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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142562/drug-poisoning-and-associated-factors-in-western-saudi-arabia-a-five-year-retrospective-chart-review-2011-2016
#1
Sami H Alzahrani, Ali H Alqahtani, Fayssal Mostafa Farahat, Mohammed Abdel Galil Elnour, Jamil Bashawri
Objective: Drug poisoning is a globally common cause of emergency-room admissions. This study explores drug-poisoning prevalence patterns, associated risk factors (gender, age and exposure circumstances), and outcomes in western Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of Clinical drug poisoning cases (2011-2016). The data were retrieved from the Saudi Ministry of Health's record and Patients' medical charts were analyzed. Results: The Ministry of Health received 1,474 reports of drug poisoning during 2011-2016...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142105/the-nde1-genomic-locus-can-affect-treatment-of-psychiatric-illness-through-gene-expression-changes-related-to-microrna-484
#2
Nicholas J Bradshaw, Liisa Ukkola-Vuoti, Maiju Pankakoski, Amanda B Zheutlin, Alfredo Ortega-Alonso, Minna Torniainen-Holm, Vishal Sinha, Sebastian Therman, Tiina Paunio, Jaana Suvisaari, Jouko Lönnqvist, Tyrone D Cannon, Jari Haukka, William Hennah
Genetic studies of familial schizophrenia in Finland have observed significant associations with a group of biologically related genes, DISC1, NDE1, NDEL1, PDE4B and PDE4D, the 'DISC1 network'. Here, we use gene expression and psychoactive medication use data to study their biological consequences and potential treatment implications. Gene expression levels were determined in 64 individuals from 18 families, while prescription medication information has been collected over a 10-year period for 931 affected individuals...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#3
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
November 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128652/differences-in-combinations-and-concentrations-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-fatal-intoxication-and-driving-under-the-influence-cases
#4
Hilde Erøy Edvardsen, Torill Tverborgvik, Joachim Frost, Sidsel Rogde, Inge Morild, Helge Waal, Thomas Clausen, Lars Slørdal, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: In toxicology, international classification systems focus on single intoxicants as the cause of death. It is, however, well known that very few drug related deaths are caused by a single substance and that information concerning the drug concentrations as well as the combinations of drugs are essential in order to ascertain the cause of death. The aim of the study was to assess whether those prone to fatal intoxications differ significantly from chronic drug users - in terms of demographics and drug exposure patterns...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125990/structural-characterization-of-the-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-cumyl-pinaca-5f-cumyl-pinaca-cumyl-4cn-binaca-5f-cumyl-p7aica-and-cumyl-4cn-b7aica
#5
Michael Bovens, Christian Bissig, Sandra N Staeheli, Michael Poetzsch, Bernhard Pfeiffer, Thomas Kraemer
Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of new psychoactive compounds (NPS) that act as agonists at the cannabinoid receptor. First reported in 2008, they currently represent one of the largest groups of NPS that are monitored by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Five samples (4 from the European RESPONSE project and one from daily casework) containing different synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed by a complex of analytical methods including gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS), liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125039/astrocyte-autophagy-flux-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#6
Xue Liu, Fengfeng Tian, Shiquan Wang, Feng Wang, Lize Xiong
The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118856/sleep-disturbances-and-memory-impairment-among-pregnant-women-consuming-khat-an-under-recognized-problem
#7
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Peter Sony, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Adam Moscovitch, Ahmed S Bahammam
Khat (Catha edulis) is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115760/efficacy-and-safety-of-cannabis-for-treating-children-with-refractory-epilepsy
#8
Michelle Neale
The aim of this literature review was to examine the evidence base for the safety and efficacy of cannabis in treating children with refractory epilepsy. Clinical and medical databases were searched and four articles were included in the final analysis, which included retrospective reviews and open-label trials with a total sample size of 424. One clinical trial included administration of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive compound of cannabis, while the other three articles stated that the compound administered to participants contained tetrahydrocannabidiol, the psychoactive constituent of cannabis...
September 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108735/emergency-department-patient-burden-from-an-electronic-dance-music-festival
#9
Neeraj Chhabra, Renee P Gimbar, Lisa M Walla, Trevonne M Thompson
BACKGROUND: Electronic dance music (EDM) festivals are increasingly common and psychoactive substance use is prevalent. Although prehospital care can obviate the transfer of many attendees to health care facilities (HCFs), little is known regarding the emergency department (ED) burden of patients presenting from EDM festivals. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the patient volume, length of stay (LOS), and presenting complaints of patients from a 3-day EDM festival in close proximity to an area ED...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104125/a-review-of-illicit-psychoactive-drug-use-in-elective-surgery-patients-detection-effects-and-policy
#10
REVIEW
Gennaro Selvaggi, Antonio G Spagnolo, Anna Elander
Limited information is present in literature regarding detection of illicit drug users visiting physicians when planning elective surgery; also, there is no update manuscript that is illustrating the effects of illicit drugs use that require reconstructive surgery interventions. Aims of this manuscript are: 1) to summarize existing knowledge, and give surgeons information how to detect patients who might possible use illicit drugs; 2) to review the effects of illicit drug use that specifically require reconstructive surgery interventions; 3) to assess on existing policies on asymptomatic illicit drug users when planning elective surgery...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102847/legal-cannabis-laws-home-cultivation-and-use-of-edible-cannabis-products-a-growing-relationship
#11
Jacob T Borodovsky, Alan J Budney
BACKGROUND: Over half of U.S. states have enacted legal cannabis laws (LCL). In parallel, edible cannabis products (i.e., edibles) have presented new regulatory challenges. LCL provisions that dictate access to cannabis (e.g., home cultivation (HC) or dispensaries (DSP)) may impact edible production and use. This study examined relationships among HC and DSP provisions, cannabis cultivation, and edible use. METHODS: An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook...
November 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102506/-consumption-of-psychoactive-drugs-and-exposure-to-bacterial-toxins-carried-by-food-a-dangerous-association
#12
Anaïs Corma-Gómez, Rocío López-Sepúlveda, Inés Capitán-Del Río, María Dolores Sánchez Mariscal, Begoña López-Hernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyse from a clinical and epidemiological point of view, a food borne outbreak in a psychiatric institution in Granada, in 2015, and to examine whether treatment with psychoactive drugs constitutes a risk factor for the development of a food borne disease, analysing the degree of susceptibility according to the therapeutic group consumed. METHOD: Ambispective cohort study. Residents were the unit of analysis. Our group carried out an active case search and a food survey...
November 1, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101909/lessons-learned-from-a-case-of-tert-butyl-glucuronide-excretion-in-urine-new-psychoactive-alcohols-knocking-on-the-back-door
#13
Torsten Arndt, Hubert C Buschmann, Katja Schulz, Karsten Stemmerich
BACKGROUND: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is considered a marker of recent ethanol consumption or ethanol exposition. tert-Butanol is primarily used as a solvent and intermediate chemical. Like tert-amyl alcohol, tert-butanol is discussed in Internet forums as ethanol replacement. We discuss false-positive immunological EtG screenings by excretion of different alcohol glucuronides (EtG homologs), mainly tert-butyl glucuronide in urine of a polytoxikomanic in-patient. METHODS: Three consecutive urine samples from an in-patient with a long history of multiple substance abuse including solvents were analyzed by DRI EtG enzyme immunoassay (ThermoFisher Scientific Microgenics) on a Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer, an in-house LC-MS/MS for EtG, 1-propyl, 2-propyl, 1-butyl, 2-butyl, and tert-butyl glucuronide, and an in-house headspace GC-FID of free congener substances methanol, 1-propanol, 2-butanone, 2-butanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and additionally for ethanol, acetone, 2-propanol, tert-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101333/acute-induction-of-anxiety-in-humans-by-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-related-to-amygdalar-cannabinoid-1-cb1-receptors
#14
Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Alice Egerton, Euitae Kim, Lula Rosso, Daniela Riano Barros, Alexander Hammers, Michael Brammer, Federico E Turkheimer, Oliver D Howes, Philip McGuire
Use of Cannabis, the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, is associated with acute anxiety, and anxiety disorders following regular use. The precise neural and receptor basis of these effects have not been tested in man. Employing a combination of functional MRI (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated whether the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on anxiety and on amygdala response while processing fearful stimuli were related to local availability of its main central molecular target, cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptors in man...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#15
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096995/-suicide-mental-health-and-substance-uses-among-french-adolescents-in-2014
#16
E Janssen, S Spilka, F Beck
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe potential associations between suicidal behaviors and psychoactive substance uses among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional, national survey representative of adolescents aged 17, living in continental France, was conducted in 2014. A total of 22,023 adolescents answered an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire about their health and their use of psychoactive substances. Suicidal risk was assessed by means of a 4-level indicator [1...
November 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096691/problematic-khat-use-as-a-possible-risk-factor-for-harmful-use-of-other-psychoactive-substances-a-mixed-method-study-in-ethiopia
#17
Awoke Mihretu, Solomon Teferra, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders along with neuropsychiatric disorders contributed about 14% of the global burden of disease. Harmful alcohol use, is a known contributor for many harms (accidents, suicide, violence, and complication of other psychiatric and medical disorders). In the Western countries, alcohol and nicotine are gateway drugs to cannabis use, and cannabis use is a risk factor for other illicit drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Khat use is another psychoactive substance which is common in East African and Arabian Peninsula...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095071/n-n-dimethyltryptamine-and-the-pineal-gland-separating-fact-from-myth
#18
David E Nichols
The pineal gland has a romantic history, from pharaonic Egypt, where it was equated with the eye of Horus, through various religious traditions, where it was considered the seat of the soul, the third eye, etc. Recent incarnations of these notions have suggested that N,N-dimethyltryptamine is secreted by the pineal gland at birth, during dreaming, and at near death to produce out of body experiences. Scientific evidence, however, is not consistent with these ideas. The adult pineal gland weighs less than 0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083991/psychosocial-correlates-of-perceived-stress-among-undergraduate-medical-students-in-nigeria
#19
Bawo O James, Ibironke F Thomas, Joyce O Omoaregba, Esther O Okogbenin, Kingsley M Okonoda, Abdu W Ibrahim, Auwal S Salihu, Yewande O Oshodi, Andrew Orovwigho, Paul C Odinka, George O Eze, Godwin C Onyebueke, Benjamin E Aweh
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with perceived stress among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study of students (n=623) selected across eight medical schools in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire obtained socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), other psychoactive drug use (Drug Abuse Screening Test), anxiety/depression symptoms (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) and stress (Perceived Medical School Stress Scale)...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082317/cannabinoid-receptor-1-gene-by-cannabis-use-interaction-on-cb1-receptor-density
#20
Ariel Ketcherside, Lindsey J Noble, Christa K McIntyre, Francesca M Filbey
Background: Because delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, binds to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, levels of CB1 protein could serve as a potential biomarker for response to THC. To date, available techniques to characterize CB1 expression and function in vivo are limited. In this study, we developed an assay to quantify CB1 in lymphocytes to determine how it relates to cannabis use in 58 daily cannabis users compared with 47 nonusers. Furthermore, we tested whether CB1 levels are associated with mutations in a single nucleotide polymorphism known to regulate CB1 functioning (i...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
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