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Bacillus anthracis

Daniela Albanesi, Diego de Mendoza
Phospholipids and fatty acids are not only one of the major components of cell membranes but also important metabolic intermediates in bacteria. Since the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway is essential and energetically expensive, organisms have developed a diversity of homeostatic mechanisms to fine-tune the concentration of lipids at particular levels. FapR is the first global regulator of lipid synthesis discovered in bacteria and is largely conserved in Gram-positive organisms including important human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Ronny Hedell, Olga Stephansson, Petter Mostad, Mats Gunnar Andersson
Efficient and correct evaluation of sampling results with respect to hypotheses about the concentration or distribution of bacteria generally requires knowledge about the performance of the detection method. To assess the sensitivity of the detection method an experiment is usually performed where the target matrix is spiked (i.e. artificially contaminated) with different concentrations of the bacteria, followed by analyses of the samples using the pre-enrichment method and the analytical detection method of interest...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Alice Gutjahr, Capucine Phelip, Anne-Line Coolen, Claire Monge, Anne-Sophie Boisgard, Stéphane Paul, Bernard Verrier
Vaccines have successfully eradicated a large number of diseases. However, some infectious diseases (such as HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis or Bacillus anthracis) keep spreading since there is no vaccine to prevent them. One way to overcome this issue is the development of new adjuvant formulations which are able to induce the appropriate immune response without sacrificing safety. Lymph nodes are the site of lymphocyte priming by antigen-presenting cells and subsequent adaptive immune response, and are a promising target for vaccine formulations...
October 12, 2016: Vaccines
Yong Yang, Hua Gu, Xiaofeng Yu, Li Zhan, Jiancai Chen, Yun Luo, Yunyi Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Jianmin Jiang, Lingling Mei
Emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus (emetic B. cereus) is the third member of B. cereus group whose toxins are encoded by megaplasmids, beside anthrax and insecticidal toxins of B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis respectively. 18 emetic isolates collected from food poisoning events, clinical and non-random food samples in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed by plasmid screening, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), as well as toxic gene identification to investigate their genotypic diversity...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Becky M Hess, Brett G Amidan, Kevin K Anderson, Janine R Hutchison
Restoring all facility operations after the 2001 Amerithrax attacks took years to complete, highlighting the need to reduce remediation time. Some of the most time intensive tasks were environmental sampling and sample analyses. Composite sampling allows disparate samples to be combined, with only a single analysis needed, making it a promising method to reduce response times. We developed a statistical experimental design to test three different composite sampling methods: 1) single medium single pass composite (SM-SPC): a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons with a single pass across each coupon; 2) single medium multi-pass composite: a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons with multiple passes across each coupon (SM-MPC); and 3) multi-medium post-sample composite (MM-MPC): a single cellulose sponge samples a single surface, and then multiple sponges are combined during sample extraction...
2016: PloS One
Yanyu Wang, Sarah A Jenkins, Chunfang Gu, Ankita Shree, Margarita Martinez-Moczygemba, Jennifer Herold, Marina Botto, Rick A Wetsel, Yi Xu
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005678.].
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Leonie Schnell, Ann-Katrin Mittler, Andrea Mattarei, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Cesare Montecucco, Holger Barth
Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA) from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA) has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT)...
July 15, 2016: Toxins
Michelle C Swick, Theresa M Koehler, Adam Driks
To survive adverse conditions, some bacterial species are capable of developing into a cell type, the "spore," which exhibits minimal metabolic activity and remains viable in the presence of multiple environmental challenges. For some pathogenic bacteria, this developmental state serves as a means of survival during transmission from one host to another. Spores are the highly infectious form of these bacteria. Upon entrance into a host, specific signals facilitate germination into metabolically active replicating organisms, resulting in disease pathogenesis...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Charles R Ashby, Bhargav A Patel, Tanaji T Talele, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibacterial drugs. Therefore, new bacterial targets and new antimicrobials are unmet medical needs. Rhodanine derivatives have been shown to possess potent antimicrobial activity via a novel mechanism. However, their potential use as antibacterials has not been fully examined. In this study, we determined the spectrum of activity of seven rhodanine derivatives (compounds Rh 1-7) against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and Candida albicans...
2016: PloS One
Elisa Biondi, Joshua D Lane, Debasis Das, Saurja Dasgupta, Joseph A Piccirilli, Shuichi Hoshika, Kevin M Bradley, Bryan A Krantz, Steven A Benner
Reported here is a laboratory in vitro evolution (LIVE) experiment based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS). This experiment delivers the first example of an AEGIS aptamer that binds to an isolated protein target, the first whose structural contact with its target has been outlined and the first to inhibit biologically important activities of its target, the protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis We show how rational design based on secondary structure predictions can also direct the use of AEGIS to improve the stability and binding of the aptamer to its target...
October 3, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Qiao Li, George Korza, Peter Setlow
AIMS: Determine responses of spores of Bacillus subtilis and the Bacillus anthracis surrogate Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam to I2 -treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spores of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis killed by aqueous 30°C I2 could germinate, and their inner membrane (IM) was intact. Spore coats were important in I2 resistance, DNA protective proteins were not important, and survivors of I2 -treatment were not mutagenised. Viabilities of I2 -treated, 90-98%-killed spores were much lower on high-salinity media, and treated spores were more heat-sensitive than untreated spores...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Antonio Varriale, Karine Bonnot, Sergio Peransi, Andrea Scala, Sabato D'Auria
A fast and reliable detection of biological agents in air is of a crucial importance to respond to terrorist attacks. With the aim to efficiently react to such hazards there is the need to develop highly sensitive and specific detection analytical devices for selective and quantitative detection of biological threats such as the presence of Bacillus anthracis spores and/or the presence of Ricin A toxins. In this study we explored how to achieve an oriented immobilization of antibody molecules on silicon nitride surfaces to improve their efficiency to bind to specific target molecules...
August 30, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jun Xu, Xiaoke Shen, Lei Jia, Mingming Zhang, Tao Zhou, Yukun Wei
Since bacterial spores, such as Bacillus anthracis spores, are extremely hazardous to human beings and animals, efforts have focused on the development of bacterial spore detector with rapid response and high selectivity and sensitivity. Therefore, we reported a facile one-step chelating-reagent-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide-doped fluorapatite (FA) nanoprobes for detecting the biomarker of bacterial spores. In FA synthesis, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can serve not only as a shape controller and a stabilizer but also as a chelating reagent for lanthanide ions...
September 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jason W Sahl, Talima Pearson, Richard Okinaka, James M Schupp, John D Gillece, Hannah Heaton, Dawn Birdsell, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Ramón Noseda, Antonio Fasanella, Alex Hoffmaster, David M Wagner, Paul Keim
: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that occurs naturally in wild and domestic animals but has been used by both state-sponsored programs and terrorists as a biological weapon. A Soviet industrial production facility in Sverdlovsk, USSR, proved deficient in 1979 when a plume of spores was accidentally released and resulted in one of the largest known human anthrax outbreaks. In order to understand this outbreak and others, we generated a Bacillus anthracis population genetic database based upon whole-genome analysis to identify all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a reference genome...
2016: MBio
Somya Aggarwal, Vikas Kumar Somani, Vatika Gupta, Jaspreet Kaur, Damini Singh, Abhinav Grover, Rakesh Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Recent report on importance of phosphate starvation (PS) in Bacillus anthracis (BA) pathogenesis warrants further investigation of the underlying regulatory mechanism. Potential role of PhoPR two component system (TCS) in phosphate homeostasis and virulence of several pathogens necessitates the study of annotated PhoPR in BA. METHODS: Expression of phoP and phoR was analyzed using qRT-PCR. PhoPR was characterized biochemically. DNA-protein interaction was analyzed by EMSA...
September 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jason G Ramage, Kristin W Prentice, Lindsay DePalma, Kodumudi S Venkateswaran, Sruti Chivukula, Carol Chapman, Melissa Bell, Shomik Datta, Ajay Singh, Alex Hoffmaster, Jawad Sarwar, Nishanth Parameswaran, Mrinmayi Joshi, Nagarajan Thirunavkkarasu, Viswanathan Krishnan, Stephen Morse, Julie R Avila, Shashi Sharma, Peter L Estacio, Larry Stanker, David R Hodge, Segaran P Pillai
We conducted a comprehensive, multiphase laboratory evaluation of the Anthrax BioThreat Alert(®) test strip, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis spores. The study, conducted at 2 sites, evaluated this assay for the detection of spores from the Ames and Sterne strains of B. anthracis, as well as those from an additional 22 strains. Phylogenetic near neighbors, environmental background organisms, white powders, and environmental samples were also tested. The Anthrax LFA demonstrated a limit of detection of about 10(6) spores/mL (ca...
September 2016: Health Security
Miriam A Balderas, Chinh Nguyen, Austen Terwilliger, Wendy A Keitel, Angelina Iniguez, Rodrigo Torres, Frederico Palacios, Celia W Goulding, Anthony W Maresso
Bacillus anthracis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of anthrax and a potential weapon of bioterrorism. The U.S. licensed anthrax vaccine is made from an incompletely characterized culture supernatant of a nonencapsulated, toxigenic strain (anthrax vaccine absorbed - AVA) whose primary protective component is thought to be protective antigen (PA). AVA is effective in protecting animals and elicits toxin-neutralizing antibodies in humans, but enthusiasm is dampened by its undefined composition, multi-shot regimen, recommended boosters, and potential for adverse reactions...
September 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Callum Cooper, Fatih Buyuk, Bettina Schelkle, Aliye Gulmez Saglam, Elif Celik, Ozgur Celebi, Mitat Sahin, Tom Hawkyard, Les Baillie
The Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO2, which encodes for a polypeptide capsule, can be lost during long term laboratory storage. To determine if pXO2 is lost in nature we screened B. anthracis isolates obtained from B. anthracis spores from contaminated animal burial sites in Turkey for their ability to express a capsule upon primary culture. A total of 672 B. anthracis colonies were examined of which ten produced a mixed mucoid (capsule +ve)/non-mucoid (capsule -ve) phenotype and a further one colony yielded non-mucoid colonies upon repeated culture...
September 19, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
(no author information available yet)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security.
September 14, 2016: Federal Register
Taissia G Popova, Allison Teunis, Virginia Espina, Lance A Liotta, Serguei G Popov
In this study the hydrogel microparticles (MPs) were used to enhance migration of neutrophils in order to improve outcome of anthrax infection in a mouse model. Two MP formulations were tested. In the first one the polyacrylamide gel MPs were chemically coupled with Cibacron Blue (CB) affinity bait. In the second one the bait molecules within the MPs were additionally loaded with neutrophil-attracting chemokines (CKs), human CXCL8 and mouse CCL3. A non-covalent interaction of the bait with the CKs provided their gradual release after administration of the MPs to the host...
2016: PloS One
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