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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226266/parallel-artificial-liquid-membrane-extraction-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-plasma-and-whole-blood
#1
Linda Vårdal, Hilde-Merete Askildsen, Astrid Gjelstad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Hilde Marie Erøy Edvardsen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210779/locomotor-activity-and-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-a-novel-series-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs-in-mice-and-rats
#2
Michael B Gatch, Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster
RATIONALE: Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160034/the-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-on-executive-function
#3
K Cohen, M Kapitány-Fövény, Y Mama, M Arieli, P Rosca, Z Demetrovics, A Weinstein
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a growing use of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) including synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects similar to those of natural cannabis but the new synthetic cannabinoids are more potent and dangerous and their use has resulted in various adverse effects. The purpose of the study was to assess whether persistent use of synthetic cannabinoids is associating with impairments of executive function in chronic users. METHODS: A total of 38 synthetic cannabinoids users, 43 recreational cannabis users, and 41 non-user subjects were studied in two centers in Hungary and Israel...
February 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133938/characterisation-of-hallucinogenic-phenethylamines-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-non-targeted-screening-purposes
#4
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) has seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this study, twelve 2C-X, six 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines (DOX) and fourteen 25X-NBOMe derivatives, including two deuterated derivatives (2C-B-d6 and 25I-NBOMe-d9 ), were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
January 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125508/a-cannabigerol-rich-cannabis-sativa-extract-devoid-of-increment-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-elicits-hyperphagia-in-rats
#5
Daniel I Brierley, James Samuels, Marnie Duncan, Benjamin J Whalley, Claire M Williams
Nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids (pCBs) from Cannabis sativa may represent novel therapeutic options for cachexia because of their pleiotropic pharmacological activities, including appetite stimulation. We have recently shown that purified cannabigerol (CBG) is a novel appetite stimulant in rats. As standardized extracts from Cannabis chemotypes dominant in one pCB [botanical drug substances (BDSs)] often show greater efficacy and/or potency than purified pCBs, we investigated the effects of a CBG-rich BDS, devoid of psychoactive [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol, on feeding behaviour...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122703/novel-psychoactive-substances-identifying-and-managing-acute-and-chronic-harmful-use
#6
Derek K Tracy, David M Wood, David Baumeister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122697/novel-psychoactive-substances-types-mechanisms-of-action-and-effects
#7
REVIEW
Derek K Tracy, David M Wood, David Baumeister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#8
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059498/rapid-screening-method-for-new-psychoactive-substances-of-forensic-interest-electrochemistry-and-analytical-determination-of-phenethylamines-derivatives-nbome-via-cyclic-and-differential-pulse-voltammetry
#9
Ana Flávia B Andrade, Samuel Kasahun Mamo, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez
The NBOMe derivatives are phenethylamines derived from the 2C class of hallucinogens. Only a few human pharmacologic studies have been conducted on these drugs, and several cases of intoxication and deaths have been reported. Presently, NBOMe are not a part of the routine drugs-of-abuse screening procedure for many police forces, and there are no rapid immunoassay screening tests that can detect the presence of those compounds. In this Article, the voltammetric behavior of 25B NBOMe and 25I NBOMe were investigated and their electroanalytical characteristics determined for the first time...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035035/analysis-of-u-47700-a-novel-synthetic-opioid-in-human-urine-by-lc-ms-ms-and-lc-qtof
#10
Steven W Fleming, Justin C Cooley, Leonard Johnson, C Clinton Frazee, Kristina Domanski, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Uttam Garg
The illicit drug market has rapidly evolved from synthetic cannabinoids to cathinone derivatives and now a new emerging threat of synthetic opioids. These compounds were mostly developed by pharmaceutical companies during drug discovery. The new psychoactive substances are not routinely covered in drug screening and may go undetected. Recently fentanyl analogous, AH-7921, MT-45 and now U-47700 have been encountered in clinical and forensic casework. U-47700 is gaining popularity on drug user forms as a legal alternative to heroin...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029499/development-of-an-enantioseparation-method-for-novel-psychoactive-drugs-by-hplc-using-a-lux-%C3%A2-cellulose-2-column-in-polar-organic-phase-mode
#11
Magdalena Taschwer, Jörg Grascher, Martin G Schmid
Since the last decade, the hype of the recreational use of novel psychoactive drugs is still on its top in entire Europe. Every year, new derivatives enter the drug market and enlarge the broad spectrum of misused drugs. Many of these compounds contain a stereogenic centre and therefore two enantiomers exist. It is obvious that the pharmacological potency of the isomers differ as it is already known from various pharmaceutical ingredients. Therefore, the development of analytical methods for the chiral separation of new psychoactive substances is of great medical and forensic interest...
October 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025810/application-of-a-combined-approach-to-identify-new-psychoactive-street-drugs-and-decipher-their-mechanisms-at-monoamine-transporters
#12
Felix P Mayer, Anton Luf, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Rainer Schmid, Michael Freissmuth, Harald H Sitte
Psychoactive compounds can cause acute and long-term health problems and lead to addiction. In addition to well-studied and legally controlled compounds like cocaine, new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in street drug markets as replacement strategies and legal alternatives. NPS are effectively marketed as "designer drugs" or "research chemicals" without any knowledge of their underlying pharmacological mode of action and their potential toxicological effects and obviously devoid of any registration process...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992785/identification-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-25b-nbome-and-4-cmc-in-biological-material-using-hplc-q-tof-ms-and-their-quantification-in-blood-using-uplc-ms-ms-in-case-of-severe-intoxications
#13
Marek Wiergowski, Justyna Aszyk, Michał Kaliszan, Kamila Wilczewska, Jacek Sein Anand, Agata Kot-Wasik, Zbigniew Jankowski
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976363/acute-skin-and-hair-symptoms-followed-by-severe-delayed-eye-complications-in-subjects-using-the-synthetic-opioid-mt-45
#14
A Helander, M Bradley, A Hasselblad, L Norlén, I Vassilaki, M Bäckberg, J Lapins
BACKGROUND: The introduction of unclassified new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the recreational drugs market through open online sale ('legal highs' or 'Internet drugs') continues unabated and represents a growing health hazard. The use of NPS has resulted in numerous, severe, adverse events and fatalities, due to unintended overdose or unknown toxic side-effects. OBJECTIVES: To try to find a possible common underlying cause for the skin-hair-eye symptoms complex observed in three men...
December 14, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-underresearched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#15
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since the early 2000s; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly," although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#16
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871332/the-prevalence-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-use-in-non-clinical-populations-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Salma M Khaled, Elizabeth Hughes, Dan Bressington, Monica Zolezzi, Ahmed Radwan, Ashish Badnapurkar, Richard Gray
BACKGROUND: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called "head shops." Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. METHODS: This is a systematic review of observational studies...
November 21, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866061/patterns-of-drugs-poisons-in-southern-area-of-south-korea-in-2014
#18
Eunmi Kim, Yonghoon Park, Hongil Ha, Heesun Chung
The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834144/evolutionary-considerations-on-the-emerging-subculture-of-the-e-psychonauts-and-the-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-comeback-to-the-shamanism
#19
Laura Orsolini, Paul St John-Smith, Daniel McQueen, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary research on drug abuse has hitherto been restricted to proximate studies, considering aetiology, mechanism, and ontogeny. However, in order to explain the recent emergency of a new behavioral pattern (e.g. 'the e-psychonaut style') of novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) intake, a complementary evolutionary model may be needed. OBJECTIVE: A range of evolutionary interpretations on the 'psychonaut style' and the recent emergency of NPS was here considered...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829332/in-vitro-metabolite-profiling-of-adb-fubinaca-a-new-synthetic-cannabinoid
#20
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Ariane Wohlfarth, Karl Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
Metabolite profiling of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) is critical for documenting drug consumption. N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-FUBINACA) is an emerging synthetic cannabinoid whose toxicological and metabolic data are currently unavailable. We aimed to determine optimal markers for identifying ADB-FUBINACA intake. Metabolic stability was evaluated with human liver microsome incubations. Metabolites were identified after 1 and 3 h incubation with pooled human hepatocytes, liquid chromatography- high resolution mass spectrometry in positive-ion mode (5600+ TripleTOF®, Sciex) and several data mining approaches (MetabolitePilot™, Sciex)...
November 8, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
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