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Hiroshi Miyamoto
Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, was first recognized in 1977 following an epidemic of acute pneumonia in Philadelphia, USA. Since then, a total of 59 Legionella species containing 80 serogroups have been characterized. Twenty-six of the Legionella species have been reported as pathogenic in humans. This review describes the microbiological characteristics of Legionella species, their habits in the environment, the source and route of infection, symptoms and diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease, and disease outbreaks in Japan...
March 25, 2018: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
Weilin Zeng, Ling Sun, Zheng Xiang, Na Li, Jie Zhang, Yongshu He, Qing Li, Fang Yang, Jingling Song, James Morris, Benjamin M Rosenthal, Le Sun, Huaie Liu, Zhaoqing Yang
While Sarcocystis parasites from the muscles of donkey and horse have been characterized as different species, similarities between the parasites in these host raises questions about this assignment (Levine and Tadros, 1980; Matuschka, 1983; Odening et al., 1995b). To resolve this, we examined the tissue cysts of Sarcocystis collected from donkeys and horses were studied by morphological and molecular methods. Morphological studies performed by light microscopy (LM) revealed that each of two types of cysts were present in samples from each host type...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ivan Martinka, Miriam Fulova, Margita Spalekova, Peter Spalek
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to evaluate changes of epidemiological parameters in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in Slovakia during the period 1977-2015. METHODS: Data from medical records of MG patients registered in Slovakia were analyzed. Epidemiological rates (incidence, prevalence, mortality) were assessed for several periods to identify changes and drifts over the period of study. RESULTS: Out of 2,074 patients, 892 were males (43...
March 20, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Todd M Olszewski
This article examines the history and effect of the Consensus Development Program (CDP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Introduced at a time when the relationship between the U.S. public and the medical profession was at a nadir, the CDP frequently placed the NIH in the middle of broader debates in medical practice and health policy during the last quarter of the 20th century. Drawing on published and archival sources, this paper sheds light on the challenges associated with collecting, assessing, and communicating evidence to medical professionals and convincing them to act on it in the name of improved health care...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Qinglan Guo, Mustapha M Mustapha, Mingliang Chen, Di Qu, Xi Zhang, Min Chen, Yohei Doi, Minggui Wang, Lee H Harrison
The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. Knowledge of the evolution and genetic origin of the emergent MenC strains is limited. In this study, we subjected 76 CC4821 isolates collected across China during 1972-1977 and 2005-2013 to phylogenetic analysis, traditional genotyping, or both. We show that successive recombination events within genes encoding surface antigens and acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations possibly played a role in the emergence of CC4821 as an epidemic clone in China...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gisele Braziliano de Andrade, Lúcio André Viana, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio, Filipe Martins Santos, Alessandra Cabral Perdomo, Jéssica Soares do Carmo, Alanderson Rodrigues da Silva, Taynara Rocha Maltezo, Heitor Miraglia Herrera
Despite the great diversity of coccidians, to our knowledge, no coccidian infections have been described in Oecomys spp. In this context, we examined Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from the Brazilian Pantanal for infections with enteric coccidia. Nine individuals were sampled, and one was found to be infected. The oöcysts were recovered through centrifugal flotation in sugar solution. Using morphological and morphometric features, we described a new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977. Sporulated oöcysts were ovoidal 20...
March 16, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
D Liao, H Yu, L Han, C Zhong, X Ran, D Wang, L Mo
PURPOSE: Evidences showed that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphism has an impact on women's susceptibility to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by influencing the expression and activity of PON1. However, the effects of three PON1 polymorphisms (- 108 C>T, L55M and Q192R) on the incidence of PCOS have generated inconsistent results. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between PON1 polymorphisms and PCOS risk. METHODS: All eligible trials were identified via systematic searches of multiple literature databases...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Jennifer C Alyono, Robert K Jackler, Sujana S Chandrasekhar
OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of women in the American Otological Society (AOS). METHODS: Biographies of the early women of the AOS were compiled through review of the AOS transactions, their published scholarship, newspaper articles, and memorials. Interviews were conducted with the only two women to have led the society and also with former colleagues and family members of pioneering AOS women members who are no longer with us. The evolving gender composition of the society over time was researched from AOS membership lists and compared with data on surgical workforce composition from multiple sources such as the Association of American Medical Colleges, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
W L Craig, L Smart, S Fielding, C Ramsay, Z H Krukowski
OBJECTIVE: To establish the long term outcomes of risk stratified management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). BACKGROUND: Guidelines for management of DTC lack a strong evidence base and expose patients to overtreatment. This prospective study of patients diagnosed with DTC between 1977 and 2012 describes the long term outcomes of a conservative risk stratified (AMES) management policy. METHODS: Outcomes were analysed around patient and tumour characteristics, primary intervention (surgery ± radioiodine (RAI)), in terms of mortality, recurrence and reintervention...
March 8, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Xi Chun, Mei Yong, Jiyao Liu, Wenjun Liang
The Qehan Lake Basin is located in the north of the Otindag Sandy Land, where the fragile eco-environment is sensitive to climate change and human activity. We analyzed land cover change and the concomitant processes of ecological change based on multi-spectral scanning (MSS), thematic mapper (TM), and enhanced TM (ETM+) images. The results showed that from 1977 to 2000, the area of dune sand increased significantly by 840.2 km2 , while the area of high cover grassland (HCGL), medium cover grassland (MCGL), and low cover grassland (LCGL) reduced by 140...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jéssica Araújo Figueira, Fábio Roberto de Souza Batista, Karina Rosso, Vanessa Cristina Veltrini, Angelo José Pavan
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS), also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity. The classic triad originally described by Gorlin and Goltz in 1960 is composed of multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas (NBCCs), odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) in the jaws and bifid ribs. in 1977, this triad was modified by Rayner et al, and to GGS diagnosis, the OKCs had to appear in combination with calcification of the cerebellar falx or palmar and plantar pits...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Jean-Philippe Krieger, Sophie Cabaset, Giulia Pestoni, Sabine Rohrmann, David Faeh
Defining dietary guidelines requires a quantitative assessment of the influence of diet on the development of diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate how dietary patterns were associated with mortality in a general population sample of Switzerland. We included 15,936 participants from two population-based studies (National Research Program 1A (NRP1A) and Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA)-1977 to 1993) who fully answered a simplified 24-h dietary recall. Mortality data were available through anonymous record linkage with the Swiss National Cohort (follow-up of up to 37...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Yury G Udodenko, Viktor T Komov, Viktor V Zakonnov
The long-term dynamics of mercury in bottom sediments of Uglich Reservoir were examined. Samples of the 0-5-cm surface layer of bottom sediment collected during research expeditions in 1958, 1977, 1991, and 2012 were analyzed. An increase in the average mercury concentration from 1958 to 1977 (0.440 ± 0.039 and 0.668 ± 0.065 mg/kg d.w., respectively) was followed by a decrease in 2012 (0.260 ± 0.021 mg/kg d.w.). During all years except 1991, a significant correlation was found between mercury content and the amount of organic matter in the sediments (r = 0...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Stella E Hines
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review of published data regarding normal range reference values and prediction equations for measurements of respiratory impedance using forced oscillation technique (FOT) and impulse oscillometry (IOs) in adults. METHODS: A non-language-restricted search was performed using forced oscillation technique and impulse oscillometry as primary terms. Original research studies reporting respiratory system impedance reference values or prediction equations based on cohorts of ≥100 healthy adults were included...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Nobuo Arai, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Yukino Tamamura, Kiyoshi Tanaka, Lisa Barco, Hidemasa Izumiya, Masahiro Kusumoto, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki, Taketoshi Iwata, Ayako Watanabe, Makoto Kuroda, Ikuo Uchida, Masato Akiba
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( Salmonella Typhimurium) and its monophasic variant ( Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-) are the major cause of gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis have been used widely as subtyping methods for these pathogens in molecular epidemiological analyses, but the results do not precisely reflect phylogenetic information. In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of these serovars using whole-genome sequencing data and identified nine distinct genotypic clades...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Xiang Y Gao, Lin Li, Xiao H Wang, Xian Z Wen, Ke Ji, Lin Ye, Jun Cai, Wen G Jiang, Jia F Ji
We have recently noticed an accidental error in part of a figure which appeared in the above‑mentioned article. In Fig. 3A, the image for the HGC27‑pEF, 15 h panel was mistakenly replicated as the HGC27‑KD, 0 h panel in the same figure, and the AGS‑pEF, 15 h and AGS KD, 0 h panels were mistakenly switched with each other. We have reviewed the original files and the individual figures for the submitted composite figure, and realized that the error occurred when we produced the composite figure by marrying the individual images to the final figure...
February 14, 2018: Oncology Reports
Holipah, Asri Maharani, Yoshiki Kuroda
BACKGROUND: Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to prevent children from contracting vaccine-preventable diseases. Indonesia launched the Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) in 1977. However, immunization coverage remains far below the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) target of 80%. This study aims to investigate the determinants of complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in Indonesia...
February 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
T Latif, R Lindahl-Jacobsen, J Mehlsen, M L Eisenberg, S A Holmboe, K Pors, L Brinth, S O Skouby, N Jørgensen, T K Jensen
Semen quality is suggested to be a universal biomarker for future health. Previous studies have mostly been registry based excluding the possibility to address the importance of lifestyle, fertility status, health and socio-economic status. We aimed to investigate whether the association between semen quality and subsequent risk of hospitalization could be explained by differences in occupation, education, fertility, cryptorchidism, BMI or smoking; 1423 men with first semen sample at Fertility Clinic, Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, from 1977 to 2010 responded to a questionnaire in 2012 about current health, lifestyle, educational level and occupation...
February 26, 2018: Andrology
Watanabe Yoichi, Izumi Kawamata, Yu Matsuki, Yoshihisa Suyama, Koichi Uehara, Motomi Ito
Ecological speciation is an important factor in the diversification of plants. The distribution of the woody species Rhododendron indicum, which grows along rivers and is able to withstand water flow when rivers flood (i.e. it is a rheophyte), is disjunct, in contrast to the widespread distribution of its relative, Rhododendron kaempferi. This study aimed to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between R. indicum and R. kaempferi and the evolutionary processes that gave rise to them. The sequences of three non-coding chloroplast DNA regions (total length 1977 bp) were obtained from 21 populations covering the ranges of the two species...
February 26, 2018: Heredity
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