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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674947/health-and-social-problems-associated-with-recent-novel-psychoactive-substance-nps-use-amongst-marginalised-nightlife-and-online-users-in-six-european-countries
#1
Marie Claire Van Hout, Annemieke Benschop, Michal Bujalski, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Zsolt Demetrovics, Katalin Felvinczi, Evelyn Hearne, Susana Henriques, Zsuzsa Kaló, Gerrit Kamphausen, Dirk Korf, Joana Paula Silva, Łukasz Wieczorek, Bernd Werse
Continued diversification and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) across Europe remains a public health challenge. The study describes health and social consequences of recent NPS use as reported in a survey of marginalised, nightlife and online NPS users in the Netherlands, Hungary, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and Poland ( n  = 3023). Some respondents were unable to categorise NPS they had used. Use of ' herbal blends ' and ' synthetic cannabinoids obtained pure ' was most reported in Germany, Poland and Hungary, and use of ' branded stimulants ' and ' stimulants/empathogens/nootropics obtained pure ' was most reported in the Netherlands...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671423/engineering-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-mips-for-the-selective-extraction-and-quantification-of-the-novel-psychoactive-substance-nps-methoxphenidine-and-its-regioisomers
#2
J W Lowdon, S M O Alkirkit, R E Mewis, D Fulton, C E Banks, O B Sutcliffe, M Peeters
In this communication, we present the first developed Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for the specific detection of a New Psychoactive Substance (NPS); namely, methoxphenidine (MXP) and its regioisomers. Selectivity of the MIP towards MXP is studied by analysing mixtures and an acquired street sample with High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to UV detection. The study demonstrates that the engineered polymers selectively extract MXP from heterogeneous samples, which makes for a very powerful diagnostic tool that can detect traces of MXP in complicated NPS samples...
April 19, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642450/mechanistic-insights-into-the-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-and-their-discrimination-by-the-dopamine-transporter-in-silico-and-in-vitro-exploration-of-dissociative-diarylethylamines
#3
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, Neelakshi Dutta, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) may have unsuspected addiction potential through possessing stimulant properties. Stimulants normally act at the dopamine transporter (DAT) and thus increase dopamine (DA) availability in the brain, including nucleus accumbens, within the reward and addiction pathway. This paper aims to assess DAT responses to dissociative diarylethylamine NPS by means of in vitro and in silico approaches. We compared diphenidine (DPH) and 2-methoxydiphenidine (methoxphenidine, 2-MXP/MXP) for their binding to rat DAT, using autoradiography assessment of [125 I]RTI-121 displacement in rat striatal sections...
April 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618077/n-ethyl-pentylone-ephylone-intoxications-quantitative-confirmation-and-metabolite-identification-in-authentic-human-biological-specimens
#4
Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Bruno S De Martinis, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
N-ethyl pentylone (ephylone) has been identified as the most recent novel stimulant to emerge into the arena of evolving novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Due to its novelty, information regarding case reports with associated quantitative confirmations, biotransformation pathways, and identified unique metabolites will assist the scientific community in understanding the implications of the emergence and risks associated with N-ethyl pentylone use. Authentic blood specimens (n = 26) submitted as part of toxicological death investigations or drugged driving casework tested positive for N-ethyl pentylone, and were quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596473/psychoactive-substances-and-violent-offences-a-retrospective-analysis-of-presentations-to-an-urban-emergency-department-in-switzerland
#5
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabienne Gartwyl, Meret Ricklin, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Stephan Krähenbühl
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substances are often regarded as causal factors contributing to violent injuries, sexual abuse and homicides. While these effects have been demonstrated for some substances (e.g. cocaine), current available data for others are more controversial (e.g. cannabis) or very limited (e.g. ecstasy). AIMS OF THE STUDY: To collect data on the type and frequency of psychoactive substance use in cases of emergency department (ED) presentations related to interpersonal violence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559524/activity-based-detection-of-cannabinoids-in-serum-and-plasma-samples
#6
Annelies Cannaert, Jolien Storme, Cornelius Hess, Volker Auwärter, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids are the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Addiction. The rapid proliferation of novel analogs makes the detection of these new derivatives challenging and has initiated considerable interest in the development of so-called "untargeted" screening strategies to detect these compounds. METHODS: We developed new, stable bioassays in which cannabinoid receptor activation by cannabinoids led to recruitment of truncated β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) to the cannabinoid receptors, resulting in functional complementation of a split luciferase, allowing readout via bioluminescence...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549157/molecular-and-behavioral-pharmacological-characterization-of-abused-synthetic-cannabinoids-mmb-and-mdmb-fubinaca-mn-18-nnei-cumyl-pica-and-5-fluoro-cumyl-pica
#7
Thomas F Gamage, Charlotte E Farquhar, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Richard C Kevin, Iain S McGregor, Jenny L Wiley, Brian F Thomas
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of novel psychoactive substances that exhibit high affinity at the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor and produce effects similar to those of THC, the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis. Illicit drug manufacturers are continually circumventing laws banning the sale of synthetic cannabinoids by synthesizing novel structures and doing so with little regard for their potential impact on pharmacological and toxicological effects. Synthetic cannabinoids produce a wide range of effects including cardiotoxicity, seizure activity, and kidney damage and can result in death...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547781/quantitative-estimation-of-%C3%AE-pvp-metabolites-in-urine-by-gc-apci-qtofms-with-nitrogen-chemiluminescence-detection-based-on-parent-drug-calibration
#8
Samuel Mesihää, Ilpo Rasanen, Ilkka Ojanperä
Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547520/the-dynamic-environment-of-crypto-markets-the-lifespan-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-and-vendors-selling-nps
#9
Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Paolo Deluca
The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor). Data collection took place bimonthly from October 2015 to October 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA ( C omputer A ssisted S olutions for S tudying the A vailability a N d D ist R ibution of novel psycho A ctive substances) project...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534614/annals-express-analytical-evidence-to-show-letters-impregnated-with-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-are-a-means-of-getting-drugs-to-inmates-within-the-uk-prison-service
#10
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533974/mood-fluctuation-and-psychobiological-instability-the-same-core-functions-are-disrupted-by-novel-psychoactive-substances-and-established-recreational-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533309/%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-flakka-catalyzing-catatonia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514583/a-prospective-observational-study-of-emergency-department-presentations-following-novel-psychoactive-substance-use
#13
David E Henshall, Callum Wd Innes, Scott R Morrison, Blair Wilson, Ryan A Brown, Shannon M McAllister, Seamus L Culshaw, Elaina Reda
Background and aims Novel psychoactive substances are compounds intended to mimic the effects of illicit drugs. They provide a unique challenge to healthcare, as complications of their use and their impact on services are relatively unknown. This study aims to determine nature of presentations, patient demographics and impact on healthcare. Methods Novel psychoactive substances users who presented to a large urban emergency department over 4 weeks were prospectively identified and followed for 1 year. Patients over 13 years old were eligible for inclusion...
January 1, 2018: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514124/chromatographic-retention-behaviour-modelling-and-optimization-of-a-uhplc-uv-separation-of-the-regioisomers-of-the-novel-psychoactive-substance-nps-methoxphenidine-mxp
#14
Bernard O Boateng, Mark Fever, Darren Edwards, Patrik Petersson, Melvin R Euerby, Oliver B Sutcliffe
A detailed investigation into the chromatographic retention behaviour and separation of the three regioisomers of the Novel Psychoactive Substance (NPS) methoxphenidine (i.e. 2-, 3- and 4-MXP isomers) has revealed the ionization state of the analyte and stationary phase, to be the controlling factor in dictating which retention mechanism is in operation. At low pH, poor separation and retention was observed. In contrast, at intermediate pH, enhanced retention and separation of the three MXP isomers was obtained; it appeared that there was a synergistic effect between the electrostatic and hydrophobic mechanisms...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459820/high-throughput-measurement-of-locomotor-sensitization-to-volatilized-cocaine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Ana Filošević, Sabina Al-Samarai, Rozi Andretić Waldowski
Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila ...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441248/addressing-hazards-from-unscheduled-novel-psychoactive-substances-as-research-chemicals-the-case-of-u-50488
#16
EDITORIAL
Zubair M Amin, Kerry Anne Rambaran, Steven W Fleming, Kevin Cho, Liza Chacko, Saeed K Alzghari
Increased experimentation with easily accessible synthetic opioids is posing a hazard to the public. We discuss one such synthetic opioid, U-50488. Much is unknown about U-50488; however, due to its structural similarity to U-47700, there is possible risk associated with its use. Curtailing the use of synthetic opioids such as U-50488 will require a concerted effort targeting multiple problems.
December 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437467/the-analytical-challenge-in-the-determination-of-cathinones-key-players-in-the-worldwide-phenomenon-of-novel-psychoactive-substances
#17
Rosa A S Couto, Luís Moreira Gonçalves, Félix Carvalho, José A Rodrigues, Cecília M P Rodrigues, M Beatriz Quinaz
Since the turn of the century, the synthesis, availability and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly reported worldwide, being currently considered a complex global phenomenon. As most NPS are not detected in routine drug screening, an extra effort has been made to develop new analytical methods for the detection of these compounds, with several approaches being successfully applied and reported in the literature. The increased traffic of NPS is often related to limited capacity for detecting and monitoring these compounds, which makes essential to explore in detail both conventional and more recent approaches to prospect novel sensing strategies and develop in-the-field sensors able to detect NPS in a time efficient manner, within a wide range of concentrations, in a variety of sample matrices such as biological samples, wastewater, powders, crystals and post-mortem specimens...
February 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423994/functional-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-versus-%C3%AE-9-thc-in-mice-on-body-temperature-nociceptive-threshold-anxiety-cognition-locomotor-exploratory-parameters-and-depression
#18
Shaul Schreiber, Miaad Bader, Tatiana Lenchinski, Inbar Meningher, Vardit Rubovitch, Yiffat Katz, Etia Cohen, Yankel Gabet, Michal Rotenberg, Ehud Udi Wolf, Chaim G Pick
Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive substances designed to mimic the euphorigenic effects of the natural cannabis. Novel unregulated compounds appear once older compounds become illegal. It has been previously reported that synthetic cannabinoids are different than Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) as they have chemical structures unrelated to Δ9 -THC, different metabolism and, often, greater toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of three novel synthetic cannabinoids and pure Δ9 -THC on body temperature, nociceptive threshold, anxiety, memory function, locomotor and exploratory parameters, and depression...
February 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409048/the-public-health-evidence-base-on-novel-psychoactive-substance-use-scoping-review-with-narrative-synthesis-of-selected-bodies-of-evidence
#19
Nick Meader, Noreen Mdege, Jim McCambridge
Background: This review aimed to address what was known about the public health burden associated with novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use, and the effectiveness of responses targeting NPS use and/or associated problems. Methods: Relevant literature was identified through a range of searches covering the period from January 2006 to June 2016. Data synthesis was undertaken in three stages. Firstly we mapped the evidence available in order to characterize the literature according to a set of analytic categories developed a priori...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403350/the-experience-elicited-by-hallucinogens-presents-the-highest-similarity-to-dreaming-within-a-large-database-of-psychoactive-substance-reports
#20
Camila Sanz, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology ("what it feels like" to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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