keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bacillus anthracis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438783/construction-of-a-high-efficiency-cloning-system-using-the-golden-gate-method-and-i-scei-endonuclease-for-targeted-gene-replacement-in-bacillus-anthracis
#1
Tiantian Wang, Dongshu Wang, Yufei Lyu, Erling Feng, Zhu Li, Chunjie Liu, Yanchun Wang, Xiankai Liu, Hengliang Wang
To investigate gene function in Bacillus anthracis, a high-efficiency cloning system is required with an increased rate of allelic exchange. Golden Gate cloning is a molecular cloning strategy allowing researchers to simultaneously and directionally assemble multiple DNA fragments to construct target plasmids using type IIs restriction enzymes and T4 DNA ligase in the same reaction system. Here, a B. anthracis S-layer protein EA1 allelic exchange vector was successfully constructed using the Golden Gate method...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434400/evaluation-of-gamma-radiation-inactivation-of-a-bioterrorism-agent-bacillus-anthracis-spores-on-different-materials
#2
Mesut Ortatatli, Kadir Canitez, Sermet Sezigen, Ruşen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
Decontamination of suspected packages, such as sealed envelopes, liquids and tools that are likely contaminated with biological agents is of great importance. In this study, we aimed to determine the gamma radiation dose required for the decontamination of paper, fabric and liquid materials without causing any damage to the structure of these materials. Each study group included 11 pieces of paper, fabric and sterile saline contaminated with 0.8 × 105 virulent Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores. These specimens were exposed to doses of 5...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434396/structural-and-functional-properties-of-exopolysaccharide-excreted-by-a-novel-bacillus-anthracis-strain-pfab2-of-hot-spring-origin
#3
Aparna Banerjee, Shalini Gaur Rudra, Koushik Mazumder, Vinod Nigam, Rajib Bandopadhyay
Exopolysaccharide produced by a unique avirulent Bacillus anthracis strain PFAB2 of hot spring origin has been characterized and its functional properties are investigated which is a first report. Maximum yield of EPS is 7.66 g/l with 2% glucose and 1% peptone as optimum carbon and nitrogen source respectively. The EPS is found to be a homopolymer consisting of only glucose as principle monosaccharide component. Through 1H NMR study, different dextran-like proton peaks are observed. Molecular weight of the EPS resembles low molecular weight bacterial origin polysaccharides...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417696/structure-and-function-of-the-bacillithiol-s-transferase-bsta-from-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Joel W Francis, Christopher J Royer, Paul D Cook
Bacillithiol is a low-molecular weight thiol produced by many gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. It is the major thiol responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis and cellular detoxification, including inactivation of the antibiotic fosfomycin. The metal-dependent bacillithiol transferase BstA is likely involved in these sorts of detoxification processes, but the exact substrates and enzyme mechanism have not been identified. Here we report the 1.34 Å resolution X-ray crystallographic structure of BstA from S...
February 8, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404280/innate-immune-interactions-between-bacillus-anthracis-and-host-neutrophils
#5
Janet Z Liu, Syed R Ali, Ethan Bier, Victor Nizet
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has been a focus of study in host-pathogen dynamics since the nineteenth century. While the interaction between anthrax and host macrophages has been extensively modeled, comparatively little is known about the effect of anthrax on the immune function of neutrophils, a key frontline effector of innate immune defense. Here we showed that depletion of neutrophils significantly enhanced mortality in a systemic model of anthrax infection in mice. Ex vivo, we found that freshly isolated human neutrophils can rapidly kill anthrax, with specific inhibitor studies showing that phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contribute to this efficient bacterial clearance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377918/ecological-suitability-modeling-for-anthrax-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#6
Pieter Johan Steenkamp, Henriette van Heerden, Ockert Louis van Schalkwyk
The spores of the soil-borne bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax are highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Under ideal conditions, anthrax spores can survive for many years in the soil. Anthrax is known to be endemic in the northern part of Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa (SA), with occasional epidemics spreading southward. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are ecologically suitable for the harboring of B. anthracis spores within the KNP. Anthrax surveillance data and selected environmental variables were used as inputs to the maximum entropy (Maxent) species distribution modeling method...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356220/comparison-of-false-negative-rates-and-limits-of-detection-following-macrofoam-swab-sampling-of-bacillus-anthracis-surrogates-via-rapid-viability-pcr-and-plate-culture
#7
Janine R Hutchison, Greg F Piepel, Brett G Amidan, Becky M Hess, Michael A Sydor, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser
AIMS: We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials, and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD95 ) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2 - 500 coupon-1 ) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350541/using-cell-phone-technology-to-investigate-a-deliberate-bacillus-anthracis-release-scenario
#8
Arik Eisenkraft, Amichay Afriat, Yechiel Hubary, Ron Lev, Hayim Shaul, Ran D Balicer
Unusual biological events and outbreaks require rapid epidemiologic investigation and contact tracing procedures, allowing optimal handling of resources. Currently, these are resource intensive, time consuming, and extremely complex, requiring large teams of trained and prepared personnel. The goal of this study was to determine whether a technological alternative to the classic systems, based on the use of mobile phones and a unique algorithm, could perform a complete epidemiologic investigation in a setting of a bioterrorism scenario...
January 19, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331609/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-pathway-enzyme-dtdp-%C3%AE-d-glucose-4-6-dehydratase-rfbb
#9
Trevor Gokey, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Many bacteria require L-rhamnose as a key cell wall component. This sugar is transferred to the cell wall using an activated donor dTDP-L-rhamnose, which is produced by the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of the second enzyme of this pathway dTDP-α-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RfbB) from Bacillus anthracis. Interestingly, RfbB only crystallized in the presence of the third enzyme of the pathway RfbC; however, RfbC was not present in the crystal. Our work represents the first complete structural characterization of the four proteins of this pathway in a single Gram-positive bacterium...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330180/genomic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-type-strains-and-dairy-associated-isolates-in-the-bacillus-cereus-group-indicates-considerable-intra-clade-variability-in-toxin-production-and-cytotoxicity
#10
Rachel A Miller, Jiahui Jian, Sarah M Beno, Martin Wiedmann, Jasna Kovac
While some species in the B. cereus group are well-characterized human pathogens (e.g., B. anthracis and B. cereus s.s.), the pathogenicity of other species (e.g., B. pseudomycoides) either has not been characterized or is presently not well understood. To provide an updated characterization of the pathogenic potential of species in the B. cereus group, we classified a set of 52 isolates, including 8 type strains and 44 environmental isolates from dairy-associated sources, into 7 phylogenetic clades and characterized them for (i) the presence of toxin genes, (ii) phenotypic characteristics used for identification, and (iii) cytotoxicity to human epithelial cells...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311588/characterisation-of-the-antibacterial-properties-of-the-recombinant-phage-endolysins-ap50-31-and-lysb4-as-potent-bactericidal-agents-against-bacillus-anthracis
#11
Sangjin Park, Soo Youn Jun, Chang-Hwan Kim, Gi Mo Jung, Jee Soo Son, Seong Tae Jeong, Seong Jun Yoon, Sang Yup Lee, Sang Hyeon Kang
The recombinant phage endolysins AP50-31 and LysB4 were developed using genetic information from bacteriophages AP50 and B4 and were produced by microbial cultivation followed by chromatographic purification. Subsequently, appropriate formulations were developed that provided an acceptable stability of the recombinant endolysins. The bacteriolytic properties of the formulated endolysins AP50-31 and LysB4 against several bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus genus including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) strains were examined...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301897/complete-genome-sequences-of-three-bacillus-anthracis-bacteriophages
#12
Sivan Alkalay, Sarit Sternberg, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Ronen Hazan
The new highly effective Bacillus anthracis phages Negev_SA, Carmel_SA, and Tavor_SA were isolated from soil samples, and their complete genomes were sequenced and analyzed. The isolated phages have potential use in future phage therapy treatment against anthrax.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284252/diagnosis-of-cutaneous-anthrax-in-resource-poor-settings-in-west-arsi-province-ethiopia
#13
Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, Jose Manuel Ramos, Laura Prieto-Pérez, Abraham Tesfamariam, Seble Balcha, Gabre Tissiano, Alfonso Cabello, Juan Cuadros, Natalia Rodríguez-Valero, Pablo Barreiro, Francisco Reyes, Miguel Górgolas
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study describes the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in eight patients (six female and two male, age range 1 - 56 years) admitted to the rural General Hospital of Gambo, West Arsi Province of Ethiopia from 2010-2013...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259839/passive-protection-against-anthrax-in-mice-with-plasma-derived-from-horses-hyper-immunized-against-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain
#14
Marc Caldwell, Terri Hathcock, Kenny V Brock
In this study, equine source polyclonal anti-Bacillus anthracis immunoglobulins were generated and utilized to demonstrate passive protection of mice in a lethal challenge assay. Four horses were hyper-immunized with B. anthracis Sterne strain for approximately one year. The geometric mean anti-PA titer in the horses at maximal response following immunization was 1:77,936 (Log2 mean titer 16.25, SEM ± 0.25 95% CI [15.5 -17.0]). The geometric mean neutralizing titer at maximal response was 1:128 (Log2 mean titer 7, SEM ± 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235265/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-branched-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonates-as-potential-inhibitors-of-bacterial-adenylate-cyclases
#15
Jan Frydrych, Jan Skácel, Markéta Šmídková, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Martin Dračínský, Ramachandran Gnanasekaran, Martin Lepšík, Monica Soto-Velasquez, Val J Watts, Zlatko Janeba
Inhibition of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and Bacillus anthracis edema factor (EF), the key virulence factors with adenylate cyclase (AC) activity, represents a potential method how to treat or prevent toxemia related to whooping cough and anthrax, respectively. A novel series of α-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) having a hemiaminal ether moiety was synthesized as potential inhibitors of bacterial adenylate cyclases. ANPs prepared as bisamidates were not cytotoxic but did not exhibited any profound activity (IC50 > 10 µM) towards ACT in J774A...
December 13, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229702/galactosylation-of-the-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-its-contribution-to-anthrax-pathogenesis
#16
Alice Chateau, Justin Mark Lunderberg, So Young Oh, Teresa Abshire, Arthur Friedlander, Conrad P Quinn, Dominique M Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, elaborates a secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that is essential for bacterial growth and cell division. B. anthracis SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats, [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→], where α-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal and β-Gal at O3 and O4, respectively, and β-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal at O3. The genes whose products promote the galactosylation of B. anthracis SCWP are not yet known...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224733/validated-maldi-tof-ms-method-for-anthrax-lethal-factor-provides-early-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-therapeutics
#17
Maribel Gallegos-Candela, Anne E Boyer, Adrian R Woolfitt, Judy Brumlow, Renato C Lins, Conrad P Quinn, Alex R Hoffmaster, Gabriel Meister, John R Barr
Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endoprotease and a critical virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. The mass spectrometry (MS) method for total-LF quantification includes three steps; 1) LF specific antibody capture/concentration, 2) LF-specific hydrolysis of a peptide substrate, and 3) detection and quantification of LF-cleaved peptides by isotope-dilution MALDI-TOF/MS. Recombinant LF spiked plasma was used for calibration and quality control (QC) materials. Specificity was 100% from analysis of serum and plasma from 383 non-infected humans, 31 rabbits, and 24 rhesus macaques...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221871/investigation-on-paper-cup-waste-degradation-by-bacterial-consortium-and-eudrillus-eugeinea-through-vermicomposting
#18
Karthika Arumugam, Seenivasagan Renganathan, Babalola Olubukola Oluranti, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan
Disposable Paper cups are a threat to the environment and are composed of 90% high strength paper with 5% thin coating of polyethylene. This polyethylene prevents the paper cup from undergoing degradation in the soil. Hence, in the present study two different approaches towards the management of paper cup waste through vermicomposting technology has been presented. The experimental setup includes 2 plastic reactors namely Vermicompost (VC) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Earthworm (Eudrillus eugeinea)) and Vermicompost with bacterial consortium (VCB) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Eudrillus eugeinea + Microbial consortia such as Bacillus anthracis, B...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199987/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-3-5-epimerase-rfbc
#19
Aleksander Shornikov, Ha Tran, Jennifer Macias, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
The exosporium layer of Bacillus anthracis spores is rich in L-rhamnose, a common bacterial cell-wall component, which often contributes to the virulence of pathogens by increasing their adherence and immune evasion. The biosynthetic pathway used to form the activated L-rhamnose donor dTDP-L-rhamnose consists of four enzymes (RfbA, RfbB, RfbC and RfbD) and is an attractive drug target because there are no homologs in mammals. It was found that co-purifying and screening RfbC (dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose 3,5-epimerase) from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199984/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-reductase-rfbd
#20
Ashley Law, Alexander Stergioulis, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of the deadly disease Anthrax. Its use in bioterrorism and its ability to re-emerge have brought renewed interest in this organism. B. anthracis is a Gram-positive bacterium that adds L-rhamnose to its cell-wall polysaccharides using the activated donor dTDP-β-L-rhamnose. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the activated donor are absent in humans, which make them ideal targets for therapeutic development to combat pathogens. Here, the 2.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the fourth enzyme in the dTDP-β-L-rhamnose-biosynthetic pathway from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
keyword
keyword
84384
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"