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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810911/outcomes-from-patients-with-presumed-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-five-reference-centers-in-brazil
#1
D M P Ramalho, P F C Miranda, M K Andrade, T Brígido, M P Dalcolmo, E Mesquita, C F Dias, A N Gambirasio, J Ueleres Braga, A Detjen, P P J Phillips, I Langley, P I Fujiwara, S B Squire, M M Oliveira, A L Kritski
BACKGROUND: The implementation of rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a current global priority for TB control. However, data are scarce on patient-relevant outcomes for presumptive diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (pDR-TB) evaluated under field conditions in high burden countries. METHODS: Observational study of pDR-TB patients referred by primary and secondary health units. TB reference centers addressing DR-TB in five cities in Brazil. Patients age 18 years and older were eligible if pDR-TB, culture positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, if no prior DST results from another laboratory were used by a physician to start anti-TB treatment...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802400/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-myma-is-a-tlr2-agonist-that-activate-macrophages-and-a-th1-response
#2
Iti Saraav, Swati Singh, Kirti Pandey, Monika Sharma, Sadhna Sharma
Cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a major source of immunogenic proteins that can be tested as vaccine candidates. MymA (Rv3083), a 55 kDa M.tb flavin containing monooxygenase, is involved in modification of mycolic acids during acidic shock following M.tb internalization in macrophage. In this study, we have investigated the role of this cell wall associated protein in activation of macrophages by toll like receptor (TLRs) engagement and subsequent signaling. Our results showed that MymA stimulation of THP1 cells and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) lead to upregulation of TLR2 and co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794886/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-determination-of-rifampicin-resistance-among-new-tuberculosis-cases-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#3
S Atashi, B Izadi, S Jalilian, S H Madani, A Farahani, P Mohajeri
Despite a Mycobacterium tuberculosis control programme and anti-tuberculosis drugs, drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis is needed for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and to find the optimal treatment protocol. The purpose of this study was to detect resistance to rifampicin in new cases of TB using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (M. tuberculosis/rifampicin) assay and the standard proportional method in west and northwest Iran...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746530/hearing-thresholds-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-baseline-audiogram-configurations-and-associations
#4
Olusola Ayodele Sogebi, Muse Olatunbosun Fadeyi, Bolanle Olufunlola Adefuye, Festus Olukayode Soyinka
Objective: To use baseline audiogram parameters in order to ascertain whether drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has effects on hearing, as well as to describe the configurations of the audiograms and to determine whether there are parameters that can be associated with those configurations. Methods: This was a prospective study involving patients diagnosed with DR-TB at a tuberculosis treatment center in the state of Ogun, in Nigeria. The patients included in the study were submitted to pure tone audiometry at baseline (within two weeks after treatment initiation)...
May 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746263/treatment-outcomes-of-children-with-hiv-infection-and-drug-resistant-tb-in-three-provinces-in-south-africa-2005-2008
#5
Eric W Hall, Sapna B Morris, Brittany K Moore, Linda Erasmus, Ronel Odendaal, Heather Menzies, Martie van der Walt, Sarah E Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of HIV-infected pediatric patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from pediatric patient charts treated for DR TB during 2005-2008 were collected retrospectively from five MDR TB hospitals in South Africa. Data were summarized and Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to assess differences in variables of interest by HIV status. A time-to-event analysis was conducted using days from start of treatment to death...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709496/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-coexisting-with-invasive-candidiasis-in-an-immunocompetent-30-year-old-woman-a-case-report
#6
Rakhee Khanduri, Sushant Khanduri, Sanjeev Kumar, Ankur Saini, Arti Kotwal
Invasive candidiasis coexisting with drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) in the immunocompetent patient is a rare entity. We report a 30-year-old woman, nondiabetic, who presented to us with complaints of acute onset cough, breathlessness, and fever since 20 days. On thorough investigations, she was diagnosed to be suffering from coexisting drug-resistant tuberculosis and invasive candidiasis. Prompt treatment initiated at right time helped us in saving her life. The unique presentation of this case and that too in an immunocompetent female makes it an interesting case...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623123/screening-mutations-in-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-in-yunnan-china
#7
Daoqun Li, Yuzhu Song, Cheng-Lin Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xueshan Xia, A-Mei Zhang
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a serious medical and societal problem in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutation characteristics of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates in Yunnan, China. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed in 523 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Six drug resistance genes (katG, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, embB, and pncA) were selected to screen for mutations. In total, 54 clinical M...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619539/systemic-immunological-changes-in-patients-with-distinct-clinical-outcomes-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Tatiane Figueiredo Morais-Papini, Jordana Grazziela Alves Coelho-Dos-Reis, Ana Paula Barbosa Wendling, Lis Ribeiro do Vale Antonelli, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Vânia Luiza Deperon Bonato, Valéria Maria Augusto, Silvana Elói-Santos, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The lung lesions in an individual infected with tuberculosis (TB) are surprisingly variable and independent of each other. However, there is no circulating biomarker yet able to segregate patients according to the extent of lung lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the phenotypic and functional profile of leukocytes of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and controls (CO) were fully scrutinized by immunophenotyping assays and in vitro short-term whole blood culture...
May 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604316/when-students-become-patients-tb-disease-among-medical-undergraduates-in-cape-town-south-africa
#9
Helene-Mari Van der Westhuizen, Angela Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Medical students acquire latent tuberculosis (TB) infection at a rate of 23 cases/100 person-years. The frequency and impact of occupational TB disease in this population are unknown. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015) at two medical schools in Cape Town. Individuals who had developed TB disease as undergraduate students were eligible to participate...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578621/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-zhejiang-province-china-an-updated-analysis-of-time-trends-1999-2013
#10
Beibei Wu, Le Zhang, Zhengwei Liu, Haibo He, Aizhen Pan, Fei Wang, Mingwu Zhang, Bin Chen, Zuhong Lu, Songhua Chen, Xiaomeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) hinder the progress of TB control. OBJECTIVE: To track the trend of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) prevalence in Zhejiang Province from 1999 to 2013, and identify risk factors of resistance to second-line drugs among MDR-TB patients. DESIGN: Four DR-TB surveys had been done in Zhejiang Province in 1999, 2004, 2008 and 2013 through questionnaires, in which demographic and epidemiological items were included...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562103/the-paradigm-shift-to-end-tuberculosis-are-we-ready-to-assume-the-changes
#11
Ignacio Monedero, Rajita Bhavaraju, Alberto Mendoza-Ticona, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá
Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one infectious disease killer and exemplifies the most neglected of them. Drug-susceptible TB presents with high mortality especially in atypical forms, disproportionally affecting immunosuppressed and vulnerable populations. The drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) epidemic, a world crisis, is sustained and increased through person-to-person transmission in households and the community. TB diagnostics and treatment in recent years are highly evolving fields. New rapid molecular tests are changing the perspectives in diagnosis and resistance screening...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494250/recent-developments-of-coumarin-containing-derivatives-and-their-anti-tubercular-activity
#12
Yuan-Qiang Hu, Zhi Xu, Shu Zhang, Xiang Wu, Jun-Wei Ding, Zao-Sheng Lv, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis (TB) is a lift-threatening chronic deadliest infectious disease caused predominantly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) which affects primarily the lungs (pulmonary TB) apart from other vital organs. The emergence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and the recently cases of totally drug resistant (TDR) towards currently accessible standard drugs was increased up to alarming level in the recent decades. In pursuit of searching new anti-TB agents, numerous of derivatives have been synthesized and screened for their anti-TB activity...
May 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480653/the-rate-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-since-2007
#13
Hyun Jung Kim, Hyung Ho Yoon, Byung Wook Eun, Youngmin Ahn, Sungweon Ryoo, Hee Jin Kim
The incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in pediatric populations is a critical indicator of national TB management and treatment strategies. Limited data exist regarding the rate of pediatric DR-TB. In this study, we aimed to analyze the status of DR-TB in Korean children from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed specimens submitted to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) from January 2007 through December 2013. Specimens from patients ≤ 19 years of age were included...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419314/adverse-drug-reactions-during-drug-resistant-tb-treatment-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Rebecca Berhanu, Liesl Page-Shipp, Edina Sinanovic
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions or events (ADR) during drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) treatment in the context of settings with high HIV prevalence (at least 20% of patients). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles in PubMed and Scopus. Pooled proportions of patients experiencing adverse events and relative risk with 95% CI were calculated. Results: The search yielded 24 studies, all observational cohorts...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399971/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-minimal-symptoms-favourable-outcomes-in-the-absence-of-treatment
#15
M Loveday, A Ramjee, G Osburn, I Master, G Kabera, J C M Brust, N Padayatchi, R Warren, G Theron
SETTING: Referral hospital for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical outcomes of patients (age  14 years) with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of DR-TB who had minimal symptoms and/or did not have chest radiographic evidence of active disease at referral. These patients were not started on treatment, but were enrolled in an observation programme with follow-up at 2, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Of 3345 referred patients diagnosed with DR-TB, 192 (6%) were enrolled in the observation programme...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395347/burden-of-occupationally-acquired-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-healthcare-workers-in-the-usa-a-risk-analysis
#16
Rachael M Jones
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infection remains an occupational health burden among healthcare workers (HCWs), but current surveillance data do not allow for attribution of pulmonary TB disease to occupational or community exposures. The objectives of this study were to estimate the annual number of occupationally acquired pulmonary TB infections among HCW in acute care settings (ambulatory care, emergency departments (EDs), and hospitals) in the USA, and to estimate the impact of increased compliance with respiratory protection...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390957/isoniazid-derivatives-and-their-anti-tubercular-activity
#17
REVIEW
Yuan-Qiang Hu, Shu Zhang, Feng Zhao, Chuan Gao, Lian-Shun Feng, Zao-Sheng Lv, Zhi Xu, Xiang Wu
Tuberculosis (TB), which has been a scourge of humanity for thousands of years, is a worldwide pandemic disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The emergence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) increase the challenges to eliminate TB worldwide. Isoniazid (INH), a critical frontline anti-TB drug, is one of the most effective drugs used to treatment of TB infection for more than 60 years...
April 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386407/current-tools-available-for-the-diagnosis-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Christopher Gilpin, A Korobitsyn, K Weyer
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) poses a major threat to control of tuberculosis worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of DR-TB are considerably more difficult than for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) and require higher level infrastructure and proficiency from laboratory specialists and clinicians. The World Health Organization (WHO) End TB Strategy calls for early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment of all persons of all ages with any form of drug-susceptible TB or DR-TB. This requires ensuring access to WHO-recommended rapid diagnostics and universal drug susceptibility testing (DST) for all persons with signs and symptoms of TB...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360464/assess-drug-resistance-pattern-and-genetic-profile-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-by-molecular-typing-methods-using-direct-repeats-and-is6110-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases
#19
Deepika Kalo, Surya Kant, Kanchan Srivastava, Ajay K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious disease that sees no gender, age, or race is mainly a disease of lungs. According to World Health Organization, a TB patient can be completely cured with 6-9 months of anti-TB treatment under directly observed treatment short course. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to check the mono, multi- and triple-drug resistance to first line drugs (FLDs) among TB patients and to access their genetic profile using DR 3074, DR 0270, DR 0642, DR 2068, and DR 4110 using molecular techniques...
March 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319425/overcoming-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-pediatric-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#20
Sylvie Jonckheree, Jennifer Furin
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a growing global health threat and children are especially vulnerable to becoming infected and sick with DR-TB. There is a growing body of evidence on the optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of DR-TB in this vulnerable population. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature on DR-TB in children was done using PubMed and Ovid databases up to 31 December 2016. Topic areas covered included diagnosis of DR-TB, treatment of DR-TB - including novel medications and regimens, prevention of DR-TB, community-based care, and stigma/discrimination...
May 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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