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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216523/use-of-synthetic-stimulants-and-hallucinogens-in-a-cohort-of-electronic-dance-music-festival-attendees
#1
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204127/synthetic-aminoindanes-a-summary-of-existing-knowledge
#3
REVIEW
Nikola Pinterova, Rachel R Horsley, Tomas Palenicek
Objectives: Aminoindanes ("bath salts," a class of novel psychoactive substances, NPSs) increased rapidly in popularity on the recreational drug market, particularly after mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones were banned in the UK in 2010. Novel aminoindanes continue to emerge, but relatively little is known about their effects and risks. Their history, chemistry, pharmacology, behavioral effects, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity are reviewed in this paper. Methods: Scientific literature was searched on ISI Web of Knowledge: Web of Science (WoS) during June and July 2017, using English language terms: aminoindanes such as 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI), 2-aminoindane (2-AI), 5,6-methylenedioxy-N-methyl-2-aminoindane (MDMAI), and 5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203502/characteristics-of-nps-use-in-patients-admitted-to-acute-psychiatric-services-in-southeast-scotland-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis-following-public-health-interventions
#4
Kyle H Bennett, Helen M Hare, Robert M Waller, Helen L Alderson, Stephen Lawrie
OBJECTIVES: Assess the impact of selective prohibition and seizure of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) supply on NPS use prevalence within psychiatric admissions and evaluate demographic characteristics of current NPS users. DESIGN: A 6-month retrospective cross-sectional analysis of discharge letters between 1 October 2015 and 31 March 2016. SETTING: General psychiatry inpatients and intensive home treatment team (IHTT) community patients at a psychiatric hospital in a Scottish city...
December 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186585/fatality-following-ingestion-of-tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl-u-49900-and-methoxy-phencyclidine
#5
Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Melissa Friscia, Jennifer L Swartz, Brian D Holsey, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), and specifically novel opioids, continue to cause adverse events, including death, within drug-using populations. As the number of opioid-related overdoses continues to increase, laboratories have identified the emergence of new fentanyl analogues and other synthetic opioid-related drugs. Tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl (THFF) has been identified in Europe and the United States as an emerging novel opioid, causing death in at least 15 drug-using individuals to date. THFF is structurally similar to furanylfentanyl, a previously characterized novel opioid responsible for numerous adverse events, including death...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183686/neurocognitive-dysfunction-following-repeated-binge-like-self-administration-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv
#6
REVIEW
Kaveish Sewalia, Lucas R Watterson, Alyssa Hryciw, Anna Belloc, J Bryce Ortiz, M Foster Olive
Synthetic cathinones, frequently referred to as "bath salts", have significant abuse potential, and recent evidence suggests that these novel psychoactive substances can also produce cognitive deficits as well as cytotoxic effects. However, most of these latter findings have been obtained either using high concentrations in vitro or following non-contingent high dose administration in vivo. The present study utilized a model of long-term voluntary binge-like self-administration to determine potential detrimental effects of synthetic cathinones on cognitive function and their known underlying neural circuits, collectively referred to as neurocognitive dysfunction...
November 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167538/a-deep-dream-virtual-reality-platform-for-studying-altered-perceptual-phenomenology
#7
Keisuke Suzuki, Warrick Roseboom, David J Schwartzman, Anil K Seth
Altered states of consciousness, such as psychotic or pharmacologically-induced hallucinations, provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms underlying conscious perception. However, the phenomenological properties of these states are difficult to isolate experimentally from other, more general physiological and cognitive effects of psychoactive substances or psychopathological conditions. Thus, simulating phenomenological aspects of altered states in the absence of these other more general effects provides an important experimental tool for consciousness science and psychiatry...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148866/drugs-of-abuse-and-novel-psychoactive-substances-at-outdoor-music-festivals-in-colorado
#8
Jacob Fox, Alexis Smith, Alexander Yale, Christopher Chow, Elsa Alaswad, Tracy Cushing, Andrew A Monte
BACKGROUND: Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA...
November 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081089/evaluation-of-the-abuse-potential-of-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-with-modifications-on-the-amine-nbna-and-phenyl-eda-pmea-2-apn-sites
#9
Raly James Perez Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Yong Ho Kwon, Nam Yong Kim, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Recently, there has been a rise in the number of amphetamine derivatives that serve as substitutes for controlled substances (e.g. amphetamine and methamphetamine) on the global illegal drug market. These substances are capable of producing rewarding effects similar to their parent drug. In anticipation of the future rise of new and similar psychoactive substances, we designed and synthesized four novel amphetamine derivatives with N-benzyl, N-benzylamphetamine HCl (NBNA) substituent on the amine region, 1,4-dioxane ring, ethylenedioxy-amphetamine HCl (EDA), methyl, para-methylamphetamine HCl (PMEA), and naphthalene, 2-(aminopropyl) naphthalene HCl (2-APN) substituents on the phenyl site...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072524/acute-side-effects-after-consumption-of-the-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-chminaca-and-mdmb-chmica
#10
Maren Hermanns-Clausen, Dieter Müller, Josephine Kithinji, Verena Angerer, Florian Franz, Florian Eyer, Hartmud Neurath, Gesine Liebetrau, Volker Auwärter
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the "European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction" (EMCDDA) reported on 30 novel synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). Among these were indole- and indazole-based valine derivatives with a cyclohexylmethyl side chain (e.g., AB-CHMINACA and MDMB-CHMICA), which represent a new class of SCs. METHODS: A prospective observational study of patients treated in emergency departments (EDs) after the intake of SCs was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data were combined and reported to a poison control centre...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038156/human-toxicity-caused-by-indole-and-indazole-carboxylate-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-from-horizon-scanning-to-notification
#11
Simon L Hill, Michael Dunn, Céline Cano, Suzannah J Harnor, Ian R Hardcastle, Johann Grundlingh, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood, Simon Tucker, Thomas Bartram, Simon H L Thomas
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), particularly synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA), has involved hundreds of potentially harmful chemicals in a highly dynamic international market challenging users', clinicians', and regulators' understanding of what circulating substances are causing harm. We describe a toxicovigilance system for NPS that predicted the UK emergence and identified the clinical toxicity caused by novel indole and indazole carboxylate SCRA...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#12
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985394/a-validated-method-for-the-detection-of-32-bath-salts-in-oral-fluid
#13
Michelle Williams, Jennifer Martin, Peter Galettis
Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used and testing methodology followed by the testing agency. However, they are not comprehensive and for many years workers have been able to consume novel psychoactive substances to avoid detection and without consequences. Here, we present a validated method for the detection of 32 Synthetic Stimulant and Hallucogenic drugs, commonly sold as bath salts, in oral fluid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985320/multiple-drug-toxicity-involving-novel-psychoactive-substances-3-fluorophenmetrazine-and-u-47700
#14
Kayla N Ellefsen, Elizabeth A Taylor, Paul Simmons, Vickie Willoughby, Brad J Hall
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a stimulant-like novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and fluorinated analog of phenmetrazine that has recently appeared on the recreational drug market, with limited published information. Likewise, the synthetic opioid U-47700 has gained popularity among recreational drug users and is frequently detected in postmortem casework. We present the case history, autopsy and toxicological findings of a fatality involving the designer drugs 3-FPM and U-47700 for the first time in the literature...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932246/implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-intervention-for-children-in-afghanistan-at-risk-for-substance-use-or-actively-using-psychoactive-substances
#15
Abdul Subor Momand, Elizabeth Mattfeld, Brian Morales, Manzoor Ul Haq, Thom Browne, Kevin E O'Grady, Hendrée E Jones
The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment's start and end and 12 weeks later...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#16
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904364/acute-doses-of-caffeine-shift-nervous-system-cell-expression-profiles-toward-promotion-of-neuronal-projection-growth
#17
Nancy Y Yu, Andrea Bieder, Amitha Raman, Enrichetta Mileti, Shintaro Katayama, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Bertil B Fredholm, Anna Falk, Isabel Tapia-Páez, Carsten O Daub, Juha Kere
Caffeine is a widely consumed psychoactive substance, but little is known about the effects of caffeine stimulation on global gene expression changes in neurons. Here, we conducted gene expression profiling of human neuroepithelial stem cell-derived neurons, stimulated with normal consumption levels of caffeine (3 μM and 10 μM), over a period of 9 h. We found dosage-dependent activation of immediate early genes after 1 h. Neuronal projection development processes were up-regulated and negative regulation of axon extension processes were down-regulated at 3 h...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895757/intoxications-in-the-strida-project-involving-a-panorama-of-psychostimulant-pyrovalerone-derivatives-mdpv-copycats
#18
Olof Beck, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in intoxications involving 11 stimulant pyrovalerone NPS derivatives over a 5-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to Swedish hospitals for emergency treatment from January 2011 to March 2016...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#19
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865391/discriminative-stimulus-and-locomotor-effects-of-para-substituted-and-benzofuran-analogs-of-amphetamine
#20
Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
Novel psychoactive substances have maintained a prominent role in the global drug culture, despite increased regulation by governing bodies. Novel compounds continue to become available on the market, often in "Ecstasy" or "Molly" formulations in lieu of MDMA, at a much faster rate than they can be properly characterized. The current study aimed to investigate the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of three putatively entactogenic compounds that have become increasingly prevalent on the drug market: 5-(2-aminopropyl)-benzofuran (5-APB), 6-(2-aminopropryl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6-APDB), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA)...
August 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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