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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634759/current-applications-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-critical-review
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical contexts because of its ability to measure accurate masses using data-independent acquisition (DIA) techniques. Additionally, it has shown promise for non-targeted screening strategies that have been developed in order to detect and identify novel analogues without the need for certified reference materials (CRMs) or comprehensive mass spectral libraries...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#2
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631432/profile-effects-and-toxicity-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-studies
#3
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Kinda Ibrahim, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, effects, and toxicity of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted between May 2015 and February 2016 and included 19 databases. Search terms included "novel psychoactive substance(s)," "effect(s)," and "toxicity" and their synonyms. Studies included were those from any country, in any language, and between January 2007 and April 2015. Studies published before 2007 and those regarding the synthesis of NPS were excluded...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631373/the-risk-of-violence-associated-with-novel-psychoactive-substance-misuse-in-patients-presenting-to-acute-mental-health-services
#4
Abu Shafi, Paul Gallagher, Neil Stewart, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
Novel psychoactive substance (NPS) availability is increasing at a phenomenal rate and so is their associated misuse. Currently, the harms associated with NPS misuse are unclear. This report presents the initial findings of a continuing study looking into the impact of NPS misuse on admissions to an acute mental health facility in London. Violence preadmission and violence during admission have been found to be significant in NPS misusers compared to non-NPS substance misusers. Our findings have important consequences for acute mental health, emergency, and public health services...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#5
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600805/assessing-the-impact-of-a-temporary-class-drug-order-on-ethylphenidate-related-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lothian-scotland-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#6
Alan Yeung, Amanda Weir, Hannah Austin, Kirsty Morrison, Donald Inverarity, Jim Sherval, Naomi Henderson, Shruti Joshi, Roisin Ure, Andrew McAuley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In April 2015, the UK government enacted a temporary class drug order (TCDO) on ethylphenidate in response to reported harms associated with its use, in particular an outbreak of infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Lothian, Scotland. This study assesses the effect that the TCDO had on reducing the most common infections identified during the outbreak; Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). DESIGN: The outbreak was split into a pre-intervention period (35 weeks) and a post-intervention period (26 weeks) based around the date of the TCDO...
June 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578694/worldwide-legislative-challenges-related-to-psychoactive-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Negrei, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau, Mircea Lucian Bogdan Dumitru, Eren Ozcagli, Concettina Fenga, Leda Kovatsi, Domniki Fragou, Aristidis Tsatsakis
The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control...
June 2, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568705/hair-analysis-for-the-detection-of-drug-use-is-there-potential-for-evasion
#8
Shanna Marrinan, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Declan Naughton, Emerlinda Levari, John Collins, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Hair analysis for illicit substances is widely used to detect chronic drug consumption or abstention from drugs. Testees are increasingly seeking ways to avoid detection by using a variety of untested adulterant products (e.g., shampoos, cleansers) widely sold online. This study aims to investigate adulteration of hair samples and to assess effectiveness of such methods. METHODS: The literature on hair test evasion was searched for on PubMed or MEDLINE, Psycinfo, and Google Scholar...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568113/can-mobile-phone-technology-support-a-rapid-sharing-of-information-on-novel-psychoactive-substances-among-health-and-other-professionals-internationally
#9
Pierluigi Simonato, Francesco S Bersani, Rita Santacroce, Eduardo Cinosi, Fabrizio Schifano, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: The diffusion of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs), combined with the ability of the Internet to act as an online marketplace, has led to unprecedented challenges for governments, health agencies, and substance misuse services. Despite increasing research, there is a paucity of reliable information available to professionals working in the field. The paper will present the pilot results of the first mobile application (SMAIL) for rapid information sharing on NPSs among health professionals...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557062/substance-related-psychopathology-and-aggressiveness-in-a-nightlife-holiday-resort-results-from-a-pilot-study-in-a-psychiatric-inpatient-unit-in-ibiza
#10
Giovanni Martinotti, Eduardo Cinosi, Rita Santacroce, Duccio Papanti, Anna Pasquini, Valerio Mancini, Mariangela Corbo, Federica Fiori, Fabiola Sarchione, Daniela Marchetti, Maria Cristina Verrocchio, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Marta Torrens, Fabrizio Schifano, Maria Jose Morlan Coarasa, Cristina Merino Del Villar
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe a sample of subjects admitted to a psychiatric unit after the intake of psychoactive substances for recreational purposes. METHODS: Between June and September 2015, 49 subjects were included. Sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathological aspects were investigated, and urine samples for further analysis were collected. Three subgroups (cannabinoids, stimulants, and depressors users) were identified, according to the structured interview regarding substance use and urinalysis...
May 30, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549581/a-cross-sectional-emergency-department-survey-of-novel-psychoactive-substance-prevalence
#11
Callan Fockele, Patil Armenian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544816/analytical-characterization-of-three-cathinone-derivatives-4-mpd-4%C3%A2-f-php-and-bk-epdp-purchased-as-bulk-powder-from-online-vendors
#12
Orapan Apirakkan, Anca Frinculescu, Trevor Shine, Mark C Parkin, Agostino Cilibrizzi, Nunzianda Frascione, Vincenzo Abbate
Novel emerging drugs of abuse, also referred as new psychoactive substances (NPS), constitute an ever-changing mixture of chemical compounds designed to circumvent legislative controls by means of chemical modifications of previously banned recreational drugs. One of such class, synthetic cathinones, namely β-keto derivatives of amphetamines, has been largely abused over the past decade. A number of new synthetic cathinones are detected each year, either in bulk powders/crystals or in biological matrices. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the supply of new synthetic derivatives and promptly report them...
May 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535130/home-manufacture-of-drugs-an-online-investigation-and-a-toxicological-reality-check-of-online-discussions-on-drug-chemistry
#13
Evelyn Hearne, Emanuele Amorim Alves, Marie Claire Van Hout, Jean-Paul C Grund
Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#14
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524714/consumption-patterns-of-nightlife-attendees-in-munich-a-latent-class-analysis
#15
Tessa-Virginia Hannemann, Ludwig Kraus, Daniela Piontek
BACKGROUND: The affinity for substance use among patrons of nightclubs has been well established. With novel psychoactive substances (NPS) quickly emerging on the European drug market, trends, and patterns of use are potentially changing. OBJECTIVES: (1) The detection of subgroups of consumers in the electronic dance music scene of a major German metropolitan city, (2) describing the consumption patterns of these subgroups, (3) exploring the prevalence and type of NPS consumption in this population at nightlife events in Munich...
May 19, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517032/novel-psychoactive-substance-consumption-is-more-represented-in-bipolar-disorder-than-in-psychotic-disorders-a-multicenter-observational-study
#16
Tiziano Acciavatti, Matteo Lupi, Rita Santacroce, Andrea Aguglia, Luigi Attademo, Laura Bandini, Paola Ciambrone, Giulia Lisi, Giovanni Migliarese, Federica Pinna, Diego Quattrone, Michele Ribolsi, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Salvatore Calò, Fabrizio Schifano, Massimo di Giannantonio, Giovanni Martinotti
OBJECTIVE: Comorbidities between psychiatric diseases and use of traditional substances of abuse are common. Nevertheless, there are few data regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) among psychiatric patients. Aim of this multicentre survey is to investigate the consumption of a number of psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric sample. METHODS: Between December 2013 and September 2015, a questionnaire was administered in 10 Italian psychiatric care facilities to a sample of 671 patients, aged 18-26 (mean age 22...
May 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506818/measuring-inhibition-of-monoamine-reuptake-transporters-by-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-real-time-using-a-high-throughput-fluorescence-based-assay
#17
Anne Zwartsen, Anouk H A Verboven, Regina G D M van Kleef, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Remco H S Westerink, Laura Hondebrink
The prevalence and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently over 600 NPS exist. Many illicit drugs and NPS increase brain monoamine levels by inhibition and/or reversal of monoamine reuptake transporters (DAT, NET and SERT). This is often investigated using labor-intensive, radiometric endpoint measurements. We investigated the applicability of a novel and innovative assay that is based on a fluorescent monoamine mimicking substrate. DAT, NET or SERT-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were exposed to common drugs (cocaine, dl-amphetamine or MDMA), NPS (4-fluoroamphetamine, PMMA, α-PVP, 5-APB, 2C-B, 25B-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe or methoxetamine) or the antidepressant fluoxetine...
May 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485125/an-international-survey-on-the-awareness-use-preference-and-health-perception-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps
#18
Elena Deligianni, John M Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano, Lisa A Lione
OBJECTIVE: This survey investigated the level of public awareness, preference, and motivation of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use as well as knowledge of potential associated health risks. METHODS: A Bristol Online Survey was advertised through social media and a drug forum "Bluelight" between January 7 and February 7, 2015. RESULTS: Responses were received from 17 countries, mainly from Europe. Most responses (83%) came from university educated students...
May 8, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472358/metabolic-profile-determination-of-nbome-compounds-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-comparison-with-findings-in-authentic-human-blood-and-urine
#19
Keith-Dane H Temporal, Karen S Scott, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as hallucinogenic NBOMes (N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of 2C phenethylamines) in the past few years into the recreational drug market has introduced various challenges in forensic analytical toxicology in regard to adequate and timely detection of these compounds. This is especially true in samples from individuals who have experienced severe and fatal intoxications. The aim of this research was to identify the major Phase I metabolites of selected NBOMe compounds to generate a predicted human metabolic pathway of these substances...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459969/reports-of-adverse-events-associated-with-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-2013-2016-a-review
#20
Barry K Logan, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent significant analytical and interpretive challenges to forensic and clinical toxicologists. Timely access to case reports and reports of adverse incidents of impairment or toxicity is imperative to clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as to interpretation of forensic results. Delays in identifying the presence of a novel intoxicating agent have significant consequences for public health and public safety. Adverse effects of intoxications with novel cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, benzodiazepines and opioids spanning January 2013 through December 2016 as reported in emergency departments, death investigations, impaired driving cases and other forensic contexts are the subject of this review...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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