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Bacillus anthracis

Jun Ho Jeon, Deok-Bum Park, Sun-Je Woo, Hae-Ri Lee, Ok-Kyu Park, Jungchan Park, Gi-Eun Rhie
Poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) of anthrax is an important pathogenic factor due to its anti-phagocytic activity. Additionally, PGA has the ability to activate mouse macrophages for the secretion of cytokines through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Peptidoglycan (PGN), a major bacterial cell-wall component, induces inflammatory responses in the host. We assessed whether PGA can induce maturation and cytokine expression in immature mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in the existence of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimum motif of PGN with immunostimulatory activity...
April 12, 2018: Cytokine
Shijun Li, Qing Ma, Hong Chen, Dingming Wang, Ying Liu, Xiaoyu Wei, Lv You, Guanghai Yao, Kecheng Tian, Guangpeng Tang
Upon publication of the original article (1) it was highlighted by the authors that a grant awarded to support the research work of the study was missed in the acknowledgements. It should also be acknowledged that the grant titled "Genotyping and Molecular Epidemiological Characteristic of Bacillus anthracis in Guizhou Province" awarded by the Program of Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Province (Grant No. Qian Ke He J Word [2015] 2084)also contributed to the resources for this research. This has since been formally noted in this correction article...
April 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Baoyi Lv, Yuxue Cui, Wen Tian, Jing Li, Bing Xie, Fang Yin
Ship ballasting operations may transfer harmful aquatic organisms across global ocean. This study aims to reveal the occurrences and abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and human bacterial pathogens (HBPs) in ballast tank sediments. Nine samples were collected and respectively analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing technologies. Ten ARGs (aadA1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, mefA, strB, sul1, sul2, tetM, and tetQ) and the Class-I integron gene (intI1) were highly prevalent (105 -109 gene copies/g) in ballast tank sediments...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Domyoung Kim, Seok Joon Kwon, Xia Wu, Jessica Sauve, Inseon Lee, Jahyun Nam, Jungbae Kim, Jonathan S Dordick
Broad-spectrum antibiotics indiscriminately kill bacteria, removing non-pathogenic microorganisms and leading to evolution of antibiotic resistant strains. Specific antimicrobials that could selectively kill pathogenic bacteria without targeting other bacteria in the natural microbial community or microbiome may be able to address this concern. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles, suitably conjugated to a selective cell wall binding domain (CBD), can efficiently target and selectively kill bacteria...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anshu Malik, Manish Gupta, Rajesh Mani, Himanshu Gogoi, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Anthrax is an era old deadly disease against which there are only two currently available licensed vaccines named anthrax vaccine adsorbed and precipitated (AVP). Though they can provide a protective immunity, their multiple side-effects owing to their ill-defined composition and presence of toxic proteins (LF and EF) of Bacillus anthracis , the causative organism of anthrax, in the vaccine formulation makes their widespread use objectionable. Hence, an anthrax vaccine that contains well-defined and controlled components would be highly desirable...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yuliya I Seldina, Courtney D Petro, Stephanie L Servetas, James M Vergis, Christy L Ventura, D Scott Merrell, Alison D O'Brien
Bacillus cereus G9241 caused a life-threatening anthrax-like lung infection in a previously healthy man. This strain harbors two large virulence plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC210, that are absent from typical B cereus isolates. The pBCXO1 plasmid is nearly identical to pXO1 from B. anthracis and carries genes ( pagA1 , lef, and cya ) for the anthrax toxin components protective antigen (called PA1 in G9241), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), respectively. The plasmid also has an intact hyaluronic acid capsule locus...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Malik J Raynor, Jung-Hyeob Roh, Stephen G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Theresa M Koehler
Bacillus anthracis produces three regulators, AtxA, AcpA, and AcpB, which control virulence gene transcription and belong to an emerging class of regulators termed "PCVRs" (Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase regulation Domain-Containing Virulence Regulators). AtxA, named for its control of toxin gene expression, is the master virulence regulator and archetype PCVR. AcpA and AcpB are less well studied. Reports of PCVR activity suggest overlapping function. AcpA and AcpB independently positively control transcription of the capsule biosynthetic operon capBCADE, and culture conditions that enhance AtxA level or activity result in capBCADE transcription in strains lacking acpA and acpB...
March 31, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Mostafa Bentahir, Jérôme Ambroise, Cathy Delcorps, Paola Pilo, Jean-Luc Gala
Four isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays (RPA) were developed for fast in-field identification of Bacillus (B.) anthracis RPAs targeted three specific sequences (i.e. BA_5345 chromosomal marker, lethal factor lef -pXO1, and capsule biosynthesis capA -pXO2), and a conserved sequence of the B. cereus group in the adenylate cyclase gene ( adk ). B. anthracis -specific RPA assays were first tested on purified genomic DNAs (n=60) containing 11 representatives of B. anthracis , then on soil (n=8) and white powder (n=8) samples spiked with inactivated B...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jennifer L Dale, Malik J Raynor, Maureen C Ty, Maria Hadjifrangiskou, Theresa M Koehler
Bacillus anthracis is an endemic soil bacterium that exhibits two different lifestyles. In the soil environment, B. anthracis undergoes a cycle of saprophytic growth, sporulation, and germination. In mammalian hosts, the pathogenic lifestyle of B. anthracis is spore germination followed by vegetative cell replication, but cells do not sporulate. During infection, and in specific culture conditions, transcription of the structural genes for the anthrax toxin proteins and the biosynthetic operon for capsule synthesis is positively controlled by the regulatory protein AtxA...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Steffen Backert, Sabine Bernegger, Joanna Skórko-Glonek, Silja Wessler
The HtrA family of chaperones and serine proteases is important for regulating stress responses and controlling protein quality in the periplasm of bacteria. HtrA is also associated with infectious diseases since inactivation of htrA genes results in significantly reduced virulence properties by various bacterial pathogens. These virulence features of HtrA can be attributed to reduced fitness of the bacteria, higher susceptibility to environmental stress and/or diminished secretion of virulence factors. In some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, HtrA itself can be exposed to the extracellular environment promoting bacterial colonization and invasion of host tissues...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Kevin E Bruce, Britta E Rued, Ho-Ching Tiffany Tsui, Malcolm E Winkler
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including chemokines, are produced during infections to kill pathogenic bacteria. To fill in gaps about the sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae and related Streptococcus species to chemokines and AMPs, we performed a systematic, quantitative study of inhibition by chemokine CXCL10 and the AMPs, LL-37 and nisin. In a standard Tris-glucose buffer (TGS), all strains assayed lacked metabolic activity, as determined by resazurin (AlamarBlue®) reduction, and were extremely sensitive to CXCL10 and AMPs (IC50 ≈0...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Mieke Lahousse, Hae-Chul Park, Sang-Choon Lee, Na-Reum Ha, In-Pil Jung, Sara R Schlesinger, Kaylin Shackleford, Moon-Young Yoon, Sung-Kun Kim
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that is able to secrete the toxins protective antigen, edema factor and lethal factor. Due to the high level of secretion from the bacteria and its severe virulence, lethal factor (LF) has been sought as a biomarker for detecting bacterial infection and as an effective target to neutralize toxicity. In this study, we found three aptamers, and binding affinity was determined by fluorescently labeled aptamers. One of the aptamers exhibited high affinity, with a Kd value of 11...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Nicholas J Vietri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhalational anthrax is a rare disease and Bacillus anthracis is a likely pathogen to be used in a biological attack. The lack of clinical experience with anthrax has led experts to develop treatment guidelines. These guidelines recommend anthrax antitoxin to be used in conjunction with antibiotics for the treatment of patients with systemic anthrax infection, yet there is still a lack of human or animal data to support this recommendation. RECENT FINDINGS: The U...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Arthur Aronson
The spore coat of Bacilli is a relatively complex structure comprised of about 70 species of proteins in 2 or 3 layers. While some are involved in assembly or protection, the regulation of many are not well defined so lacZ transcriptional fusions were constructed to six Bacillus anthracis spore coat genes in order to gain insight into their possible functions. The genes were selected on the basis of the location of the encoded proteins within the coat and distribution among spore forming species. Conditions tested were temperature and media either as solid or liquid...
March 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Roger D Plaut, Andrea B Staab, Mark A Munson, Joan S Gebhardt, Christopher P Klimko, Avery V Quirk, Christopher K Cote, Tony L Buhr, Rebecca D Rossmaier, Robert C Bernhards, Courtney E Love, Kimberly L Berk, Teresa G Abshire, David A Rozak, Linda C Beck, Scott Stibitz, Bruce G Goodwin, Michael A Smith, Shanmuga Sozhamannan
The revelation in May 2015 of the shipment of γ irradiation-inactivated wild-type Bacillus anthracis spore preparations containing a small number of live spores raised concern about the safety and security of these materials. The finding also raised doubts about the validity of the protocols and procedures used to prepare them. Such inactivated reference materials were used as positive controls in assays to detect suspected B. anthracis in samples because live agent cannot be shipped for use in field settings, in improvement of currently deployed detection methods or development of new methods, or for quality assurance and training activities...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vatika Gupta, Kanika Jain, Rajni Garg, Anshu Malik, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Microbial colonization is an outcome of appropriate sensing and regulation of its gene expression. Bacillus anthracis adapts and thrives in its environment through complex regulatory mechanisms, among them, the two component systems (TCS). Many bacteria respond to the oxygen fluctuations via TCS. In the present work, a previously uncharacterized TCS, Bas1213-1214, of B. anthracis with a probable role in oxygen sensing has been characterized as a functional TCS. A substantial increase in the expression of Bas1213 was observed during the stationary growth phase, in presence of bicarbonate ions, and under oxidative stress thereby speculating the role of Bas1213 in toxin production and adaptive responses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Alanson W Girton, Narcis I Popescu, Ravi S Keshari, Tarea Burgett, Florea Lupu, K Mark Coggeshall
We showed that human IgG supported the response by human innate immune cells to peptidoglycan (PGN) from Bacillus anthracis and PGN-induced complement activation. However, other serum constituents have been shown to interact with peptidoglycan, including the IgG-like soluble pattern recognition receptor serum amyloid P (SAP). Here, we compared the ability of SAP and of IgG to support monocyte and complement responses to PGN. Utilizing in vitro methods, we demonstrate that SAP is superior to IgG in supporting monocyte production of cytokines in response PGN...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Abbas Shali, Sadegh Hasannia, Fatemeh Gashtasbi, S Masoud Abdous, S Shirin Shahangian, Shirin Jalili
Since anthrax is an acute infectious disease, detection and neutralization of the toxins of pathogenic Bacillus anthracis are of great importance. The critical role of protective antigen (PA) component of tripartite anthrax toxin in toxin entry into the host cell cytosol provided a great deal of effort to generate monoclonal antibodies against this constitute. Regarding the importance of anthrax detection/neutralization and unique physicochemical and pharmacological features of VHHs as single domain antibodies, the present study aimed to generate VHHs against the receptor binding domain of PA, termed PAD4...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
David Sychantha, Robert Chapman, Natalie C Bamford, Geert-Jan Boons, P Lynne Howell, Anthony John Clarke
Bacterial surface (S)-layers are paracrystalline arrays of protein assembled on the bacterial cell wall which serve as protective barriers and scaffolds for housekeeping enzymes and virulence factors. The attachment of S-layer proteins to the cell walls of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, which includes the pathogen Bacillus anthracis, occurs through non-covalent interactions between their S-layer homology domains and secondary cell wall polysaccharides. To promote recognition for these interactions, it is presumed that the terminal N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) residues of the secondary cell wall polysaccharides must be ketal-pyruvylated...
March 9, 2018: Biochemistry
Viktoria I Pauker, Bryan R Thoma, Gregor Grass, Pauline Bleichert, Matthias Hanczaruk, Lothar Zöller, Sabine Zange
Discrimination of highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis , from closely related species based on molecular biological methods is challenging. We applied Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to a collection of B. anthracis strains and close relatives in order to significantly improve the statistical confidence of identification results for this group of bacteria. Protein mass spectra of 189 verified and diverse Bacillus strains of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group were generated using MALDI-TOF MS and subsequently analyzed with supervised and unsupervised statistical methods, such as shrinkage discriminant analysis (SDA) and principle component analysis (PCA)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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