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Bacillus anthracis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335365/antibacterial-properties-of-visible-light-responsive-carbon-containing-titanium-dioxide-photocatalytic-nanoparticles-against-anthrax
#1
Der-Shan Sun, Jyh-Hwa Kau, Hsin-Hsien Huang, Yao-Hsuan Tseng, Wen-Shiang Wu, Hsin-Hou Chang
The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO₂) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO₂ for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO₂ nanoparticles [TiO₂(C) NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP), which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO₂(C) NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive...
December 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331957/digital-triplex-dna-assay-based-on-plasmonic-nanocrystals
#2
Guohua Li, Liang Zhu, Yonghong He, Hui Tan, Shuqing Sun
A new analytical method has been developed to detect three kinds of DNA simultaneously based on magnetic beads and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals. Magnetic beads modified with capture DNA are employed to collect the specific target DNA, and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals are applied to signal the target through DNA hybridization. As a proof of concept, three types of representative metal nanocrystals of gold nanoparticle (AuNP), gold nanorod (AuNR), and gold/silver nanoparticle (Au/AgNP) were employed to signal three dissimilar virus-related protective antigen genes, Ebola virus (EV), Variola virus (VV), and Bacillus anthracis (BA), respectively...
March 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331641/penicillin-susceptible-oxidase-negative-nonhemolytic-nonmotile-bacillus-megaterium-in-disguise-of-bacillus-anthracis
#3
Shih Keng Loong, Boon Teong Teoh, Jefree Johari, Chee Sieng Khor, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Siti Sarah Nor'e, Nur Izyan Samsudin, Noor Syahida Azizan, Che Norainon Yaacob, Asma Anati CheMatSeri, Nur Hidayana Mahfodz, Sazaly AbuBakar
Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health management. Biosafety Level 3 measures and ciprofloxacin treatment were instituted when B. anthracis was suspected from a patient with gangrenous foot...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326781/the-berkeleylactones-antibiotic-macrolides-from-fungal-coculture
#4
Andrea A Stierle, Donald B Stierle, Daniel Decato, Nigel D Priestley, Jeremy B Alverson, John Hoody, Kelly McGrath, Dorota Klepacki
A carefully timed coculture fermentation of Penicillium fuscum and P. camembertii/clavigerum yielded eight new 16-membered-ring macrolides, berkeleylactones A-H (1, 4, 6-9, 12, 13), as well as the known antibiotic macrolide A26771B (5), patulin, and citrinin. There was no evidence of the production of the berkeleylactones or A26771B (5) by either fungus when grown as axenic cultures. The structures were deduced from analyses of spectral data, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 9 were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300596/combined-virtual-screening-mmpbsa-molecular-docking-and-dynamics-studies-against-deadly-anthrax-an-in-silico-effort-to-inhibit-bacillus-anthracis-nucleoside-hydrolase
#5
Masoumeh Karami, Chiya Jalali, Sako Mirzaie
Anthrax is a deadly disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a dangerous biological warfare agent employed for both military and terrorist purposes. A critical selective target for chemotherapy against this disease is nucleoside hydrolase (NH), an enzyme still not found in mammals. In the current study, we have performed molecular docking and dynamics studies, aiming to propose the new potent inhibitors of B. anthracis NH among National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set. We also analyzed the principal interactions of proposed compounds with the active site residues of NH and the relevant factors to biological activity...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299860/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-fuels-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-de-novo-lipid-biosynthesis-during-bacillus-anthracis-sporulation
#6
Marat R Sadykov, Jong-Sam Ahn, Todd J Widhelm, Valerie M Eckrich, Jennifer L Endres, Adam Driks, Gregory E Rutkowski, Kevin L Wingerd, Kenneth W Bayles
Numerous bacteria accumulate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as an intracellular reservoir of carbon and energy in response to imbalanced nutritional conditions. In Bacillus spp., where PHB biosynthesis precedes the formation of the dormant cell type called the spore (sporulation), the direct link between PHB accumulation and efficiency of sporulation was observed in multiple studies. Although the idea of PHB as an intracellular carbon and energy source fueling sporulation was proposed several decades ago, the mechanisms underlying PHB contribution to sporulation have not been defined...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298443/a-four-gene-operon-in-bacillus-cereus-produces-two-rare-spore-decorating-sugars
#7
Zi Li, Thiya Mukherjee, Kyle Bowler, Sholeh Namdari, Zachary Snow, Sarah Prestridge, Alexandra Carlton, Maor Bar-Peled
Bacterial glycan structures on cell surfaces are critical for cell-cell recognition and adhesion and in host-pathogen interactions. Accordingly, unraveling the sugar composition of bacterial cell surfaces can shed light on bacterial growth and pathogenesis. Here, we found that two rare sugars with a 3-C-methyl-6-deoxy-hexose structure were linked to spore glycan in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10876. Moreover, we identified a four-gene operon in B. cereus ATCC 14579 that encodes proteins with the following sequential enzyme activities as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR methods: CTP:glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, a CDP-Glc 4,6-dehydratase, an NADH-dependent SAM:C-methyltransferase, and an NADPH-dependent CDP-3-C-methyl-6-deoxy-hexose 4-reductase...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294483/the-detection-and-quantification-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-spores-from-soil-and-swabs-using-quantitative-pcr-as-a-model-system-for-routine-diagnostics-of-bacillus-anthracis
#8
Vera Sedlackova, Radka Dziedzinska, Vladimir Babak, Petr Kralik
AIMS: To optimize the DNA isolation for the routine detection and quantification of bacillary spores in soil and swabs. The procedure is primarily intended for diagnostics of Bacillus anthracis spores, but due to its high pathogenicity B. thuringiensis served as its surrogate organism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Various commercial kits for soils and swabs in combination with quantitative PCR were tested with different results. The PowerSoil DNA kit and the Ultra Clean Microbial DNA kit gave the best results for the extraction from soil and swabs, respectively...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288571/in-vivo-characterization-of-an-hfq-protein-encoded-by-the-bacillus-anthracis-virulence-plasmid-pxo1
#9
Andrea B Keefer, Eugenia K Asare, Andrei P Pomerantsev, Mahtab Moayeri, Craig Martens, Stephen F Porcella, Susan Gottesman, Stephen H Leppla, Catherine E Vrentas
BACKGROUND: Bacterial Hfq proteins post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, primarily by mediating the interaction between sRNAs (small RNAs) and their target mRNAs. The role of Hfq-based regulation has been well defined in Gram-negative bacteria, but comparatively less is known about the impact of Hfq proteins in Gram-positive species. The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis (causative agent of anthrax) is distinct in that it expresses three homologs of Hfq: Hfq1 and Hfq2 from the chromosome, and Hfq3 from the pXO1 virulence plasmid...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281892/self-defense-against-bacillus-anthracis-toxins-is-p-selectin-the-key
#10
John D Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280006/genome-sequence-of-historical-bacillus-anthracis-strain-tyrol-4675-isolated-from-a-bovine-anthrax-case-in-austria
#11
Markus Antwerpen, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
In 1988, an outbreak of anthrax occurred among cattle in the Austrian state of Tyrol. Since then, Austria has been declared anthrax-free. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of one of these last outbreak strains, Bacillus anthracis Tyrol 4675, isolated from a diseased cow.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264645/systematic-substitutions-at-blip-position-50-result-in-changes-in-binding-specificity-for-class-a-%C3%AE-lactamases
#12
Carolyn J Adamski, Timothy Palzkill
BACKGROUND: The production of β-lactamases by bacteria is the most common mechanism of resistance to the widely prescribed β-lactam antibiotics. β-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) competitively inhibits class A β-lactamases via two binding loops that occlude the active site. It has been shown that BLIP Tyr50 is a specificity determinant in that substitutions at this position result in large differential changes in the relative affinity of BLIP for class A β-lactamases. RESULTS: In this study, the effect of systematic substitutions at BLIP position 50 on binding to class A β-lactamases was examined to further explore the role of BLIP Tyr50 in modulating specificity...
March 6, 2017: BMC Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258144/construction-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-simulant-strains-suitable-for-environmental-release
#13
Sangjin Park, Changhwan Kim, Daesang Lee, Dong Hyun Song, Ki Cheol Cheon, Hong Suk Lee, Seong Joo Kim, Jee Cheon Kim, Sang Yup Lee
For a surrogate bacterium to be used in outdoor studies, it is important to consider environmental and human safety, and ease of detection. Recently, Bacillus thuringiensis, a popular bioinsecticide bacterium, is gaining attention as a surrogate bacterium for its use in biodefense. In this study, we constructed simulant strains of B. thuringiensis with enhanced characteristics for environmental studies. Through transposon mutagenesis, pigment genes were inserted into the chromosome, producing yellow-colored colonies for easy detection...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256003/re-aerosolization-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-spores-from-concrete-and-turf
#14
A H Bishop, C M O'Sullivan, A Lane, M C Butler Ellis, W J Sellors
Spores of Bacillus anthracis deposited on surfaces can become airborne again as a result of air currents and mechanical forces. As such they are a potential source of infection by inhalation. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis were used to quantify this phenomenon in a simulation of outdoor conditions. Concrete and turf surfaces were inoculated by aerosol to produce high spore densities (greater than 1 x 10(9) CFU m(-2) ) which were then subjected to the passage of air at 10 ms(-1) with and without simulated walking...
March 3, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254074/development-of-antibacterial-conjugates-using-sulfamethoxazole-with-monocyclic-terpenes-a-systematic-medicinal-chemistry-based-computational-approach
#15
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To develop 6 conjugate agents of the moribund antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) joined to 6 individual monoterpenes, followed by protocols of medicinal chemistry as potent antibacterials, against multidrug resistant (MDR) human gruesome pathogenic bacteria. METHODS: Antibacterial activities of the proposed conjugates were ascertained by the 'prediction of activity spectra of substances' (PASS) program. Drug-likeness parameters and toxicity profiles of conjugates were standardized with the Lipinski rule of five, using cheminformatic tools, Molsoft, molinspiration, OSIRIS and ProTox...
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237999/the-poly-%C3%AE-d-glutamic-acid-capsule-surrogate-of-bacillus-anthracis-capsule-induces-interferon-gamma-production-in-nk-cells-through-interactions-with-macrophages
#16
Hae-Ri Lee, Jun Ho Jeon, Gi-Eun Rhie
The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, provides protection of the Bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. We investigated crosstalk between murine NK cells and macrophages stimulated with PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule. PGA induced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production from NK cells cultured with macrophages. This effect was dependent on macrophage-derived IL-12 and cell-cell contact interaction with macrophages through NK cell receptor NKG2D and its ligand RAE-1...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230516/ultrastructural-characterization-of-bacillus-anthracis-spores-the-existence-of-two-spores-subpopulations
#17
W Antunes, P Fonseca, J Freitas, I Gomes, C Alonso, A Matos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223382/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-omadacycline-against-two-biothreat-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#18
Judith Steenbergen, S Ken Tanaka, Lynda L Miller, Stephanie A Halasohoris, Jeremy R Hershfield
Introduction: The in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of omadacycline (OMC) were evaluated against the causative pathogens of anthrax and plague, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, respectively.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OMC were determined by microbroth dilution according to CLSI guidelines for 30 isolates each of Y. pestis and B. anthracis The in vivo efficacy of omadacycline was studied at a range of dosages in both a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) murine model of anthrax and plague as well as in a delayed treatment model of inhalational anthrax...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214340/molecular-tiling-on-the-surface-of-a-bacterial-spore-the-exosporium-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis-group
#19
Cassandra Terry, Shuo Jiang, David S Radford, Wan Qiang, Svetomir Tzokov, Anne Moir, Per A Bullough
Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium form highly resistant spores, which in the case of some pathogens act as the infectious agents. An exosporium forms the outermost layer of some spores; it plays roles in protection, adhesion, dissemination, host targeting in pathogens, and germination control. The exosporium of the Bacillus cereus group, including the anthrax pathogen, contains a 2D-crystalline basal layer, overlaid by a hairy nap. BclA and related proteins form the hairy nap, and require ExsFA (BxpB) for their localisation on the basal layer...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209633/gene-expression-control-by-bacillus-anthracis-purine-riboswitches
#20
Marion Kirchner, Sabine Schneider
In all kingdoms of life, cellular replication relies on the presence of nucleosides and nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids and the main source of energy. In bacteria, the availability of metabolites sometimes directly regulates the expression of enzymes and proteins involved in purine salvage, biosynthesis and uptake through riboswitches. Riboswitches are located in bacterial mRNAs and can control gene expression by conformational changes in response to ligand binding. We have established an inverse reporter gene system in Bacillus subtilis that allows us to monitor riboswitch-controlled gene expression...
February 16, 2017: RNA
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