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Blood clots & contraception

Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
November 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Sangeeta Ramanan, Jude Chapman-Wardy, Roy Watson
A 43-year-old woman presented with severe anaemia secondary to menorrhagia. Pelvic ultrasound showed a large intramural posterior fundal fibroid. Hysteroscopy showed the fibroid distorting the endometrial cavity, precluding Mirena® device insertion. As she was initially hesitant to have a hysterectomy, medical management with the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and tranexamic acid was instituted, with good effect. Months later, after a long road trip, she presented with left leg swelling, and a Doppler ultrasound confirmed an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT)...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alina Geampana
The fourth and most recent generation of hormones used in oral contraceptives has stirred a significant amount of debate regarding the safety of these compounds. Drospirenone, a new type of synthetic hormone used in popular oral contraceptives Yaz and Yasmin, has been found by epidemiologists to increase the risk of blood clots when compared to the previous generations of pills. North American regulatory bodies have investigated the health risks of drospirenone and concluded that the increased risks do not require pulling the new contraceptive technology off the market...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Albe C Swanepoel, Amcois Visagie, Etheresia Pretorius
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs), colloquially referred to as "the pill," have been regarded as a medical breakthrough, as they have improved the lives of countless women, from simplifying family planning to the treatment of acne, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and dysmenorrhea. Unfortunately, COC usage has been associated with an increased occurrence of venous thrombosis and therefore a systemic hypercoagulable state in susceptible females. Here we discuss the health risks of COC usage and use viscoelastic and morphological techniques to investigate the effect of different COC constituents on clot formation, particularly fibrin network packaging and whole blood viscoelasticity...
August 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Benito Chiofalo, Antonio Simone Laganà, Giovanna Imbesi, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Ursula Catena, Federica Campolo, Gabriele Lanzo, Gabriele Centini, Onofrio Triolo
Secondary headache is one of the most common side effect during oral contraceptive (OC) treatment and it leads many patients to stop the therapy. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an interatrial communication that spontaneously closes at birth in about 75% of the population. However, in the rest of adults PFO maintains a direct communication between the right and left side of circulation. In these patients PFO is a tunnel-like structure that could allow a blood clot to pass from the right to the left side of circulation, thus can cause paradoxical embolization...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Carolyn L Westhoff, Andrew Eisenberger, Rosalind Tang, Serge Cremers, Lisa V Grossman, Malcolm C Pike
OBJECTIVES: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highest during the initial months of oral contraceptive (OC) use. We sought to evaluate the extent of hemostatic variable changes during the initial OC cycle and if such changes are related to systemic ethinyl estradiol (EE2) exposure. STUDY DESIGN: Participants provided multiple blood samples during a 21-day OC cycle (30mcg EE2; 150mcg levonorgestrel) and after a single dose following a washout period. Analytes included D-dimer, factor VIII activity, protein C total antigen and the hepatic proteins corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)...
January 2016: Contraception
Nozomi Idota, Masaki Kobayashi, Daisuke Miyamori, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
Progestin/estrogen oral contraceptives have some side effects, including venous thromboembolism. To alleviate side effects, improvements have been made to low-dose oral contraceptives, including reductions in the amount of estrogen and/or changes the type of progestin. A compound drug containing 3mg drospirenone and 20μg ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE20, YAZ®) was released in overseas markets in 2006, and in Japan in 2010 as a newly developed low-dose medicines. This drug is expected to have lower side effects...
March 2015: Legal Medicine
S M Schellong
Thrombophilia testing denotes a test battery for inherited or acquired features associated with a tendency for clot formation. Currently, it is being used in a frequency and to an extent which is not supported by evidence. In order to protect patients from unnecessary worry and stigmatization, but also for reasons of cost effectiveness, thrombophilia testing should be reduced to a very small number of medically justifiable indications which are outlined in this review.Those indications include the following: secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients from a thrombophilic family, i...
May 2014: Der Internist
Ziba Raisi Dehkordi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini Baharanchi, Reza Bekhradi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) inhalation on the symptoms of dysmenorrhea and the amount of menstrual bleeding in female students with primary dysmenorrhea. DESIGN: This study is an experimental clinical trial. The subjects were 96 female students residing in dormitory at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011 and suffering from level two or three dysmenorrhea according to the verbal multi-dimensional scoring system...
April 2014: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Nedaa Skeik, Madeline M Stark, David E Tubman
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare cause of stroke, occurring when a blood clot forms in any of the brain venous sinuses. Symptoms include neurological deficits, headache, seizures, and coma. There are many predisposing factors for CVST including prothrombotic conditions, oral contraceptives, pregnancy/puerperium, malignancy, infection, and head injury. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis has no identifiable underlying etiology in about 12.5% to 33% of the cases. Diagnosis has become easier with newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance venography...
October 2012: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Laura Wallis
Risk of blood clots prompts FDA warning; breast cancer reemerges as an issue.
July 2012: American Journal of Nursing
Sumanas W Jordan, Matthew A Corriere, Carla Y Vossen, Frits R Rosendaal, Elliot L Chaikof
A large number of individuals are at risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) due to alterations in multiple coagulation factors and inhibitors secondary to malignancy, drug interactions, or other general medical conditions. Traditional metrics of haemostasis such as prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time, generally estimate anticoagulation status and bleeding risk rather than thrombosis risk. The objective of this study was to correlate a novel, systems-based metric of clotting potential to risk of DVT from a database derived from the Leiden Thrombophilia Study (LETS)...
August 2012: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Milena B Brito, Rui A Ferriani, Joost C M Meijers, Andréa A Garcia, Silvana M Quintana, Marcos F Silva de Sá, Carolina S Vieira
INTRODUCTION: The puerperium is the period of highest risk for thrombosis during a woman's reproductive life and it is an important time for initiating an effective contraceptive method in order to increase intergestational interval. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluated the effects of the etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum on maternal hemostasis markers during the first six weeks of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy women aged 18 to 35 years-old were randomized to receive either the ENG-releasing implant 24-48 h after delivery (implant group; n=20) or nothing (control group) until the sixth postpartum week...
September 2012: Thrombosis Research
Paul L McCormack
Tranexamic acid, a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent that acts by binding to plasminogen and blocking the interaction of plasmin(ogen) with fibrin, thereby preventing dissolution of the fibrin clot. Tranexamic acid (Transamin®) is indicated in Japan for use in certain conditions with abnormal bleeding or bleeding tendencies in which local or systemic hyperfibrinolysis is considered to be involved. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of tranexamic acid in conditions amenable to antifibrinolytic therapy and briefly overviews the pharmacological properties of the drug...
March 26, 2012: Drugs
Seetal Dodd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2011: Current Drug Safety
Rebecca Voelker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2011: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Bob Siegerink, Mirjam E Meltzer, Philip G de Groot, Ale Algra, Ton Lisman, Frits R Rosendaal
Reduced overall fibrinolytic capacity increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), as demonstrated in studies with predominantly male participants. We determined the influence of altered fibrinolysis on the risk of MI and ischaemic stroke (IS) in young women. The RATIO (Risk of Arterial Thrombosis In relation to Oral contraceptives) study is a population-based case-control study including young women with MI (n=203), IS (N=175) and 638 matched healthy controls. Fibrinolytic potential was determined with a tissue factor/tissue plasminogen activator induced clot-lysis assay...
January 2012: British Journal of Haematology
Kiran G Piparva, Jatin G Buch
Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP...
July 2011: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
Iná S Santos, Gicele C Minten, Neiva Cj Valle, Giovana C Tuerlinckx, Alessandra B Silva, Guilherme Ar Pereira, Joaquim F Carriconde
BACKGROUND: Population variation in the duration and amount of menstrual bleeding has received little attention in the literature. This study describes these characteristics and investigates the distribution of self-perceived amount of menstrual bleeding according to socio-demographic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 years old women users of the 31 primary health care (PHC) facilities in Pelotas city (Brazil)...
2011: BMC Women's Health
Sanjay P Ahuja, S Paige Hertweck
Women bleed with menses, during childbirth, and after childbirth. Women are more likely to manifest a bleeding disorder as they have more opportunities to experience bleeding challenges in their lifetime. Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia and von Willebrand disease affect 2.5-3 million American women. The most common inherited bleeding disorder in the population is von Willebrand disease with an estimated prevalence of 1-2%. von Willebrand factor (vWF) is required to adhere platelets to exposed subendothelium and protects factor VIII from proteolysis in the circulation...
December 2010: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
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