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Blood clots & contraception

Jeremy P Wood, Lisa M Baumann Kreuziger, Paul E R Ellery, Susan A Maroney, Alan E Mast
Activated factor V (FVa) and factor X (FXa) form prothrombinase, which converts prothrombin to thrombin. The α isoform of tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) dampens early procoagulant events, partly by interacting with FV. FV Leiden (FVL) is the most common genetic thrombophilia in Caucasians. Thrombosis risk is particularly elevated in women with FVL taking oral contraceptives, which produce acquired TFPIα deficiency. In mice, FVL combined with 50% reduction in TFPI causes severe thrombosis and perinatal lethality...
February 14, 2017: Blood Advances
Albe C Swanepoel, Odette Emmerson, Etheresia Pretorius
Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is a risk factor for venous thrombosis (VT) and related to the specific type of progestin used. VT is accompanied by inflammation and pathophysiological clot formation, that includes aberrant erythrocytes and fibrin(ogen) interactions. In this paper, we aim to determine the influence of progesterone and different synthetic progestins found in COCs on the viscoelasticity of whole blood clots, as well as erythrocyte morphology and membrane ultrastructure, in an in vitro laboratory study...
May 8, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Isabel Friedmann, Jacques Balayla
CASE REPORT: In this report, we describe the unique case of a 21 year-old woman, gravida 1, para 1, with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and Budd-Chiari syndrome, as well as severe vaginismus and cervical stenosis, in need of contraception. Herein, we present the clinical considerations and implications taken to arrive at the right contraceptive choice for the patient. DISCUSSION: Budd-Chiari syndrome is defined by the presence of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, which may be due to a number of underlying causes...
April 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Johannes J Sidelmann, Cornelis Kluft, Andrea H Krug, Ulrich Winkler, Jørgen Jespersen, Jørgen B Gram
Fibrin metabolism is influenced by many factors. The velocity of fibrin formation, genetic polymorphisms, fibrinolytic features and the structure of the fibrin clot are determinants of fibrin turnover. Oral contraceptives (OCs) have significant impact on the haemostatic system, by increasing the concentration of coagulation factors, plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator activity, and decreasing the concentration of haemostatic inhibitors. The present study addresses the influence of OCs on fibrin structure and fibrin metabolism...
April 3, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Carolyn L Westhoff, Malcolm C Pike, Serge Cremers, Andrew Eisenberger, Stella Thomassen, Jan Rosing
OBJECTIVES: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk increases within months of combination oral contraceptive (COC) initiation. Because elevated endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) has been found in several studies to be a VTE risk factor, we evaluated the extent of ETP changes during the initial cycle of an ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) COC. We also assessed the relationship between ETP changes and systemic EE and LNG concentrations. STUDY DESIGN: Participants provided multiple blood samples during a first 21-day cycle of a 30-mcg EE/150-mcg LNG COC and after a further 7 days without an active COC...
May 2017: Contraception
Pamela D Miner, Mary M Canobbio, Dorothy D Pearson, Mary Schlater, Yvonne Balon, Kathryn J Junge, Ami Bhatt, Deena Barber, Michelle J Nickolaus, Adrienne H Kovacs, Philip Moons, Kate Shaw, Susan M Fernandes
Understanding the contraceptive practices of women with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) and providing them individualized contraception counseling may prevent adverse events and unplanned high-risk pregnancies. Given this, we sought to examine the contraceptive practices in women with CHD, describe adverse events associated with contraceptive use, and describe the provision of contraception counseling. Women >18 years were recruited from 2011 to 2014 from 9 adult CHD (ACHD) centers throughout North America...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
November 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Sangeeta Ramanan, Jude Chapman-Wardy, Roy Watson
A 43-year-old woman presented with severe anaemia secondary to menorrhagia. Pelvic ultrasound showed a large intramural posterior fundal fibroid. Hysteroscopy showed the fibroid distorting the endometrial cavity, precluding Mirena® device insertion. As she was initially hesitant to have a hysterectomy, medical management with the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and tranexamic acid was instituted, with good effect. Months later, after a long road trip, she presented with left leg swelling, and a Doppler ultrasound confirmed an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT)...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alina Geampana
The fourth and most recent generation of hormones used in oral contraceptives has stirred a significant amount of debate regarding the safety of these compounds. Drospirenone, a new type of synthetic hormone used in popular oral contraceptives Yaz and Yasmin, has been found by epidemiologists to increase the risk of blood clots when compared to the previous generations of pills. North American regulatory bodies have investigated the health risks of drospirenone and concluded that the increased risks do not require pulling the new contraceptive technology off the market...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Albe C Swanepoel, Amcois Visagie, Etheresia Pretorius
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs), colloquially referred to as "the pill," have been regarded as a medical breakthrough, as they have improved the lives of countless women, from simplifying family planning to the treatment of acne, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and dysmenorrhea. Unfortunately, COC usage has been associated with an increased occurrence of venous thrombosis and therefore a systemic hypercoagulable state in susceptible females. Here we discuss the health risks of COC usage and use viscoelastic and morphological techniques to investigate the effect of different COC constituents on clot formation, particularly fibrin network packaging and whole blood viscoelasticity...
August 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Benito Chiofalo, Antonio Simone Laganà, Giovanna Imbesi, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Ursula Catena, Federica Campolo, Gabriele Lanzo, Gabriele Centini, Onofrio Triolo
Secondary headache is one of the most common side effect during oral contraceptive (OC) treatment and it leads many patients to stop the therapy. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an interatrial communication that spontaneously closes at birth in about 75% of the population. However, in the rest of adults PFO maintains a direct communication between the right and left side of circulation. In these patients PFO is a tunnel-like structure that could allow a blood clot to pass from the right to the left side of circulation, thus can cause paradoxical embolization...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Carolyn L Westhoff, Andrew Eisenberger, Rosalind Tang, Serge Cremers, Lisa V Grossman, Malcolm C Pike
OBJECTIVES: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highest during the initial months of oral contraceptive (OC) use. We sought to evaluate the extent of hemostatic variable changes during the initial OC cycle and if such changes are related to systemic ethinyl estradiol (EE2) exposure. STUDY DESIGN: Participants provided multiple blood samples during a 21-day OC cycle (30mcg EE2; 150mcg levonorgestrel) and after a single dose following a washout period. Analytes included D-dimer, factor VIII activity, protein C total antigen and the hepatic proteins corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)...
January 2016: Contraception
Nozomi Idota, Masaki Kobayashi, Daisuke Miyamori, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
Progestin/estrogen oral contraceptives have some side effects, including venous thromboembolism. To alleviate side effects, improvements have been made to low-dose oral contraceptives, including reductions in the amount of estrogen and/or changes the type of progestin. A compound drug containing 3mg drospirenone and 20μg ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE20, YAZ®) was released in overseas markets in 2006, and in Japan in 2010 as a newly developed low-dose medicines. This drug is expected to have lower side effects...
March 2015: Legal Medicine
S M Schellong
Thrombophilia testing denotes a test battery for inherited or acquired features associated with a tendency for clot formation. Currently, it is being used in a frequency and to an extent which is not supported by evidence. In order to protect patients from unnecessary worry and stigmatization, but also for reasons of cost effectiveness, thrombophilia testing should be reduced to a very small number of medically justifiable indications which are outlined in this review.Those indications include the following: secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients from a thrombophilic family, i...
May 2014: Der Internist
Ziba Raisi Dehkordi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini Baharanchi, Reza Bekhradi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) inhalation on the symptoms of dysmenorrhea and the amount of menstrual bleeding in female students with primary dysmenorrhea. DESIGN: This study is an experimental clinical trial. The subjects were 96 female students residing in dormitory at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011 and suffering from level two or three dysmenorrhea according to the verbal multi-dimensional scoring system...
April 2014: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Nedaa Skeik, Madeline M Stark, David E Tubman
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare cause of stroke, occurring when a blood clot forms in any of the brain venous sinuses. Symptoms include neurological deficits, headache, seizures, and coma. There are many predisposing factors for CVST including prothrombotic conditions, oral contraceptives, pregnancy/puerperium, malignancy, infection, and head injury. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis has no identifiable underlying etiology in about 12.5% to 33% of the cases. Diagnosis has become easier with newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance venography...
October 2012: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Laura Wallis
Risk of blood clots prompts FDA warning; breast cancer reemerges as an issue.
July 2012: American Journal of Nursing
Sumanas W Jordan, Matthew A Corriere, Carla Y Vossen, Frits R Rosendaal, Elliot L Chaikof
A large number of individuals are at risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) due to alterations in multiple coagulation factors and inhibitors secondary to malignancy, drug interactions, or other general medical conditions. Traditional metrics of haemostasis such as prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time, generally estimate anticoagulation status and bleeding risk rather than thrombosis risk. The objective of this study was to correlate a novel, systems-based metric of clotting potential to risk of DVT from a database derived from the Leiden Thrombophilia Study (LETS)...
August 2012: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Milena B Brito, Rui A Ferriani, Joost C M Meijers, Andréa A Garcia, Silvana M Quintana, Marcos F Silva de Sá, Carolina S Vieira
INTRODUCTION: The puerperium is the period of highest risk for thrombosis during a woman's reproductive life and it is an important time for initiating an effective contraceptive method in order to increase intergestational interval. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluated the effects of the etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum on maternal hemostasis markers during the first six weeks of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy women aged 18 to 35 years-old were randomized to receive either the ENG-releasing implant 24-48 h after delivery (implant group; n=20) or nothing (control group) until the sixth postpartum week...
September 2012: Thrombosis Research
Paul L McCormack
Tranexamic acid, a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent that acts by binding to plasminogen and blocking the interaction of plasmin(ogen) with fibrin, thereby preventing dissolution of the fibrin clot. Tranexamic acid (Transamin®) is indicated in Japan for use in certain conditions with abnormal bleeding or bleeding tendencies in which local or systemic hyperfibrinolysis is considered to be involved. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of tranexamic acid in conditions amenable to antifibrinolytic therapy and briefly overviews the pharmacological properties of the drug...
March 26, 2012: Drugs
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