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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229493/issues-with-monitoring-the-safety-of-psychoactive-products-under-a-legal-regulated-market-for-new-psychoactive-substances-legal-highs-in-new-zealand
#1
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins, Karen Witten
INTRODUCTION: New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. AIM: To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically...
February 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226266/parallel-artificial-liquid-membrane-extraction-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-plasma-and-whole-blood
#2
Linda Vårdal, Hilde-Merete Askildsen, Astrid Gjelstad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Hilde Marie Erøy Edvardsen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223522/conformational-dynamics-of-a-neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter-in-a-lipid-bilayer
#3
Suraj Adhikary, Daniel J Deredge, Anu Nagarajan, Lucy R Forrest, Patrick L Wintrode, Satinder K Singh
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) are integral membrane proteins responsible for the sodium-dependent reuptake of small-molecule neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft. The symporters for the biogenic amines serotonin (SERT), dopamine (DAT), and norepinephrine (NET) are targets of multiple psychoactive agents, and their dysfunction has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric ailments. LeuT, a thermostable eubacterial NSS homolog, has been exploited as a model protein for NSS members to canvass the conformational mechanism of transport with a combination of X-ray crystallography, cysteine accessibility, and solution spectroscopy...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220044/pregnenolone-blocks-cannabinoid-induced-acute-psychotic-like-states-in-mice
#4
A Busquets-Garcia, E Soria-Gómez, B Redon, Y Mackenbach, M Vallée, F Chaouloff, M Varilh, G Ferreira, P-V Piazza, G Marsicano
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219717/effects-of-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-glucose-uptake-in-the-rat-brain
#5
I Miederer, K Uebbing, J Röhrich, S Maus, N Bausbacher, K Krauter, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, R Urban
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected...
February 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219712/the-combination-of-mdpv-and-ethanol-results-in-decreased-cathinone-and-increased-alcohol-levels-study-of-such-pharmacological-interaction
#6
R López-Arnau, M Buenrostro-Jáuregui, P Muñoz-Villegas, J Rodríguez-Morató, A Ciudad-Roberts, L Duart, J Camarasa, R De la Torre, D Pubill, E Escubedo
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychostimulant cathinone acting as a selective dopamine transporter blocker. Due to the concomitant consumption of ethanol (EtOH) and new psychoactive substances, it is of interest to explore a possible pharmacological interaction between MDPV and EtOH. In locomotor activity assays, EtOH (1g/kg i.p.) elicited a reduction in the stimulant effect induced by low doses of MDPV (0.1-0.3mg/kg, s.c.) in rats, jointly with a decrease in blood and brain MDPV concentrations...
February 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219076/effect-of-n-benzylpiperazine-its-metabolite-n-benzylethylenediamine-and-its-disubstituted-analogue-n-n-dibenzylpiperazine-on-the-acquisition-formation-and-consolidation-of-memory-in-mice
#7
Juan Carlos Castillo-Hernández, Josué A Velázquez-Moyado, Adelfo Reyes-Ramírez, Elena G Ramírez-López, Martín González-Andrade, Andrés Navarrete
BACKGROUND: N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) belongs to a class of piperazine derivatives (PZDs) that have emerged as recreational drugs. These compounds increase the release of dopamine and serotonin. BZP mimics the psychoactive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine. BZP is metabolized to N-benzylethylenediamine (BEDA) and benzylamine. The compound N,N'-dibenzylpiperazine (DBZP) is obtained as a byproduct during the synthesis of BZP. Some PZDs have shown effects on memory; however, there are no previous reports on the activity of BZP, BEDA, and DBZP on memory or on a description of their neuropharmacological profile...
February 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217094/in-vivo-evidence-for-therapeutic-properties-of-cannabidiol-cbd-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Georgia Watt, Tim Karl
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is affecting an increasing number of people. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for new, more effective therapeutics. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214739/characterizing-users-of-new-psychoactive-substances-using-psychometric-scales-for-risk-related-behavior
#9
Annabel Vreeker, Babette G van der Burg, Margriet van Laar, Tibor M Brunt
INTRODUCTION: Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC) users. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we included 528 individuals across an age range of 18-72years. Using a web-based questionnaire we collected self-report data on substance use, sensation seeking, impulsivity, peer substance use and risk perception of substance use...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210779/locomotor-activity-and-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-a-novel-series-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs-in-mice-and-rats
#10
Michael B Gatch, Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster
RATIONALE: Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207753/analysis-of-diagnoses-extracted-from-electronic-health-records-in-a-large-mental-health-case-register
#11
Yevgeniya Kovalchuk, Robert Stewart, Matthew Broadbent, Tim J P Hubbard, Richard J B Dobson
The UK government has recently recognised the need to improve mental health services in the country. Electronic health records provide a rich source of patient data which could help policymakers to better understand needs of the service users. The main objective of this study is to unveil statistics of diagnoses recorded in the Case Register of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, one of the largest mental health providers in the UK and Europe serving a source population of over 1.2 million people residing in south London...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207408/evaluation-of-cannabinoids-concentration-and-stability-in-standardized-preparations-of-cannabis-tea-and-cannabis-oil-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Roberta Pacifici, Emilia Marchei, Francesco Salvatore, Luca Guandalini, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194562/the-iboga-alkaloids
#13
Catherine Lavaud, Georges Massiot
Iboga alkaloids are a particular class of indolomonoterpenes most often characterized by an isoquinuclidine nucleus. Their first occurrence was detected in the roots of Tabernanthe iboga, a sacred plant to the people of Gabon, which made it cult object. Ibogaine is the main representative of this class of alkaloids and its psychoactive properties are well documented. It has been proposed as a drug cessation treatment and has a wide range of activities in targeting opioids, cocaine, and alcohol. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a background on this molecule and related compounds and to update knowledge on the most recent advances made...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188203/emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-to-investigate-the-health-impact-and-factors-associated-with-alcohol-intoxication-in-reunion-island
#14
Pascal Vilain, Sophie Larrieu, Katia Mougin-Damour, Pierre-Jean Marianne Dit Cassou, Marc Weber, Xavier Combes, Laurent Filleul
In Reunion Island, alcohol is the most tried out psychoactive substance. To our knowledge, few indicators measuring the health burden of alcohol use exist on the island. In this context, an exploratory analysis based on syndromic surveillance data was implemented in order to describe the emergency department (ED) visits for alcohol intoxication (AI) and factors associated with their variations.An analysis of anonymized records routinely collected by the syndromic surveillance system was carried out. A daily indicator of ED visits for AI was built from a selection of ICD-10 codes between 2010 and 2012...
February 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187774/assessing-the-experience-of-using-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-means-of-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#15
Szilvia Kassai, Judit Nóra Pintér, József Rácz, Brigitta Böröndi, Tamás Tóth-Karikó, Kitti Kerekes, V Anna Gyarmathy
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly consumed by people who use drugs in recent years, which pose a new challenge for treatment services. One of the largest groups of NPS is synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), which are intended as a replacement to cannabis. While there is an increasing body of research on the motivation and the effects associated with SC use, little is known about the subjective interpretation of SC use by the people who use drugs themselves...
February 10, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185872/neuronal-and-molecular-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-implications-for-novel-schizophrenia-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Justine Renard, Christopher Norris, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Growing clinical and pre-clinical evidence points to a critical role for cannabidiol (CBD), the largest phytochemical component of cannabis, as a potential pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental pro-psychotic side-effects, CBD possesses no known psychoactive or dependence-producing properties. However, evidence has demonstrated that CBD strongly modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and may possess promising anti-psychotic properties...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167221/toxicological-evaluation-of-5-methoxy-2-aminoindane-meai-binge-mitigating-agent-in-development
#17
Jakob A Shimshoni, Ilan Winkler, Nir Edery, Ezekiel Golan, René van Wettum, David Nutt
5-Methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI) is a psychoactive compound of the aminoindane class, which in recent years has been recreationally used by many people, who reported of a mild euphoric, alcohol-like tipsy experience and reduced desire to consume alcoholic beverages. In the light of these observations it was decided to progress MEAI through a preliminary drug development route and evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of MEAI administrated orally to Sprague Dawley rats, as well as to determine potential in-vitro cytotoxic and mutagenic effects using state-of-the-art protocols...
February 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164859/new-drugs-new-directions-research-priorities-for-new-psychoactive-substances-and-human-enhancement-drugs
#18
EDITORIAL
Caroline Chatwin, Fiona Measham, Kate O'Brien, Harry Sumnall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161577/motivations-for-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-regular-psychostimulant-users-in-australia
#19
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Simon Lenton, Allison Matthews, Caroline Salom, Paul Dietze, Kerryn Butler, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND: Examine the motivations for new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst a sample of regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia, and determine whether motivations differ across substances. METHOD: Data were obtained from 419 RPU interviewed for the 2014 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System who reported lifetime NPS use. Based on the most recent NPS used, motivations for use were rated on an 11-point scale (0 'no influence'-10 'maximum influence')...
February 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160051/characterization-and-identification-of-eight-designer-benzodiazepine-metabolites-by-incubation-with-human-liver-microsomes-and-analysis-by-a-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometer
#20
Souleiman El Balkhi, Maxime Chaslot, Nicolas Picard, Sylvain Dulaurent, Martine Delage, Olivier Mathieu, Franck Saint-Marcoux
Designer benzodiazepines (DBZDs) have become of particular importance in the past few years. The metabolite monitoring of DBZD in biological fluids could be of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. However, DBZD metabolites are not known or not commercially available. The identification of some DBZD metabolites has been mostly explored by self-administration studies or by in vitro studies followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The question arose whether a unit resolution instrument could be efficient enough to allow the identification of DBZD metabolites...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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