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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776015/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-potentiates-fear-memory-salience-through-functional-modulation-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-activity-states
#1
Aurelie Fitoussi, Jordan Zunder, Huibing Tan, Steven R Laviolette
Chronic or acute exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, has been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects, including dysregulation of emotional processing and associative memory formation. Clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the effects of THC are due to the ability to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity states in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which THC modulates mesolimbic DA function and emotional processing are not well understood...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#2
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774806/associations-between-childhood-learning-disabilities-and-adult-age-mental-health-problems-lack-of-education-and-unemployment
#3
Tuija Aro, Kenneth Eklund, Anna-Kaija Eloranta, Vesa Närhi, Elisa Korhonen, Timo Ahonen
We studied the impact of diverse subtypes of learning disabilities (LD) on adult-age mental health, education, and employment by comparing the LD group ( n = 430) with a matched control group without a known history of LD ( n = 2,149). The clinical archived data were merged with lifelong register data on sickness allowances/disability pensions granted on the basis of psychiatric illnesses, reimbursements for psychoactive medication, having a degree after compulsory education, and having received unemployment allowances...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#4
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768653/n-ethyl-pentylone-related-deaths-in-alabama
#5
Daniel Atherton, Daniel Dye, C Andrew Robinson, Rachel Beck
n-Ethyl pentylone (NEP) is a chemical substance derived from cathinone. Synthetic cathinones are an evolving group of drugs with stimulating, mind-altering effects sometimes referred to as novel or new psychoactive substances (NPS). There is scarce information in the medical literature regarding forensic cases in which NEP is detected in toxicological testing. We present four fatalities involving NEP from Alabama in 2017. Deaths were attributed to NEP toxicity in two cases (peripheral blood concentrations of 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#6
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#7
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758385/evaluation-of-reinforcing-and-aversive-effects-of-voluntary-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-ingestion-in-rats
#8
Daniel G Barrus, Timothy W Lefever, Jenny L Wiley
Edible cannabis-infused products are an increasingly popular method of using cannabis in the United States. Yet, preclinical research to determine mechanisms underlying abuse of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has focused primarily on the effects of parenteral administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the rewarding and aversive effects of oral THC in a novel rodent voluntary ingestion model. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats were given access to sucrose-sweetened solutions during daily sessions...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757951/caffeine-related-deaths-manner-of-deaths-and-categories-at-risk
#9
REVIEW
Simone Cappelletti, Daria Piacentino, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Luigi Cipolloni, Mariarosaria Aromatario
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive compound worldwide. It is mostly found in coffee, tea, energizing drinks and in some drugs. However, it has become really easy to obtain pure caffeine (powder or tablets) on the Internet markets. Mechanisms of action are dose-dependent. Serious toxicities such as seizure and cardiac arrhythmias, seen with caffeine plasma concentrations of 15 mg/L or higher, have caused poisoning or, rarely, death; otherwise concentrations of 3⁻6 mg/kg are considered safe. Caffeine concentrations of 80⁻100 mg/L are considered lethal...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#10
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757475/rapid-analysis-of-fentanyls-and-other-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-substance-use-disorder-patient-urine-using-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#11
Joseph H Kennedy, Jan Palaty, Chris G Gill, Justin M Wiseman
RATIONALE: Drug overdose deaths due to fentanyls and other novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are on the rise. The higher potencies of fentanyl analogs compared with morphine require new technologies to identify and quantitate NPS. METHODS: Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used to identify and measure fentanyl analogs as well as common drugs of abuse in urine samples from substance use disorder clinics. Ten-microliter urine samples were deposited directly on paper spray cartridges previously loaded with internal standards, dried, and analyzed with no other sample treatment...
May 14, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757104/rehabilitation-of-drug-abusers-the-roles-of-perceptions-relationships-and-family-supports
#12
Samuel Ojima Adejoh, Olusegun M Temilola, Funmilayo F Adejuwon
The increase in the use, abuse and misuse of psychoactive substances is not just of concern to national government of different countries but poses a big problem to the international community as well as of a global public health challenge. The study explored the perceived influence of perceptions, relationships and family support on rehabilitation of drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The non-experimental study design was used. The study population was that of drug abuse patients undergoing rehabilitation in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lagos...
May 14, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755353/importance-of-toxicokinetics-to-assess-the-utility-of-zebrafish-larvae-as-model-for-psychoactive-drug-screening-using-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-mcpp-as-example
#13
Krishna Tulasi Kirla, Ksenia J Groh, Michael Poetzsch, Rakesh Kumar Banote, Julita Stadnicka-Michalak, Rik I L Eggen, Kristin Schirmer, Thomas Kraemer
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) increases rapidly, harming society and fuelling the need for alternative testing strategies. These should allow the ever-increasing number of drugs to be tested more effectively for their toxicity and psychoactive effects. One proposed strategy is to complement rodent models with zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) larvae. Yet, our understanding of the toxicokinetics in this model, owing to the waterborne drug exposure and the distinct physiology of the fish, is incomplete...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750976/reduced-type-iii-neuregulin-1-expression-does-not-modulate-the-behavioural-sensitivity-of-mice-to-acute-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-d-9-thc
#14
David Lloyd, David Talmage, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
Mice with a mutation in the transmembrane domain of the schizophrenia risk gene, neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 TM HET), are more susceptible to the neuro-behavioural effects of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (D9 -THC), the principal psychoactive component in cannabis. However, NRG1 is transcriptionally complex with over 30 different isoforms, most of which carry a transmembrane domain, raising the question which NRG1 isoform(s) may contribute to this phenotype. Type III NRG1/Nrg1 is the most brain abundant isoform and brain studies have identified increased levels of type III NRG1 mRNA in humans carrying a NRG1 risk haplotype for schizophrenia...
May 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750237/oral-health-of-youth-housed-in-socio-educational-centers-of-the-juvenile-penal-area-of-the-province-of-c%C3%A3-rdoba-argentina
#15
María M Barnetche, Lila S Cornejo
The purpose of this research was to analyze the oral health status of youth housed in socio-educational centers of the Juvenile Penal Area of the Province of Córdoba, Argentina of corrections by considering clinical evaluation and the main sociodemographic data. Socio-demographics, healthy and unhealthy habits of self-care, and dental clinical profile were assessed for this purpose. An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out on 70 14- to 18-year-olds who had been institutionalized for at least six months...
December 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749262/comparison-of-the-effects-of-melatonin-and-oxazepam-on-anxiety-levels-and-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-following-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Padideh Ghaeli, Mohammad Solduzian, Shaghayegh Vejdani, Azita Hajhossein Talasaz
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and sleep disorders are prevalent problems in patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Usually, these problems are managed by benzodiazepines, which-albeit effective-could cause adverse effects and drug interaction. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the effects of melatonin and oxazepam in the management of anxiety and insomnia on patients following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a view to providing a safer alternative...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746434/serum-and-saliva-concentrations-of-venlafaxine-o-desmethylvenlafaxine-quetiapine-and-citalopram-in-psychiatric-patients
#17
Katharina Ebert, Elena Maurice, Richard Lukačin, Christian Fleischhaker, Eberhard Schulz, Dieter Ebert, Hans-Willi Clement
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring has become increasingly important in psychiatric therapy. However, it is not yet implemented as a daily routine in clinical settings. To evaluate new, noninvasive procedures, we compared blood and saliva venlafaxine, quetiapine, and citalopram concentrations in samples collected from psychiatric patients. METHODS: We collected blood and saliva samples from 75 psychiatric patients (39 venlafaxine, 19 quetiapine, and 17 citalopram)...
June 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745329/building-bridges-between-clinical-and-forensic-toxicology-laboratories
#18
Bernardino Barcelo Martin, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce
BACKGROUND: Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745328/a-case-of-acute-intoxication-due-to-the-assumption-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-u-47700-identification-in-urine-blood-and-pubic-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#19
Donata Favretto, Vogliardi Susanna, Stocchero Giulia, Maietti Sergio, Tucci Marianna, Nalesso Alessandro, Snenghi Rossella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We report on a case of severe intoxication after insufflation of U-47700, a synthetic opioid that acts as a selective agonist of the µ-opioid receptor, several times more potent than morphine. A man in his 30s was found irresponsive in his apartment and was brought to the emergency department of a local hospital. A comatous state and severe respiratory depression were diagnosed. Anamnesis revealed that the patient could have taken the substance named "U-47700", bought in the Internet...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744945/understanding-the-development-of-a-regulated-market-approach-to-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-new-zealand-using-punctuated-equilibrium-theory
#20
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). METHODS: The analysis draws on three years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
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