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sediqe Karimi, Hossein Mirhendi, Fatemh Riyahi Zaniani, Soroor Erfani Manesh, Mahshd Salehi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Background: Molecular methods for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are potentially more rapid than conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing, facilitating the commencement of appropriate treatment for patients with DR-TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate and develop polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays for the detection of mutations within rpsL, and for the determination of streptomycin (STR) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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