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Bacillus anthracis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087491/dynamics-of-bacterial-class-bacilli-in-the-deepest-valley-lake-of-kashmir-the-manasbal-lake
#1
Sana Shafi, Azra N Kamili, Manzoor A Shah, Suhaib A Bandh, Rubiya Dar
In recognition of the importance of bacteria as ecological indicators of the aquatic systems a comprehensive and systematic analysis was carried out on Manasbal Lake, the deepest spring fed valley lake of Kashmir. The main objective envisaged was to analyze bacterial community composition (BCC) and for this purpose systematic and regular sampling of waters from ten different sampling stations, predetermined in the Lake according to differences in degree of human interference and also as zones of special ecological interests were selected...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076993/evaluation-of-clinical-and-serological-findings-for-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-anthrax-infection-after-an-outbreak
#2
Duygu Gulseren, Serap Süzük-Yıldız, Bekir Çelebi, Selçuk Kılıç
PURPOSE: Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is one of the oldest documented infectious diseases in both livestock and humans.We aimed to evaluate clinical findings and risk factors of patients with cutaneous anthrax infection and report anti-lethal factor (LF) IgG and anti-protective antigene (PA) IgG titers in the serologic diagnosis of disease. METHODS: In this study, serum samples of 18 cutaneous anthrax patients were collected and anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 11, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073730/2014-anthrax-epidemic-in-koubia-prefecture-guinea-conakry
#3
M S Sow, M B Boushab, H Balde, A Camara, F B Sako, F A Traoré, M O S Diallo, M D Diallo, M Keita, A O Sylla, T M Tounkara, M Cissé
Anthrax disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the 2014 epidemic in Koubia prefecture. This retrospective study examined all of the anthrax cases reported in Fafaya, Koubia Prefecture. In March and April 2014, there were 39 cases of human anthrax reported, for an incidence of 1.135%. The mean age was 20.9 (± 18.3) with a sex ratio of 2.54 (28/11) in favor of men. Seventy-six percent (23/39) were single...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056004/notes-from-the-field-compliance-with-postexposure-prophylaxis-for-exposure-to-bacillus-anthracis-among-u-s-military-personnel-south-korea-may-2015
#4
Koya C Allen, Katherine Hendricks, Eric Sergienko, Raul Mirza, Rohit A Chitale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053211/optical-screening-for-rapid-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-and-for-observation-of-phenotypic-diversity-among-the-genetically-clonal-species-bacillus-anthracis
#5
Heather P McLaughlin, Amy S Gargis, Pierre Michel, David Sue, Linda M Weigel
: During high-impact events involving Bacillus anthracis, such as the Amerithrax incident of 2001 or the anthrax outbreaks in Russia and Sweden in 2016, critical decisions to reduce morbidity and mortality include rapid selection and distribution of effective antimicrobial agents for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. Detection of antimicrobial resistance currently relies on a conventional broth microdilution (BMD) method that requires a 16 - 20 hour incubation time for B. anthracis Advances in high-resolution optical screening offer a new technology to more rapidly evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility and to simultaneously assess growth characteristics of an isolate...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041695/influence-of-ppcps-on-the-performance-of-intermittently-operated-slow-sand-filters-for-household-water-purification
#6
Caroline M E Pompei, Lena Ciric, Melisa Canales, Kersti Karu, Eny M Vieira, Luiza C Campos
Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from drinking water is usually enhanced by advanced oxidation which is not affordable in low income countries. Slow sand filtration has been found to be capable of removing anti-inflammatory compounds, and its low maintenance costs and easy operation make it an attractive technology for treating drinking water in many parts of the world. In addition, slow sand filters can be used at both large and household scales. The biofilm (i.e. schmutzdecke) developed on the top of the sand and within the upper layers of the sand is acknowledged to be responsible for the water purification...
December 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035484/a-mathematical-model-of-anthrax-transmission-in-animal-populations
#7
C M Saad-Roy, P van den Driessche, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
A general mathematical model of anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis) transmission is formulated that includes live animals, infected carcasses and spores in the environment. The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is calculated, and existence of a unique endemic equilibrium is established for [Formula: see text] above the threshold value 1. Using data from the literature, elasticity indices for [Formula: see text] and type reproduction numbers are computed to quantify anthrax control measures. Including only herbivorous animals, anthrax is eradicated if [Formula: see text]...
December 29, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033346/improving-phylogeny-reconstruction-at-the-strain-level-using-peptidome-datasets
#8
Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Alberto Gutiérrez-Jácome, Markus Göker, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Borja Sánchez, Anália Lourenço
Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031342/transcriptional-classification-and-functional-characterization-of-human-airway-macrophage-and-dendritic-cell-subsets
#9
Vineet I Patel, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Steven Cate, Vicky L White, David Hutchings, Susan Kovats, Dennis M Burian, Mikhail Dozmorov, Jordan P Metcalf
The respiratory system is a complex network of many cell types, including subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells that work together to maintain steady-state respiration. Owing to limitations in acquiring cells from healthy human lung, these subsets remain poorly characterized transcriptionally and phenotypically. We set out to systematically identify these subsets in human airways by developing a schema of isolating large numbers of cells by whole-lung bronchoalveolar lavage. Six subsets of phagocytic APC (HLA-DR(+)) were consistently observed...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019002/characterization-of-yersinia-species-by-protein-profiling-using-automated-microfluidic-capillary-electrophoresis
#10
Victoria M Bennett, Dennis McNevin, Paul Roffey, Michelle E Gahan
Yersinia pestis is a biological agent of high risk to national security due to its ability to be easily disseminated and transmitted among humans. If Y. pestis was to be utilized in a deliberate disease outbreak it would be essential to rapidly and accurately identify the agent. Current identification methods for Yersinia species are limited by their reliance on cultivation, the time taken to achieve results and/or the use of protocols that are not amenable for field use. Faster identification methods are urgently required...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008818/deletion-of-a-putative-nlpc-p60-endopeptidase-bas1812-affects-germination-long-term-survival-and-endospore-formation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#11
Se Kye Kim, Yun Min Park, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
Bacillus anthracis, an etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease anthrax, encodes a putative NlpC/P60 endopeptidase BAS1812. It harbors a signal peptide, three bacterial SH3 domains and an NlpC/P60 family domain. Previous studies showed that BAS1812 is immunogenic in infected hosts and is a potential biomarker for anthrax treatment. To date, however, little information is known about its function and involvement in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we describe the phenotypic effect of BAS1812 deletion in B. anthracis Sterne strain...
December 23, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007853/genome-sequence-of-the-soviet-russian-bacillus-anthracis-vaccine-strain-55-vniivvim
#12
Jason Farlow, Adam Kotorashvili
Bacillus anthracis strain 55-VNIIVViM is a live-attenuated nonencapsulated Soviet/Russian veterinary anthrax vaccine strain. We report here the genome of 55-VNIIVViM and confirm its phylogenetic placement in the global population structure of B. anthracis.
December 22, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007848/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-nonpathogenic-thermotolerant-and-exopolysaccharide-producing-bacillus-anthracis-strain-pfab2-from-panifala-hot-water-spring-in-west-bengal-india
#13
Aparna Banerjee, Urmi Halder, Vasvi Chaudhry, Rajeev K Varshney, Shrikant Mantri, Rajib Bandopadhyay
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of fatal anthrax in both animals and humans. It is prevalently pathogenic. Here, we present a Bacillus anthracis PFAB2 strain from a relatively unexplored Panifala hot water spring in West Bengal, India. It is nonpathogenic, exopolysaccharide producing, and thermotolerant in nature.
December 22, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999382/rapid-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-spores-using-immunomagnetic-separation-and-amperometry
#14
David F Waller, Brian E Hew, Charlie Holdaway, Michael Jen, Gabriel D Peckham
Portable detection and quantitation methods for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores in pure culture or in environmental samples are lacking. Here, an amperometric immunoassay has been developed utilizing immunomagnetic separation to capture the spores and remove potential interferents from test samples followed by amperometric measurement on a field-portable instrument. Antibody-conjugated magnetic beads and antibody-conjugated glucose oxidase were used in a sandwich format for the capture and detection of target spores...
December 20, 2016: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988294/role-of-the-recognition-helix-of-response-regulator-walr-from-bacillus-anthracis-in-dna-binding-and-specificity
#15
Alisha Dhiman, Amit Rahi, Monisha Gopalani, Sailesh Bajpai, Sonika Bhatnagar, Rakesh Bhatnagar
WalRK two-component system of Bacillus anthracis potentially regulates multiple genes spanning diverse cellular functions. Its constituent response regulator (RR), WalR belongs to the OmpR/PhoB family which possesses a winged helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding. An in silico knowledge based model of WalR C-terminal DNA binding domain in complex with its ftsE promoter region binding motif was used to identify specific residues of the recognition helix important for DNA binding. The model was validated by mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro DNA binding analysis...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983505/modeling-tool-for-decision-support-during-early-days-of-an-anthrax-event
#16
Gabriel Rainisch, Martin I Meltzer, Sean Shadomy, William A Bower, Nathaniel Hupert
Health officials lack field-implementable tools for forecasting the effects that a large-scale release of Bacillus anthracis spores would have on public health and hospitals. We created a modeling tool (combining inhalational anthrax caseload projections based on initial case reports, effects of variable postexposure prophylaxis campaigns, and healthcare facility surge capacity requirements) to project hospitalizations and casualties from a newly detected inhalation anthrax event, and we examined the consequences of intervention choices...
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983504/analysis-of-anthrax-immune-globulin-intravenous-with-antimicrobial-treatment-in-injection-drug-users-scotland-2009-2010
#17
Xizhong Cui, Leisha D Nolen, Junfeng Sun, Malcolm Booth, Lindsay Donaldson, Conrad P Quinn, Anne E Boyer, Katherine Hendricks, Sean Shadomy, Pieter Bothma, Owen Judd, Paul McConnell, William A Bower, Peter Q Eichacker
We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009-2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0-5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6-11) received treatment...
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966316/evaluation-of-cutaneous-anthrax-cases-during-an-outbreak-in-the-east-region-of-turkey
#18
Esra Kural Ünüvar, Deniz Bahar Akgün Karapınar, Nazlı Dizen Namdar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Anthrax is a zoonotic infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate cutaneous anthrax cases that occurred during an outbreak in eastern Turkey (Hakkari-Yüksekova), where people mostly earn their living from animal husbandry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six cutaneous anthrax patients that were admitted to the hospital during a very short duration of 3 months (June-August 2011) were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 46 patients, 27 (52%) were women and 19 (48%) were men...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939145/whole-genome-snp-analysis-of-bovine-b-anthracis-strains-from-switzerland-reflects-strict-regional-separation-of-simmental-and-swiss-brown-breeds-in-the-past
#19
Sylviane Derzelle, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Joachim Frey
Bacillus anthracis is an evolutionarily young species that presents an extremely low genetic diversity due to its slow mode of propagation, determined by short replication phases and long sporulation periods. In our ongoing efforts to elucidate phylogenetic relationships between European B. anthracis isolates, the genomes of five strains from Switzerland belonging to lineages B.Br.CNEVA and A.Br.Aust94 were sequenced. Comparative analysis with additional, available genomes from both lineages, were used to reconstruct the substructure of these populations...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909054/identification-of-a-substrate-selective-exosite-within-the-metalloproteinase-anthrax-lethal-factor
#20
Allison B Goldberg, Eunice Cho, Chad J Miller, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk
The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 1B (NLRP1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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