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Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Brendan Twamley, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Alexander Stratford, Landon M Klein, John D McCorvy, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the best-known psychoactive substances and many structural modifications of this prototypical lysergamide have been investigated. Several lysergamides were recently encountered as 'research chemicals' or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Although lysergic acid morpholide (LSM-775) appeared on the NPS market in 2013, there is disagreement in the literature regarding the potency and psychoactive properties of LSM-775 in humans. The present investigation attempts to address the gap of information that exists regarding the analytical profile and pharmacological effects of LSM-775...
February 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Alexander Stratford, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
The psychoactive properties of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have fascinated scientists across disciplines and the exploration of other analogues and derivatives has been motivated by deepening the understanding of ligand-receptor interactions at the molecular level as well as by the search for new therapeutics. Several LSD congeners have appeared on the new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in the form of blotters or powders. Examples include 1-propionyl-LSD (1P-LSD), AL-LAD, and LSZ. The absence of analytical data for novel compounds is a frequent challenge encountered in clinical and toxicological investigations...
October 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shruti Beharry, Simon Gibbons
The purpose of this review is to identify emerging or new psychoactive substances (NPS) by undertaking an online survey of the UK NPS market and to gather any data from online drug forums and published literature. Drugs from four main classes of NPS were identified: psychostimulants, dissociative anaesthetics, hallucinogens (phenylalkylamine-based and lysergamide-based materials) and finally benzodiazepines. For inclusion in the review, the 'user reviewers' on drugs forums were selected based on whether or not the particular NPS of interest was used alone or in combination...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Tristan Colestock, Timothy E Burrow, Stephen J Chapman, Alexander Stratford, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
Lysergic acid N,N-diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the most intriguing psychoactive substances known and numerous analogs have been explored to varying extents in previous decades. In 2013, N6 -allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2'S,4'S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ) appeared on the 'research chemicals'/new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in both powdered and blotter form. This study reports the analytical characterization of powdered AL-LAD and LSZ tartrate samples and their semi-quantitative determination on blotter paper...
January 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Folker Westphal, Alexander Stratford, Simon P Elliott, Khoa Hoang, Jason Wallach, Adam L Halberstadt
1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide hemitartrate (1P-LSD) has become available as a 'research chemical' in the form of blotters and powdered material. This non-controlled derivative of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has previously not been described in the published literature despite being closely related to 1-acetyl-LSD (ALD-52), which was developed in the 1950s. This study describes the characterization of 1P-LSD in comparison with LSD using various chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
September 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Grzegorz R Juszczak, Artur H Swiergiel
Recently, there are important changes in recreational drug use. The aim of the present study was to analyse reports published on a recreational web site by drug users who ingested seeds of plants belonging to the Convolvulaceae family and to compare them with available medical case reports. We have also included reports describing the effects induced by "druids fantasy," which is a new drug allegedly containing the same alkaloid as the seeds of A. nervosa. Our search reveals the reoccurrence of recreational use of I...
January 2013: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jan Rohlíček, Michal Hušák, Bohumil Kratochvíl, Alexandr Jegorov
The title compound {systematic name: 9,10-didehydro-N-[1-(hydroxy-meth-yl)prop-yl]-d-lysergamide maleate}, C(20)H(26)N(3)O(2) (+)·C(4)H(3)O(4) (-), contains a large rigid ergolene group. This group consists of an indole plane connected to a six-membered carbon ring adopting an envelope conformation and N-methyl-tetra-hydro-pyridine where the methyl group is in an equatorial position. In the crystal, inter-molecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form an extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network, which holds the cations and anions together...
2009: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online
Helene Bendstrup Klinke, Irene Breum Müller, Steffen Steffenrud, Rasmus Dahl-Sørensen
We describe two cases of human consumption of seeds from Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), which resulted in one fatality due to falling from a building and one surviving witness. The principal psychoactive constituent of the seeds, lysergamide (LSA), was recovered from blood and urine samples by mixed-mode cation exchange solid-phase extraction and quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ToF/MS). The LSA concentrations were determined by UPLC-ToF/MS to be 4...
April 15, 2010: Forensic Science International
Maiko Kawamura, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Yukihiro Goda
Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) is a novel ionization technique that provides for the rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. To investigate the trend of non-controlled psychotropic plants of abuse in Japan, a rapid screening method, without sample preparation, was developed using DART-time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for plant products. The major psychotropic constituents of these products were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). As a result of the DART-TOFMS analyses of 36 products, the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+), corresponding to 6 kinds of major hallucinogenic constituents (mescaline, salvinorin A, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, harmine, harmaline and lysergamide), were detected in 21 products...
June 2009: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1964: Journal de Physiologie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1961: Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de Ses Filiales
David E Nichols, Stewart Frescas, Danuta Marona-Lewicka, Deborah M Kurrasch-Orbaugh
Lysergic acid amides were prepared from (R,R)-(-)-, (S,S)-(+)-, and cis-2,4-dimethyl azetidine. The dimethylazetidine moiety is considered here to be a rigid analogue of diethylamine, and thus, the target compounds are all conformationally constrained analogues of the potent hallucinogenic agent, N,N-diethyllysergamide, LSD-25. Pharmacological evaluation showed that (S,S)-(+)-2,4-dimethylazetidine gave a lysergamide with the highest LSD-like behavioral activity in the rat two lever drug discrimination model that was slightly more potent than LSD itself...
September 12, 2002: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
L Martínková, V Kren, L Cvak, M Ovesná, I Prepechalová
From a mixture of lysergamide and its epimer isolysergamide, Rhodococcus equi A4 containing amidase preferentially hydrolyzed lysergamide into lysergic acid.
November 17, 2001: Journal of Biotechnology
R C Pfaff, X Huang, D Marona-Lewicka, R Oberlender, D E Nichols
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1994: NIDA Research Monograph
X Huang, D Marona-Lewicka, R C Pfaff, D E Nichols
Isopropyl (IPLA), N-methyl-N-isopropyl (MIPLA), N-ethyl-N-isopropyl (EIPLA), and N,N-diisopropyl (DIPLA) lysergamides were evaluated for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-like activity. In rats trained to discriminate 0.08 mg/kg LSD tartrate from saline, each of the subject compounds completely substituted, with an ED50 two to three times larger than that of LSD except for DIPLA, which had an ED50 about eightfold greater. Similarly, all the compounds displaced [125I](R)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ([125I]DOI) from rat cortical homogenates and displaced [3H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin ([3H]8-OH-DPAT) from rat hippocampal homogenates with KI values similar to those of LSD, again with the exception of DIPLA, which had about nine- and fourfold lower affinities, respectively...
March 1994: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
J W Oliver, L K Abney, J R Strickland, R D Linnabary
Treatment of bovine lateral saphenous vein (cranial branch) and dorsal metatarsal artery with lysergamide (lysergic acid amide), an alkaloid in abundance in tall fescue, resulted in vasoconstriction similar to that previously shown for the ergot alkaloids ergonovine and ergotamine. Preincubation of tissues with lysergamide resulted in partial inhibition of the contractile response induced by the selective adrenergic agents phenylephrine and BHT-920 (P < .05), indicating partial agonist or antagonist activity of lysergamide at these receptors...
October 1993: Journal of Animal Science
A P Monte, D Marona-Lewicka, A Kanthasamy, E Sanders-Bush, D E Nichols
The 3-pentyl-, (R)- and (S)-2-pentyl-, 2-hexyl-, and 2-heptylamides of d-lysergic acid were synthesized and evaluated in biochemical and behavioral assays for LSD-like activity. In radioligand competition studies, the (R)-lysergamides were consistently more potent than the (S)-amides in displacing [3H]ketanserin from 5-HT2A receptors in rat cortical homogenate and in displacing [3H]-8-OH-DPAT ([3H]-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n- propylamino)tetralin) from rat hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors. As the amide alkyl was lengthened from pentyl to heptyl, the affinity of the (R)-isomers for 5-HT2A sites decreased, while affinity for 5-HT1A sites was maximal for the (R)-2-hexyllysergamide...
March 17, 1995: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
V J Watts, C P Lawler, D R Fox, K A Neve, D E Nichols, R B Mailman
The hallucinogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have been attributed primarily to actions at serotonin receptors. A number of studies conducted in the 1970s indicated that LSD also has activity at dopamine (DA) receptors. These latter studies are difficult to interpret, however, because they were completed before the recognition of two pharmacologically distinct DA receptor subtypes, D1 and D2. The availability of subtype-selective ligands (e.g., the D1 antagonist SCH23390) and clonal cell lines expressing a homogeneous receptor population now permits an assessment of the contributions of DA receptor subtypes to the DA-mediated effects of LSD...
April 1995: Psychopharmacology
M C Bindal, P Singh, S P Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1981: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
A Ricicová, M Flieger, Z Rehácek
Claviceps paspali FA produced high concentrations of alkaloid under submerged conditions. Their production was found to depend on the developmental stage and treatment of the filamentous culture inoculum. A medium containing Bacto-peptone with a constant composition of amino acids was selected for the preparation of the inoculum. A two-week fermentation in a synthetic medium with mannitol at 24 +/- 1 degrees C resulted in an increased production of total alkaloids from the original value of 100-200 micrograms/mL to more than 2000 micrograms/mL...
1982: Folia Microbiologica
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