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Bacillus anthracis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229702/galactosylation-of-the-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-its-contribution-to-anthrax-pathogenesis
#1
Alice Chateau, Justin Mark Lunderberg, So Young Oh, Teresa Abshire, Arthur Friedlander, Conrad P Quinn, Dominique M Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, elaborates a secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that is essential for bacterial growth and cell division. B. anthracis SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats, [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→], where α-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal and β-Gal at O3 and O4, respectively, and β-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal at O3. The genes whose products promote the galactosylation of B. anthracis SCWP are not yet known...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224733/validated-maldi-tof-ms-method-for-anthrax-lethal-factor-provides-early-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-therapeutics
#2
Maribel Gallegos-Candela, Anne E Boyer, Adrian R Woolfitt, Judy Brumlow, Renato C Lins, Conrad P Quinn, Alex R Hoffmaster, Gabriel Meister, John R Barr
Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endoprotease and a critical virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. The mass spectrometry (MS) method for total-LF quantification includes three steps; 1) LF specific antibody capture/concentration, 2) LF-specific hydrolysis of a peptide substrate, and 3) detection and quantification of LF-cleaved peptides by isotope-dilution MALDI-TOF/MS. Recombinant LF spiked plasma was used for calibration and quality control (QC) materials. Specificity was 100% from analysis of serum and plasma from 383 non-infected humans, 31 rabbits, and 24 rhesus macaques...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221871/investigation-on-paper-cup-waste-degradation-by-bacterial-consortium-and-eudrillus-eugeinea-through-vermicomposting
#3
Karthika Arumugam, Seenivasagan Renganathan, Babalola Olubukola Oluranti, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan
Disposable Paper cups are a threat to the environment and are composed of 90% high strength paper with 5% thin coating of polyethylene. This polyethylene prevents the paper cup from undergoing degradation in the soil. Hence, in the present study two different approaches towards the management of paper cup waste through vermicomposting technology has been presented. The experimental setup includes 2 plastic reactors namely Vermicompost (VC) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Earthworm (Eudrillus eugeinea)) and Vermicompost with bacterial consortium (VCB) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Eudrillus eugeinea + Microbial consortia such as Bacillus anthracis, B...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199987/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-3-5-epimerase-rfbc
#4
Aleksander Shornikov, Ha Tran, Jennifer Macias, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
The exosporium layer of Bacillus anthracis spores is rich in L-rhamnose, a common bacterial cell-wall component, which often contributes to the virulence of pathogens by increasing their adherence and immune evasion. The biosynthetic pathway used to form the activated L-rhamnose donor dTDP-L-rhamnose consists of four enzymes (RfbA, RfbB, RfbC and RfbD) and is an attractive drug target because there are no homologs in mammals. It was found that co-purifying and screening RfbC (dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose 3,5-epimerase) from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199984/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-reductase-rfbd
#5
Ashley Law, Alexander Stergioulis, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of the deadly disease Anthrax. Its use in bioterrorism and its ability to re-emerge have brought renewed interest in this organism. B. anthracis is a Gram-positive bacterium that adds L-rhamnose to its cell-wall polysaccharides using the activated donor dTDP-β-L-rhamnose. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the activated donor are absent in humans, which make them ideal targets for therapeutic development to combat pathogens. Here, the 2.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the fourth enzyme in the dTDP-β-L-rhamnose-biosynthetic pathway from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198864/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-anthrax-edema-factor
#6
Guan-Sheng Jiao, Seongjin Kim, Mahtab Moayeri, April Thai, Lynne Cregar-Hernandez, Linda McKasson, Sean O'Malley, Stephen H Leppla, Alan T Johnson
Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity...
November 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197182/protection-of-macrophages-from-intracellular-pathogens-by-mir-182-5p-mimic-a-gene-expression-meta-analysis-approach
#7
David J Gregory, Igor Kramnik, Lester Kobzik
The goals of this study were to i) define which host genes are of particular importance during the interactions between macrophages and intracellular pathogens, and ii) use this knowledge to gain fresh, experimental understanding of how macrophage activities may be manipulated during host defence. We designed an in silico method for meta-analysis of microarray gene expression data, and used this to combine data from 16 different studies of cells in the monocyte-macrophage lineage infected with 7 different pathogens...
December 2, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177636/sequence-analysis-and-comparative-bioinformatics-study-of-camelysin-gene-caly-isolated-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#8
Fateha Irshad, Zahid Mushtaq, Shakeel Akhtar
Bacillus strains have been widely used for the production of fibrinolytic enzymes having role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Purification and overproduction of such enzymes has increased their usage in medical fields including metalloproteinases with the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). Camelysin, a neutral metalloproteinase has been isolated from different species of bacteria like Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis with fibrinolytic, collagenolytic and actin degradation activity...
November 24, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174643/inactivation-of-bacillus-anthracis-spores-to-decontaminate-subway-railcar-and-related-materials-via-the-fogging-of-peracetic-acid-and-hydrogen-peroxide-sporicidal-liquids
#9
William R Richter, Joseph P Wood, Morgan Q S Wendling, James V Rogers
The inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores on subway and used subway railcar materials was evaluated using fogged peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A total of 21 separate decontamination tests were conducted using bacterial spores of both B. anthracis Ames (B.a.) and Bacillus atrophaeus (B.g.) inoculated onto several types of materials. Tests were conducted using commercial off-the-shelf fogging equipment filled with either PAA or H2O2 to fumigate a ∼15 cubic meter chamber under uncontrolled ambient relative humidity and controlled temperature (10 or 20 °C) from 8 to 168 h...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165439/proteomic-signatures-differentiating-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-sporulation-on-soil-relative-to-laboratory-media
#10
D S Wunschel, J R Hutchison, B L Deatherage Kaiser, E D Merkley, B M Hess, A Lin, M G Warner
The process of sporulation is vital for the stability and infectious cycle of Bacillus anthracis. The spore is the infectious form of the organism and therefore relevant to biodefense. While the morphological and molecular events occurring during sporulation have been well studied, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the proteins expressed in sporulated cultures is not well understood. Understanding the features of B. anthracis sporulation specific to natural vs. laboratory production will address an important question in microbial forensics...
November 22, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145870/bacillus-anthracis-gamma-phage-lysis-among-soil-bacteria-an-update-on-test-specificity
#11
Cari B Kolton, Nicole L Podnecky, Sean V Shadomy, Jay E Gee, Alex R Hoffmaster
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and animals, is enzootic in parts of the U.S. state of Texas where cases are typically reported in animals annually. The gamma phage lysis assay is a common diagnostic method for identification of B. anthracis and is based on the bacterium's susceptibility to lysis. This test has been shown to be 97% specific for B. anthracis, as a small number of strains of other Bacillus spp. are known to be susceptible. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a combination of B...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136087/the-utility-and-perspectives-of-ngs-based-methods-in-bsl-3-and-bsl-4-laboratory-sequencing-and-analysis-strategies
#12
Tomasz Wolkowicz
Modern diagnostics is in general based on molecular biology methods. Nowadays sequencing-based methods, especially whole genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly important. Implementation of such methods into routine diagnostic of highly dangerous pathogens, like Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Ebola virus, MERS, Lassa virus etc. would be very helpful. The best diagnostic strategy would be the metagenomic sequencing directly from the clinical sample. Implementation of majority of currently available WGS platforms inside the BSL-3 or 4 laboratory is impractical because of the size of the equipment and time consuming wet lab part (e...
November 10, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#13
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133571/development-of-protective-immunity-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-challenged-with-bacillus-anthracis-spores-and-treated-with-antibiotics-and-obiltoxaximab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-protective-antigen
#14
Lisa N Henning, Sarah Carpenter, Gregory V Stark, Natalya V Serbina
Recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease re-emergence after treatment cessation is a concern and there is a need to understand development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125719/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-obiltoxaximab-after-intramuscular-administration-to-healthy-humans
#15
Christa F Nagy, Timothy S Leach, Alex King, Robert Guttendorf
Inhalational anthrax is a highly lethal infection caused by Bacillus anthracis and a serious bioterrorism threat. Protective antigen (PA) is a critical component required for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that neutralizes PA, is approved in the United States for intravenous use for the treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or appropriate...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122874/whole-genome-sequences-of-variants-of-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-and-their-toxin-gene-deletion-mutants
#16
A Staab, R D Plaut, C Pratt, S P Lovett, M R Wiley, T D Biggs, R C Bernhards, L C Beck, G F Palacios, S Stibitz, K L Jones, B G Goodwin, M A Smith, S Sozhamannan
Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three laboratory variants of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and their double (Δlef Δcya) and triple (Δpag Δlef Δcya) toxin gene deletion derivatives.
November 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113932/rapid-identification-of-bacillus-anthracis-by-real-time-pcr-with-dual-hybridization-probes-in-environmental-swabs
#17
Olga Bassy, Óscar Jiménez-Mateo, M Victoria Ortega, Carmen Granja, Juan Carlos Cabria
In the present study, we report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the identification of Bacillus anthracis, based on the amplification of a unique chromosomal marker, the E4 sequence, with dual hybridization probes. The assay was evaluated using a panel of ten B. anthracis strains, two B. anthracis isolates from human clinical samples, 12 B. anthracis environmental swabs and 40 non- B. anthracis strains. All 12 B. anthracis strains and clinical isolates were correctly detected, and the method did not show cross-reactions with other micro-organisms...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098371/effect-of-humidity-on-sporicidal-activity-of-iodine-vapor-on-bacillus-thuringiensis
#18
Xuesong Jiang, Kyle R Overdeep, Elliot R Wainwright, Timothy P Weihs, Hai-Quan Mao
The emergence of Bacillus anthracis as a potential bioterrorism and biological warfare agent points to the need for safe, effective, and economical sporicides for infection prevention and control. This work examined the efficacy of iodine vapor decontamination technologies to inactivate a surrogate for B. anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis spores on glass materials. 10(6)-10(7) colony-forming units of spores inoculated onto circular glass cover slips were treated with different concentrations of iodine vapor under various temperature and relative humidity...
November 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095156/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-glucose-1-phosphate-thymidylyltransferase-rfba
#19
Jackson Baumgartner, Jesi Lee, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
L-Rhamnose is a ubiquitous bacterial cell-wall component. The biosynthetic pathway for its precursor dTDP-L-rhamnose is not present in humans, which makes the enzymes of the pathway potential drug targets. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the first protein of this pathway, glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RfbA), from Bacillus anthracis was determined. In other organisms this enzyme is referred to as RmlA. RfbA was co-crystallized with the products of the enzymatic reaction, dTDP-α-D-glucose and pyrophosphate, and its structure was determined at 2...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083419/patb1-is-an-o-acetyltransferase-that-decorates-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharides
#20
David Sychantha, Dustin J Little, Robert N Chapman, Geert-Jan Boons, Howard Robinson, P Lynne Howell, Anthony J Clarke
O-Acetylation of the secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWP) of the Bacillus cereus group of pathogens, which includes Bacillus anthracis, is essential for the proper attachment of surface-layer (S-layer) proteins to their cell walls. Using a variety of pseudosubstrates and a chemically synthesized analog of SCWP, we report here the identification of PatB1 as a SCWP O-acetyltransferase in Bacillus cereus. Additionally, we report the crystal structure of PatB1, which provides detailed insights into the mechanism of this enzyme and defines a novel subfamily of the SGNH family of esterases and lipases...
October 30, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
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