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Alessia Giannetto, Tiziana Cappello, Sabrina Oliva, Vincenzo Parrino, Giuseppe De Marco, Salvatore Fasulo, Angela Mauceri, Maria Maisano
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in various industrial applications, i.e. semiconductor devices, batteries, solar energy converter, gas sensor, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids, and have been recently recognized as emerging pollutants of increasing concern for human and marine environmental health. Therefore, the toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of oxidative stress in CuO NP toxicity by exploring the molecular response of Arbacia lixula embryos to three CuO NP concentrations (0...
June 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Eman M Hussein, Shahira A Ahmed, Amira B Mokhtar, Sherine M Elzagawy, Samah H Yahi, Abdalla M Hussein, Farid Al-Tantawey
Outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection have been linked to consumption of food and water contaminated by oocysts that can survive both physical and chemical disinfectants. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) can be potentially used in food as bactericides. In this study, C. cayetanensis pre- and post-sporulated oocysts were exposed to MgO NPs with different doses ranging from 1.25-25 mg/ml. With comparison to control, the antiprotozoal activity of MgO NPs was evaluated by identifying the median effective concentration dose (EC50 ), lethal concentration dose (LC90 ), microscopically changes on treated oocysts and rates of sporulation...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Vimala N Bharadwaj, Rachel K Rowe, Jordan Harrison, Chen Wu, Trent R Anderson, Jonathan Lifshitz, P David Adelson, Vikram D Kodibagkar, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Clinically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex heterogeneous pathology that cannot be recapitulated in single pre-clinical animal model. Therefore, we focused on evaluating utility of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics following three diffuse-TBI models: mild-closed-head injury (mCHI), repetitive-mCHI and midline-fluid percussion injury (FPI). We hypothesized that NP accumulation after diffuse TBI correlates directly with blood-brain-barrier permeability. Mice received PEGylated-NP cocktail (20-500nm) (intravenously) after single- or repetitive-(1 impact/day, 5 consecutive days) CHI (immediately) and midline-FPI (1h, 3h and 6h)...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xunyu Song, Lin Cao, Shuang Cong, Yukun Song, Mingqian Tan
Emergence of endogenous nanoparticles in thermally processed food has aroused much attention due to their unique properties and potential biological impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of fluorescence nanoparticles in roasted chicken breasts, elemental composition, physico-chemical properties and their molecular interaction with human serum albumin (HSA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the foodborne nanoparticles from roasted chicken were nearly spherical with an average particle size of 1...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kohsuke Mori, Taiki Sano, Hisayoshi Kobayashi, Hiromi Yamashita
The hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to formic acid (FA; HCOOH), a renewable hydrogen storage material, is a promising means of realizing an economical CO2 -mediated hydrogen energy cycle. The development of reliable heter-ogeneous catalysts is an urgent yet challenging task associated with such systems, although precise catalytic site design protocols are still lacking. In the present study, we demonstrate that PdAg alloy nanoparticles (NPs) supported on TiO2 promote the efficient selective hydrogenation of CO2 to give FA even under mild reaction conditions (2...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Behnaz Ghaemi, Elnaz Shaabani, Roqya Najafi Taher, Saeedeh Jafari Nodooshan, Amin Sadeghpour, Sharmin Kharrazi, Amir Amani
In this study, we investigated whether ZnO coating on Ag nanoparticles tunes electron flux and hole figuration at Metal-semiconductor interface under UV radiation. This effect triggers photo activity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from Ag@ZnO nanoparticles which results in enhanced cytotoxic effects and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). In this context, up-regulation of apoptotic cascade proteins (i.e. Bax/Bcl2 association, p53, Cytochrome C and caspase-3) along with activation of oxidative stress proteins suggested occurrence of apoptosis by Ag@ZnO NPs in cancer cells through mitochondrial pathway...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maryam Elfeki, Mohammad Alanjary, Stefan J Green, Nadine Ziemert, Brian T Murphy
Despite decades of cultivating microorganisms for use in drug discovery, few attempts have been made to measure the extent to which common cultivation techniques have accessed existing chemical space. Metagenomic studies have shown that cultivable bacteria represent a fraction of those that exist in the environment, and that uncultivated populations in sediment have genes that encode for a high diversity of novel natural product (NP) biosynthetic enzymes. Quantifying these genes in both sediment and cultivatable bacterial populations allows us to assess how much diversity is present on nutrient agar and is critical to guiding the trajectory of future NP discovery platforms...
June 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Pauline J Han, Sheng-Heng Chung, Arumugam Manthiram
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attractive as sulfur offers an order of magnitude higher charge-storage capacity than the currently used insertion-compound cathodes. However, their practical viability is hampered by low electrochemical stability and efficiency, which results from severe polysulfide (LiPS) shuttling during cycling. We present here thin-layered MoS2 nanoparticles (MoS2-NPs) synthesized through a one-pot method and coated onto a commercial polymeric separator (as MoS2-NP-coated separator) as an effective LiPS mediator, facilitated by the nanodimension, polar interactions, and the better edge-binding sites of the MoS2-NPs...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mayumi Ikeda, Takami Akagi, Masao Nagao, Mitsuru Akashi
A quantitative method of analyzing nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery is urgently required by researchers and industry. Therefore, we developed new quantitative analytical methods for biodegradable and amphiphilic NPs consisting of polymeric γ-PGA-Phe [phenylalanine attached to poly(γ-glutamic acid)] molecules. These γ-PGA-Phe NPs were completely dissociated into separate γ-PGA-Phe molecules by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The dissociated NPs were chromatographically separated to analyze parameters such as the γ-PGA-Phe content in the NPs, the impurities present [using reverse-phase (RP) HPLC with an ultraviolet (UV) detector], and the absolute MW [using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with refractive index detection (RI) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection, i...
June 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Shindu C Thomas, Tushar Madaan, Zeenat Iqbal, Sushama Talegaonkar
BACKGROUND: Bendamustine HCl, an antineoplastic drug, has a very short life of about 40 minutes which necessitates administration of large doses which leads to increased side effects as well as costs. OBJECTIVE: The present work describes the fabrication, optimization and evaluation of bioactive hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to achieve sustained delivery of bendamustine HCl. METHODS: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method by reacting a calcium and phosphate precursor and the reaction was optimized via Box-Behnken DOE...
June 20, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Yuhui Ma, Yao Yao, Jie Yang, Xiao He, Yayun Ding, Peng Zhang, Junzhe Zhang, Guohua Wang, Changjian Xie, Wenhe Luo, Jing Zhang, Li-Rong Zheng, Zhi-Fang Chai, Yuliang Zhao, Zhiyong Zhang
The trophic transfer and transformation of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) through a simulated terrestrial food chain were investigated using radiotracer technique and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Radioactive 141CeO2 NPs were applied to head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), either treated with root exposure in its potting soil (5.5 or 11 mg/plant) for 30 d or foliar exposure (7.2 mg/plant, with half of leaves treated and the other half not) for 7 d. Subsequently, two groups of land snails (Achatina fulica) were exposed to 141Ce via either a direct (i...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Julian Burks, Sandeep Nadella, Abdullah Mahmud, Charoen Mankongpaisarnrung, Juan Wang, Jong-In Hahm, Robin D Tucker, Narayan Shivapurkar, Stephan T Stern, Jill P Smith
Background & Aims: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains the most aggressive malignancy with the lowest 5-year survival rate of all cancers in part owing to the lack of tumor-specific therapy and the rapid metastatic nature of this cancer. The gastrointestinal peptide gastrin is a trophic peptide that stimulates growth of PDAC in an autocrine fashion by interaction with the cholecystokinin receptor that is overexpressed in this malignancy. Methods: We developed a therapeutic novel polyplex nanoparticle (NP) that selectively targets the cholecystokinin receptor on PDAC...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Gawon Yi, Suk Ho Hong, Jihwan Son, Jihye Yoo, Changhee Park, Yongdoo Choi, Heebeom Koo
This review summarizes recent advances in the development of nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT), particularly the development and application of various NPs based on organic and inorganic materials. PubMed database was used for literature search with the terms including NP, nanomedicine, PDT, photosensitizer (PSs), and drug delivery. For successful PDT, it is essential to deliver PSs to target disease sites. A number of NPs have been developed and tested as the carriers for both imaging and therapy, an approach termed "nanomedicine"...
May 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Vishvanath Tiwari, Neha Mishra, Keval Gadani, P S Solanki, N A Shah, Monalisa Tiwari
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen, which causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Carbapenems (beta-lactam) are most effective antibiotics till now against A. baumannii , but the development of resistance against it may lead to high mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop an alternative drug against A. baumannii . In the present study, we have synthesized ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Naveen K Kalagatur, Oriparambil S Nirmal Ghosh, Naveen Sundararaj, Venkataramana Mudili
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum . The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Robin L Hardwicke, Laura J Benjamins, Richard M Grimes
The human papilloma virus (HPV) causes approximately 30,700 annual cancer cases of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oral cavity, and anus. Nurse practitioners can use their unique relationships with patients to advocate for the HPV vaccine. The purpose of this article is to update NPs on current knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine while providing appropriate information necessary for counseling patients and parents.
July 2018: Nurse Practitioner
Zhuo Wang, Yuzhi Chen, Hui Zhang, Yawen Li, Yufan Ma, Jia Huang, Xiaolei Liu, Fang Liu, Tongxin Wang, Xin Zhang
Mitochondria plays a key role in a variety of physiological processes, and the mitochondria-targeting drug delivery is helpful and effective in cancer therapy.Rhodamine123 (Rhod123) and Doxorubicin (Dox) are not new chemical molecules, and they both can inhibit cancerous cells. Here, we combine these two "old" chemicals with polydopamine nanoparticles (PDA NPs) to strengthen the antitumor effect with the aid of near infrared irradiation. PDA NPs carry these two chemicals tightly by hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking besides chemical bonds...
June 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Duan Wenchao, Peina Zhang, Yujiao Xiahou, Yahui Song, Cuixia Bi, Jie Zhan, Wei Du, Lihui Huang, Helmuth Möhwald, Haibing Xia
It is well known that the activity and stability of electrocatalysts are largely dependent on their surface facets. In this work, we have successfully regulated surface facets of three-dimensional (3D) metallic Aum-n aerogels by salt-induced assembly of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) of two different sizes and further size-dependent localized Ostwald ripening at controlled particle-number ratios, where m and n represent the size of Au NPs, respectively. In addition, 3D Aum-n @Pd aerogels were further synthesized on the basis of Aum-n aerogels and also bear controlled surface facets due to the formation of ultrathin Pd layers on Aum-n aerogels...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yan Teck Ho, Roger D Kamm, James Chen Yong Kah
Transcytosis of nanoparticles (NPs) is emerging as an attractive alternative to the paracellular route in cancer drug delivery with studies suggesting targeting caveolae-mediated endocytosis to maximize NP transcytosis. However, there are limited studies on transcytosis of NPs, especially for corona-coated NPs. Most studies focused on cellular uptake as an indirect measure of the NP's transcellular permeability (Pd). Here, we probed the effect of protein corona on the uptake and transcytosis of 20, 40, 100, and 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (pNP-PC) across HUVECs in a microfluidic channel that modelled the microvasculature...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Weihan Li, Minsi Li, Jin-An Shi, Xiongwu Zhong, Lin Gu, Yan Yu
Silicon (Si) possesses the highest theoretical capacity as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, and many efforts have been made to address the poor cycling stability issue that is associated with its huge volume changes during Li-Si alloying/de-alloying processes, mostly through the design of nanostructured materials. Herein, we report a simple cell configuration approach to improve the lithium storage performance of commercial nano-Si through the insertion of carbon nanofiber films (CNFs) as interlayers between the Si electrodes and separators...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
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