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AQP4 kir4.1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615682/improved-retinal-function-in-rcs-rats-after-suppressing-the-over-activation-of-mglur5
#1
Jiaman Dai, Yan Fu, Yuxiao Zeng, Shiying Li, Zheng Qin Yin
Müller cells maintain retinal synaptic homeostasis by taking up glutamate from the synaptic cleft and transporting glutamine back to the neurons. To study the interaction between Müller cells and photoreceptors, we injected either DL-α-aminoadipate or L-methionine sulfoximine-both inhibitors of glutamine synthetase-subretinally in rats. Following injection, the a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) was attenuated, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) was activated. Selective antagonism of mGluR5 by 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine increased the ERG a-wave amplitude and also increased rhodopsin expression...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597918/inflammation-in-the-developing-rat-modulates-astroglial-reactivity-to-seizures-in-the-mature-brain
#2
Zuzanna Setkowicz, Emilia Kosonowska, Krzysztof Janeczko
Astrocytes participate in neuronal development and excitability, and produce factors enhancing or suppressing inflammatory processes occurring due to neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy. Seizures, in turn, trigger the release of inflammatory mediators, causing structural and functional changes in the brain. Therefore, it appears reasonable to determine whether generalized inflammation at developmental periods can affect astrocyte reactivity to epileptic seizures occurring in the adult brain. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected in 6- or 30-day-old rats (P6 or P30, respectively)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520217/the-gene-encoding-the-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-kir4-1-may-be-involved-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#3
Siri H Opdal, Åshild Vege, Arne Stray-Pedersen, Torleiv O Rognum
AIM: Disturbances in brain function and development may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This Norwegian study aimed to test the hypothesis that specific variants of genes involved in water transport and potassium homeostasis would be predisposing factors for SIDS. METHODS: Genetic variation in the genes encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4), Kir4.1 (KCNJ10) and α-syntrophin were analysed in 171 SIDS cases (62.6% male) with a median age of 15.5 (2-52) weeks and 398 adult controls (70...
May 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297725/rearing-light-intensity-affects-inner-retinal-pathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-x-linked-retinoschisis-but-does-not-alter-gene-therapy-outcome
#4
Dario Marangoni, Zeng Yong, Sten Kjellström, Camasamudram Vijayasarathy, Paul A Sieving, Ronald A Bush
Purpose: To test the effects of rearing light intensity on retinal function and morphology in the retinoschisis knockout (Rs1-KO) mouse model of X-linked retinoschisis, and whether it affects functional outcome of RS1 gene replacement. Methods: Seventy-six Rs1-KO mice were reared in either cyclic low light (LL, 20 lux) or moderate light (ML, 300 lux) and analyzed at 1 and 4 months. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinogram and cavity size by optical coherence tomography...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159978/protection-of-glial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-by-dexamethasone-in-a-mouse-model-of-surgically-induced-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#5
Lourdes Siqueiros-Marquez, Romain Bénard, Ophélie Vacca, Hugo Charles-Messance, Rodrigo Bolaños-Jimenez, Xavier Guilloneau, Florian Sennlaub, Cecilia Montañez, José Alain Sahel, Alvaro Rendon, Ramin Tadayoni, Audrey Giocanti-Aurégan
Purpose: Breakdown of the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) occurs in many retinal disorders and may cause retinal edema often responsible for vision loss. Dexamethasone is used in clinical practice to restore iBRB. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of a surgically induced iBRB breakdown on retinal homeostatic changes due to dystrophin Dp71, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and Kir4.1 alterations in Müller glial cells (MGC) in a mouse model. The protective effect of dexamethasone was assessed in this model...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890830/time-course-of-glial-changes-in-the-hyperhomocysteinemia-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#6
Tiffany L Sudduth, Erica M Weekman, Brittani R Price, Jennifer L Gooch, Abigail Woolums, Christopher M Norris, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729847/kir4-1-k-channel-illusion-or-reality-in-the-autoimmune-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Chen Gu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Many believe autoimmune pathogenesis plays a key role in MS, but its target(s) remains elusive. A recent study detected autoantibodies against KIR4.1, an ATP-sensitive, inward rectifier potassium channel, in nearly half of the MS patients examined. KIR4.1 channels are expressed in astrocytes. Together with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels, they regulate astrocytic functions vital for myelination. Autoantibodies against AQP4 have been established as a key biomarker for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and contributed to diagnostic and treatment strategy adjustments...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276652/reticulon-4a-nogo-a-influences-the-distribution-of-kir4-1-but-is-not-essential-for-potassium-conductance-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#8
Sandrine Joly, Dana A Dodd, Benjamin F Grewe, Vincent Pernet
In the adult retina, we have previously shown that Nogo-A was highly expressed in Müller glia. However, the role of Nogo-A in the glial cell physiology is not clear. In this study, we investigated the possible influence that Nogo-A may exert on other polarized molecules in Müller cells, in particular inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) that respectively control potassium and water exchange in glial cells. Our results showed that adenovirus-mediated Nogo-A overexpression with AdNogo-A increased the immunofluorescent signal of Kir4...
August 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191611/changes-in-aquaporin-4-and-kir4-1-expression-in-rats-with-inherited-retinal-dystrophy
#9
S Lassiale, F Valamanesh, C Klein, D Hicks, M Abitbol, C Versaux-Botteri
Muller glial cells (MGC) are essential for normal functioning of retina. They are especially involved in potassium (K+) and water homeostasis, via inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir 4.1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels respectively. Because MGC appear morphologically and functionally altered in most retinal pathologies, we studied the expression of AQP 4 and Kir 4.1 during the time course of progressive retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, an animal model for the hereditary human retinal degenerative disease Retinitis pigmentosa...
July 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015747/isolation-and-characterization-of-neural-stem-cells-from-dystrophic-mdx-mouse
#10
Tiziana Annese, Patrizia Corsi, Simona Ruggieri, Roberto Tamma, Christian Marinaccio, Sabrina Picocci, Mariella Errede, Giorgina Specchia, Annamaria De Luca, Maria Antonia Frassanito, Vanessa Desantis, Angelo Vacca, Domenico Ribatti, Beatrice Nico
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is altered in mdx mouse, an animal model to study Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our previous work demonstrated that perivascular glial endfeet control the selective exchanges between blood and neuropil as well as the BBB development and integrity; the alterations of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPs) in the glial cells of mdx mouse, parallel damages of the BBB and increase in vascular permeability. The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge about brain cellular components in the mdx mouse through the isolation, for the first time, of the adult neural stem cells (ANSCs)...
May 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26682810/superresolution-imaging-of-aquaporin-4-cluster-size-in-antibody-stained-paraffin-brain-sections
#11
Alex J Smith, Alan S Verkman
The water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) forms supramolecular clusters whose size is determined by the ratio of M1- and M23-AQP4 isoforms. In cultured astrocytes, differences in the subcellular localization and macromolecular interactions of small and large AQP4 clusters results in distinct physiological roles for M1- and M23-AQP4. Here, we developed quantitative superresolution optical imaging methodology to measure AQP4 cluster size in antibody-stained paraffin sections of mouse cerebral cortex and spinal cord, human postmortem brain, and glioma biopsy specimens...
December 15, 2015: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607807/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-activation-by-vegf-antagonizing-drugs-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study-on-rat-primary-retinal-cultures
#12
Lucia Gaddini, Monica Varano, Andrea Matteucci, Cinzia Mallozzi, Marika Villa, Flavia Pricci, Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi
The effects of the anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) drugs ranibizumab and aflibercept were studied in Müller glia in primary mixed cultures from rat neonatal retina. Treatment with both agents induced activation of Müller glia, demonstrated by increased levels of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. In addition, phosphorylated Extracellular-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) showed enhanced immunoreactivity in activated Müller glia. Treatment with aflibercept induced an increase in K(+) channel (Kir) 4...
April 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424896/trpv4-and-aqp4-channels-synergistically-regulate-cell-volume-and-calcium-homeostasis-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#13
Andrew O Jo, Daniel A Ryskamp, Tam T T Phuong, Alan S Verkman, Oleg Yarishkin, Nanna MacAulay, David Križaj
Brain edema formation occurs after dysfunctional control of extracellular volume partly through impaired astrocytic ion and water transport. Here, we show that such processes might involve synergistic cooperation between the glial water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and the transient receptor potential isoform 4 (TRPV4), a polymodal swelling-sensitive cation channel. In mouse retinas, TRPV4 colocalized with AQP4 in the end feet and radial processes of Müller astroglia. Genetic ablation of TRPV4 did not affect the distribution of AQP4 and vice versa...
September 30, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904843/the-central-role-of-aquaporins-in-the-pathophysiology-of-ischemic-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Jasmine Vella, Christian Zammit, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Richard Muscat, Mario Valentino
Stroke is a complex and devastating neurological condition with limited treatment options. Brain edema is a serious complication of stroke. Early edema formation can significantly contribute to infarct formation and thus represents a promising target. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels contribute to water homeostasis by regulating water transport and are implicated in several disease pathways. At least 7 AQP subtypes have been identified in the rodent brain and the use of transgenic mice has greatly aided our understanding of their functions...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25462580/regulation-of-neurovascular-coupling-in-autoimmunity-to-water-and-ion-channels
#15
REVIEW
Peter Jukkola, Chen Gu
Much progress has been made in understanding autoimmune channelopathies, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not always clear due to broad expression of some channel proteins. Recent studies show that autoimmune conditions that interfere with neurovascular coupling in the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to neurodegeneration. Cerebral blood flow that meets neuronal activity and metabolic demand is tightly regulated by local neural activity. This process of reciprocal regulation involves coordinated actions of a number of cell types, including neurons, glia, and vascular cells...
March 2015: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25392324/increased-anti-kir4-1-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis-could-it-be-a-marker-of-disease-relapse
#16
Livnat Brill, Lotem Goldberg, Arnon Karni, Panayiota Petrou, Oded Abramsky, Haim Ovadia, Tamir Ben-Hur, Dimitrios Karussis, Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky
BACKGROUND: Screening of putative autoimmune targets in multiple sclerosis (MS) revealed a proportion of patients carrying antibodies (Abs) against KIR4.1, a potassium channel that shares functional properties with AQP4. Both are localized at the perivascular astrocytic processes. AIMS: To measure anti-KIR4.1 Abs in the serum of MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, and to identify the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients harboring anti-KIR4...
April 2015: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25380566/clustering-of-kir4-1-at-specialized-compartments-of-the-lateral-membrane-in-ependymal-cells-of-rat-brain
#17
Akikazu Fujita, Atsushi Inanobe, Hiroshi Hibino, Søren Nielsen, Ole Petter Ottersen, Yoshihisa Kurachi
Brain ependymal cells, which form an epithelial layer covering the cerebral ventricles, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids. The machinery underlying this, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we report the specific localization of an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, Kir4.1, on the ependymal cell membrane suggesting involvement of the channel in this function. Immunohistochemical study with confocal microscopy identified Kir4.1 labeling on the lateral but not apical membrane of ependymal cells...
February 2015: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24916350/-water-regulation-in-the-cochlea-do-molecular-water-channels-facilitate-potassium-dependent-sound-transduction
#18
A Eckhard, H Löwenheim
BACKGROUND: Sound transduction in the cochlea critically depends on the circulation of potassium ions (K(+)) along so-called "K(+) recycling routes" between the endolymph and perilymph. These K(+) currents generate high ionic and osmotic gradients, which potentially impair the excitability of sensory hair cells and threaten cell survival in the entire cochlear duct. Molecular water channels-aquaporins (AQP)-are expressed in all cochlear supporting cells along the K(+) recycling routes; however, their significance for osmotic equilibration in cochlear duct cells is unknown...
June 2014: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24777283/postnatal-development-of-the-molecular-complex-underlying-astrocyte-polarization
#19
Lisa K Lunde, Laura M A Camassa, Eystein H Hoddevik, Faraz H Khan, Ole Petter Ottersen, Henning B Boldt, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Astrocytes are highly polarised cells with processes that ensheath microvessels, cover the brain surface, and abut synapses. The endfoot membrane domains facing microvessels and pia are enriched with aquaporin-4 water channels (AQP4) and other members of the dystrophin associated protein complex (DAPC). Several lines of evidence show that loss of astrocyte polarization, defined by the loss of proteins that are normally enriched in astrocyte endfeet, is a common denominator of several neurological diseases such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke...
July 2015: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24382652/aav-mediated-gene-delivery-in-dp71-null-mouse-model-with-compromised-barriers
#20
Ophélie Vacca, Marie Darche, David V Schaffer, John G Flannery, José-Alain Sahel, Alvaro Rendon, Deniz Dalkara
Formation and maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is required for proper vision and breaching of this barrier contributes to the pathology in a wide variety of retinal conditions such as retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy. Dystrophin Dp71 being a key membrane cytoskeletal protein, expressed mainly in Müller cells, its absence has been related to BRB permeability through delocalization and down-regulation of the AQP4 and Kir4.1 channels. Dp71-null mouse is thus an excellent model to approach the study of retinal pathologies showing blood-retinal barrier permeability...
March 2014: Glia
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