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Bacillus anthracis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214340/molecular-tiling-on-the-surface-of-a-bacterial-spore-the-exosporium-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis-group
#1
Cassandra Terry, Shuo Jiang, David S Radford, Wan Qiang, Svetomir Tzokov, Anne Moir, Per A Bullough
Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium form highly resistant spores, which in the case of some pathogens act as the infectious agents. An exosporium forms the outermost layer of some spores; it plays roles in protection, adhesion, dissemination, host targeting in pathogens, and germination control. The exosporium of the Bacillus cereus group, including the anthrax pathogen, contains a 2D-crystalline basal layer, overlaid by a hairy nap. BclA and related proteins form the hairy nap, and require ExsFA (BxpB) for their localisation on the basal layer...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209633/gene-expression-control-by-bacillus-anthracis-purine-riboswitches
#2
Marion Kirchner, Sabine Schneider
In all kingdoms of life, cellular replication relies on the presence of nucleosides and nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids and the main source of energy. In bacteria, the availability of metabolites sometimes directly regulates the expression of enzymes and proteins involved in purine salvage, biosynthesis and uptake through riboswitches. Riboswitches are located in bacterial mRNAs and can control gene expression by conformational changes in response to ligand binding. We have established an inverse reporter gene system in Bacillus subtilis that allows us to monitor riboswitch-controlled gene expression...
February 16, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192054/evaluation-of-immunoassays-and-general-biological-indicator-tests-for-field-screening-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-ricin
#3
Rachel A Bartholomew, Richard M Ozanich, Jennifer S Arce, Heather E Engelmann, Alejandro Heredia-Langner, Beth A Hofstad, Janine R Hutchison, Kristin Jarman, Angela M Melville, Kristin D Victry, Cynthia J Bruckner-Lea
There is little published data on the performance of biological indicator tests and immunoassays that could be used by first responders to determine if a suspicious powder contains a potential biothreat agent. We evaluated a range of biological indicator tests, including 3 protein tests, 2 ATP tests, 1 DNA test, and 1 FTIR spectroscopy instrument for their ability to screen suspicious powders for Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores and ricin. We also evaluated 12 immunoassays (mostly lateral flow immunoassays) for their ability to screen for B...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192050/evaluation-of-pcr-systems-for-field-screening-of-bacillus-anthracis
#4
Richard M Ozanich, Heather A Colburn, Kristin D Victry, Rachel A Bartholomew, Jennifer S Arce, Alejandro Heredia-Langner, Kristin Jarman, Helen W Kreuzer, Cynthia J Bruckner-Lea
There is little published data on the performance of hand-portable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems that can be used by first responders to determine if a suspicious powder contains a potential biothreat agent. We evaluated 5 commercially available hand-portable PCR instruments for detection of Bacillus anthracis. We used a cost-effective, statistically based test plan to evaluate systems at performance levels ranging from 0.85-0.95 lower confidence bound (LCB) of the probability of detection (POD) at confidence levels of 80% to 95%...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191745/comparison-of-sampling-methods-to-recover-germinated-bacillus-anthracis-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-endospores-from-surface-coupons
#5
Tiffany M Mott, Jennifer L Shoe, Melissa Hunter, Amber M Woodson, Kristen A Fritts, Christopher P Klimko, Avery V Quirk, Susan L Welkos, Christopher K Cote
AIMS: In an attempt to devise decontamination methods that are both effective and minimally detrimental to the environment, we evaluated germination-induction as an enhancement to strategies for Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination. To determine an optimal method for the recovery of germinating spores from different matrices it was critical to ensure that the sampling procedures did not negatively impact the viability of the germinating spores possibly confounding the results and downstream analyses of field trial data...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148975/bacterial-virulence-factors-secreted-for-survival
#6
REVIEW
Aditya Kumar Sharma, Neha Dhasmana, Neha Dubey, Nishant Kumar, Aakriti Gangwal, Meetu Gupta, Yogendra Singh
Virulence is described as an ability of an organism to infect the host and cause a disease. Virulence factors are the molecules that assist the bacterium colonize the host at the cellular level. These factors are either secretory, membrane associated or cytosolic in nature. The cytosolic factors facilitate the bacterium to undergo quick adaptive-metabolic, physiological and morphological shifts. The membrane associated virulence factors aid the bacterium in adhesion and evasion of the host cell. The secretory factors are important components of bacterial armoury which help the bacterium wade through the innate and adaptive immune response mounted within the host...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#7
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121020/modeling-rabbit-responses-to-single-and-multiple-aerosol-exposures-of-bacillus-anthracis-spores
#8
Margaret E Coleman, Harry M Marks, Timothy A Bartrand, Darrell W Donahue, Stephanie A Hines, Jason E Comer, Sarah C Taft
Survival models are developed to predict response and time-to-response for mortality in rabbits following exposures to single or multiple aerosol doses of Bacillus anthracis spores. Hazard function models were developed for a multiple-dose data set to predict the probability of death through specifying functions of dose response and the time between exposure and the time-to-death (TTD). Among the models developed, the best-fitting survival model (baseline model) is an exponential dose-response model with a Weibull TTD distribution...
January 25, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115677/modeling-the-ecological-niche-of-bacillus-anthracis-to-map-anthrax-risk-in-kyrgyzstan
#9
Jason K Blackburn, Saitbek Matakarimov, Sabira Kozhokeeva, Zhyldyz Tagaeva, Lindsay K Bell, Ian T Kracalik, Asankadyr Zhunushov
Anthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104231/isolation-characterization-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-polyacetylene-glycosides-from-coreopsis-tinctoria-nutt
#10
Jia Guo, Ao Wang, Ke Yang, Hao Ding, Yimin Hu, Yumeng Yang, Siqi Huang, Jingguo Xu, Tianxing Liu, Haiyan Yang, Zhihong Xin
Polyacetylene glycosides, (6Z, 12E)-tetradecadiene-8,10-diyne-1-ol-3(R)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (trivially named coreoside E) and (6Z, 12E)-tetradecadiene-8,10-diyne-1-ol-3(R)-O-β-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (trivially named coreoside F), were isolated from buds of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., together with one known compound, coreoside B. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and on the basis of their chemical reactivities. Coreoside E exhibited high levels of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 27 ± 0...
January 16, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102766/soluble-p-selectin-rescues-mice-from-anthrax-lethal-toxin-induced-mortality-through-psgl-1-pathway-mediated-correction-of-hemostasis
#11
Der-Shan Sun, Yao-Wen Chang, Jyh-Hwa Kau, Hsin-Hsien Huang, Pei-Hsun Ho, Yin-Jeh Tzeng, Hsin-Hou Chang
As one of the virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, lethal toxin (LT) induces various pathogenic responses including the suppression of the coagulation system. In this study, we observed that LT markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) levels and microparticle (MP) count in wild-type but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp(-)(-)(-)) or P-sel ligand-1 (PSGL-1, Selplg(-)(-)(-)) knockout mice. Because sP-sel induces a hypercoagulable state through PSGL-1 pathway to generate tissue factor-positive MPs, we hypothesized that the increase in plasma sP-sel levels can be a self-rescue response in hosts against the LT-mediated suppression of the coagulation system...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093076/genetic-source-tracking-of-an-anthrax-outbreak-in-shaanxi-province-china
#12
Dong-Li Liu, Jian-Chun Wei, Qiu-Lan Chen, Xue-Jun Guo, En-Min Zhang, Li He, Xu-Dong Liang, Guo-Zhu Ma, Ti-Cao Zhou, Wen-Wu Yin, Wei Liu, Kai Liu, Yi Shi, Jian-Jun Ji, Hui-Juan Zhang, Lin Ma, Fa-Xin Zhang, Zhi-Kai Zhang, Hang Zhou, Hong-Jie Yu, Biao Kan, Jian-Guo Xu, Feng Liu, Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Anthrax is an acute zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis. From 26 July to 8 August 2015, an outbreak with 20 suspected cutaneous anthrax cases was reported in Ganquan County, Shaanxi province in China. The genetic source tracking analysis of the anthrax outbreak was performed by molecular epidemiological methods in this study. METHODS: Three molecular typing methods, namely canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis, were used to investigate the possible source of transmission and identify the genetic relationship among the strains isolated from human cases and diseased animals during the outbreak...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087491/dynamics-of-bacterial-class-bacilli-in-the-deepest-valley-lake-of-kashmir-the-manasbal-lake
#13
Sana Shafi, Azra N Kamili, Manzoor A Shah, Suhaib A Bandh, Rubiya Dar
In recognition of the importance of bacteria as ecological indicators of the aquatic systems a comprehensive and systematic analysis was carried out on Manasbal Lake, the deepest spring fed valley lake of Kashmir. The main objective envisaged was to analyze bacterial community composition (BCC) and for this purpose systematic and regular sampling of waters from ten different sampling stations, predetermined in the Lake according to differences in degree of human interference and also as zones of special ecological interests were selected...
January 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076993/evaluation-of-clinical-and-serological-findings-for-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-anthrax-infection-after-an-outbreak
#14
Duygu Gulseren, Serap Süzük-Yıldız, Bekir Çelebi, Selçuk Kılıç
PURPOSE: Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is one of the oldest documented infectious diseases in both livestock and humans.We aimed to evaluate clinical findings and risk factors of patients with cutaneous anthrax infection and report anti-lethal factor (LF) IgG and anti-protective antigene (PA) IgG titers in the serologic diagnosis of disease. METHODS: In this study, serum samples of 18 cutaneous anthrax patients were collected and anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 11, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073730/2014-anthrax-epidemic-in-koubia-prefecture-guinea-conakry
#15
M S Sow, M B Boushab, H Balde, A Camara, F B Sako, F A Traoré, M O S Diallo, M D Diallo, M Keita, A O Sylla, T M Tounkara, M Cissé
Anthrax disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the 2014 epidemic in Koubia prefecture. This retrospective study examined all of the anthrax cases reported in Fafaya, Koubia Prefecture. In March and April 2014, there were 39 cases of human anthrax reported, for an incidence of 1.135%. The mean age was 20.9 (± 18.3) with a sex ratio of 2.54 (28/11) in favor of men. Seventy-six percent (23/39) were single...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056004/notes-from-the-field-compliance-with-postexposure-prophylaxis-for-exposure-to-bacillus-anthracis-among-u-s-military-personnel-south-korea-may-2015
#16
Koya C Allen, Katherine Hendricks, Eric Sergienko, Raul Mirza, Rohit A Chitale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053211/optical-screening-for-rapid-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-and-for-observation-of-phenotypic-diversity-among-the-genetically-clonal-species-bacillus-anthracis
#17
Heather P McLaughlin, Amy S Gargis, Pierre Michel, David Sue, Linda M Weigel
: During high-impact events involving Bacillus anthracis, such as the Amerithrax incident of 2001 or the anthrax outbreaks in Russia and Sweden in 2016, critical decisions to reduce morbidity and mortality include rapid selection and distribution of effective antimicrobial agents for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. Detection of antimicrobial resistance currently relies on a conventional broth microdilution (BMD) method that requires a 16 - 20 hour incubation time for B. anthracis Advances in high-resolution optical screening offer a new technology to more rapidly evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility and to simultaneously assess growth characteristics of an isolate...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041695/influence-of-ppcps-on-the-performance-of-intermittently-operated-slow-sand-filters-for-household-water-purification
#18
Caroline M E Pompei, Lena Ciric, Melisa Canales, Kersti Karu, Eny M Vieira, Luiza C Campos
Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from drinking water is usually enhanced by advanced oxidation which is not affordable in low income countries. Slow sand filtration has been found to be capable of removing anti-inflammatory compounds, and its low maintenance costs and easy operation make it an attractive technology for treating drinking water in many parts of the world. In addition, slow sand filters can be used at both large and household scales. The biofilm (i.e. schmutzdecke) developed on the top of the sand and within the upper layers of the sand is acknowledged to be responsible for the water purification...
December 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035484/a-mathematical-model-of-anthrax-transmission-in-animal-populations
#19
C M Saad-Roy, P van den Driessche, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
A general mathematical model of anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis) transmission is formulated that includes live animals, infected carcasses and spores in the environment. The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is calculated, and existence of a unique endemic equilibrium is established for [Formula: see text] above the threshold value 1. Using data from the literature, elasticity indices for [Formula: see text] and type reproduction numbers are computed to quantify anthrax control measures. Including only herbivorous animals, anthrax is eradicated if [Formula: see text]...
December 29, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033346/improving-phylogeny-reconstruction-at-the-strain-level-using-peptidome-datasets
#20
Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Alberto Gutiérrez-Jácome, Markus Göker, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Borja Sánchez, Anália Lourenço
Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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