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Smart drugs

Shyamashree Sinha, Mark Jensen, Sarah Mullin, Peter L Elkin
Background Prescription opioid pain medication overuse, misuse and abuse have been a significant contributing factor in the opioid epidemic. The rising death rates from opioid overdose have caused healthcare practitioners and researchers to work on optimizing pain therapy and limiting the prescriptions for pain medications. The state of New York has implemented a prescription drug monitoring program(PDMP), amended public health law to limit the prescription of opioids for acute pain and utilized the resources of the state and county health departments to help in curbing this epidemic...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
Larry A Chinitz, Daniel P Melby, Francis E Marchlinski, Craig Delaughter, Robert S Fishel, George Monir, Anshul M Patel, Douglas N Gibson, Charles A Athill, Lee Ming Boo, Robert Stagg, Andrea Natale
Aims: THERMOCOOL SMARTTOUCH® SF Catheter is a new contact-force (CF)-sensing catheter with 56-hole porous tip designed for improved cooling and reduced fluid delivery compared with a standard 6-hole open-irrigated catheter. The SMART SF study examined the periprocedural safety, acute effectiveness, and procedural efficiency of the catheter for drug-refractory symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) ablation. Methods and results: The prospective, open-label, non-randomized SMART-SF was conducted at 17 US sites...
August 9, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Takuma Kureha, Daichi Aoki, Seina Hiroshige, Keisuke Iijima, Daisuke Aoki, Toshikazu Takata, Daisuke Suzuki
Rotaxane cross-linked (RC) microgels that exhibit a decoupled thermo- and pH-responsive volume transition were developed. The pH-induced changes of the aggregation/disaggregation states of cyclodextrin in the RC networks were used to control the swelling capacity of the entire microgels. Different from conventional thermo- and pH-responsive microgels, which are usually obtained from copolymerizations involving charged monomers, the RC microgels respond to temperature as intended, even in the presence of charged functional molecules such as dyes in the microgel dispersion...
October 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Qianhua Feng, Wanxia Zhang, Yuzhen Li, Xuemei Yang, Yongwei Hao, Hongling Zhang, Wei Li, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
The chelate copper-based anticancer drug bleomycin (BLM) is usually believed to bind metal ions especially Cu(ii) to generate the "activated BLM" for DNA cleavage. Herein, BLM and L-menthol (LM) co-loaded hollow mesoporous Cu2-xS nanoparticles (HMCu2-xS NPs) with surface folic acid (FA) modification were formulated to construct an intelligent NIR-responsive nanoplatform for synergistic tumor targeted chemo-phototherapy. With the tumor targeting ability of the folate receptor (FR)-positive, FA-HMCu2-xS/BLM/LM could pinpoint tumor cells efficiently...
October 10, 2017: Nanoscale
Aby K George, Harpreet Singh
Decision-making systems are an integral part of any autonomous device. With the recent developments in bionanorobots, smart drugs, and engineered viruses, there is an immediate need of decision-making systems which are biocompatible in nature. DNA is considered a perfect candidate for designing the computing systems in such decision-making systems because of their bio-compatibility and programmability. Complex biological systems can be easily modeled/controlled using fuzzy logic operations with the help of linguistic rules...
October 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Hongguang Li, Chen Xie, Rongfeng Lan, Shuai Zha, Chi-Fai Chan, Wing-Yan Wong, Ka-Lok Ho, Brandon Dow Chan, Yuxia Luo, Jing-Xiang Zhang, Ga-Lai Law, William C S Tai, Jean-Claude Georges Bunzli, Ka-Leung Wong
A unique, dual-function, photo-activatable anticancer prodrug, RuEuL, has been tailored that features a ruthenium(II) com-plex linked to a cyclen-europium chelate via a π-conjugated bridge. Under irradiation at 488 nm, the dark-inactive prodrug undergoes photodissociation, releasing the DNA-damaging ruthenium species. Under evaluation-window irradiation (λirr = one-photon 350 nm or two-photon 700 nm), the drug delivery process can be quantitatively monitored in real-time thanks to the long-lived red europium emission...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wei-Hai Chen, Xu Yu, Alessandro Cecconello, Yang Sung Sohn, Rachel Nechushtai, Itamar Willner
A versatile approach to modify metal-organic framework nanoparticles (NMOFs) with nucleic acid tethers, using the "click chemistry" method is introduced. The nucleic acid-functionalized NMOFs are used to prepare stimuli-responsive carriers of loads (fluorescence probes or anti-cancer drugs). Two different stimuli-responsive nucleic acid-based NMOFs are presented. One system involves the preparation of pH-responsive NMOFs. The NMOFs are loaded with fluorophores or doxorubicin anti-cancer drug and locked in the NMOFs by pH-responsive DNA duplex capping units...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Xiaoxiao Shi, Meili Hou, Shuang Bai, Xiaoqian Ma, Yong-E Gao, Bo Xiao, Peng Xue, Yuejun Kang, Zhigang Xu, Chang Ming Li
Stimuli-responsive nanomedicine with theranostic functionalities while reduced side-effects has attracted growing attention, although there are some major obstacles to overcome before clinical applications. Herein, we present an acid-activatable theranostic unimolecular micelles based on amphiphilic star-like polymeric prodrug to systematically address typical existing issues. This smart polymeric prodrug has a preferable size of about 35 nm and strong micellar stability in aqueous solution, which is beneficial to long-term blood circulation and efficient extravasation from tumoral vessels...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Owen J Duffey, Nicola Smart
Survival rates following myocardial infarction have increased in recent years but current treatments for post-infarction recovery are inadequate and cannot induce regeneration of damaged hearts. Regenerative medicine could provide disease-reversing treatments by harnessing modern concepts in cell and developmental biology. A recently-established paradigm in regenerative medicine is that regeneration of a tissue can be achieved by reactivation of the coordinated developmental processes that originally formed the tissue...
December 30, 2016: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Jing Xie, Anqi Li, Jianshu Li
Since diabetes mellitus has become one of the most serious threats to human health, researchers have been designing new drugs and developing new technologies to control the blood glucose level (BGL) while improving patient compliance. In addition to the traditional subcutaneous injection method, alternative routes of insulin delivery have been investigated and tested, including oral, pulmonary, transdermal, and nasal. The final goal of all these technologies is to develop a system that releases insulin in a controlled manner depending on the BGL...
October 4, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Jun-Zi Wu, Gareth R Williams, He-Yu Li, Dong-Xiu Wang, Shu-De Li, Li-Min Zhu
Porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared, loaded with insulin, and then coated in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and a novel boronic acid-containing copolymer [poly(acrylamide phenyl boronic acid-co-N-vinylcaprolactam); p(AAPBA-co-NVCL)]. Multilayer microspheres were generated using a layer-by-layer approach depositing alternating coats of PVA and p(AAPBA-co-NVCL) on the PLGA surface, with the optimal system found to be that with eight alternating layers of each coating. The resultant material comprised spherical particles with a porous PLGA core and the pores covered in the coating layers...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Melissa Bersanelli, Sebastiano Buti
Since the advent of immunotherapy revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), the attention of oncologists has been unavoidably shifted from tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to immune checkpoint blockade, with the associated risk of listing cabozantinib as just one of many available TKIs. On the contrary, we think that cabozantinib represents a very good option for mRCC treatment, with outstanding outcomes in terms of response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival and quick time to treatment response...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Duncan Laverty, Philip Thomas, Martin Field, Ole J Andersen, Matthew G Gold, Philip C Biggin, Marc Gielen, Trevor G Smart
γ-Aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are vital for controlling excitability in the brain. This is emphasized by the numerous neuropsychiatric disorders that result from receptor dysfunction. A critical component of most native GABAARs is the α subunit. Its transmembrane domain is the target for many modulators, including endogenous brain neurosteroids that impact anxiety, stress and depression, and for therapeutic drugs, such as general anesthetics. Understanding the basis for the modulation of GABAAR function requires high-resolution structures...
October 2, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Qiuhua Wu, Yu Hou, Guangxi Han, Xue Liu, Xiuping Tang, Hong Li, Ximing Song, Guolin Zhang
AIM: Smart mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with mixed polymeric shell (MS-MSNs) were prepared to realize controlled encapsulation and responsive delivery of anticancer drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Two kinds of polymers, including nonthermoresponsive poly(ethylene glycol) and thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide), were grafted onto the outlets of the MSNs through acidic liable Schiff base bonds. RESULTS: Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) chains could control the release rate of drugs through phase transition, while poly(ethylene glycol) chains could maintain the colloid stability of MSNs...
October 2, 2017: Nanomedicine
Xin-Yue Lou, Nan Song, Ying-Wei Yang
The fabrication of smart materials is gradually becoming a research focus in nanotechnology and materials science. An important criterion of smart materials is the capacity of stimuli-responsiveness, while another lies in selective recognition. Accordingly, supramolecular host-guest chemistry has proven a promising support for building intelligent, responsive systems; hence, synthetic macrocyclic hosts, such as calixarenes, cucurbiturils, cyclodextrins, and pillararenes, have been used as ideal building blocks...
September 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Teresa Simon-Yarza, Monica Gimenez-Marqués, Rhizlaine Mrimi, Angelika Mielcarek, Ruxandra Gref, Patricia Horcajada, Christian Serre, Patrick Couvreur
Despite high morbidity and mortality associated to lung diseases, addressing drugs towards lung tissue remains a pending task. Particle lung filtration has been proposed for passive lung targeting and drug delivery. However, toxic issues, derived from the long-term presence of the particles must be overcome. We show here that by exploiting some of the ignored properties of nanosized metal-organic frameworks it is possible to achieve impressive antitumoral effects on experimental lung tumours, even without the need to engineer the surface of the material...
September 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Yinan Zhong, Fenghua Meng, Chao Deng, Xinliang Mao, Zhiyuan Zhong
The chemotherapy of hematological cancers is challenged by its poor selectivity that leads to low therapeutic efficacy and pronounced adverse effects. Here, we report that doxorubicin encapsulated in lipoic acid-crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (LACHA-DOX) mediate highly efficacious and targeted inhibition of human hematological cancers including LP-1 human multiple myeloma (MM) and AML-2 human acute myeloid leukemia xenografted in nude mice. LACHA-DOX had a size of ca. 183 nm and a DOX loading content of ca...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Jingjing Liu, Guangbao Yang, Wenwen Zhu, Ziliang Dong, Yu Yang, Yu Chao, Zhuang Liu
The development of smart drug delivery systems to realize controlled drug release for highly specific cancer treatment has attracted tremendous attention. Herein, nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) constructed from hafnium ions and bis-(alkylthio) alkene (BATA), a singlet-oxygen responsive linker, are fabricated and applied as nanocarriers to realize light-controlled drug release under a rather low optical power density. In this system, NCPs synthesized through a solvothermal method are sequentially loaded with chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizer, and doxorubicin (DOX), a chemotherapeutic drug, and then coated with lipid bilayer to allow modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to acquire excellent colloidal stability...
November 2017: Biomaterials
Chendi Ding, Ling Tong, JiaJun Fu
Novel quadruple stimuli-responsive mechanized silica nanoparticles were constructed by installation of supramolecular nanovalves onto exterior surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The release of cargo molecules is triggered by acid/Zn2+/alkali/reduction potential stimuli, which offers application prospects of developing the drug delivery systems or construction of smart anticorrosion coatings.
September 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Min Liu, Xia Song, Yuting Wen, Jing-Ling Zhu, Jun Li
In this work, we have synthesized a thermoresponsive copolymer, alginate-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (alginate-g-PNIPAAm) by conjugating PNIPAAm to alginate, where PNIPAAm with different molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized by atomic transfer radical polymerization. The copolymer dissolved in water or phosphate-buffered saline buffer solution at room temperature and formed self-assembled micelles with low critical micellization concentrations when the temperature increased to above their critical micellization temperatures...
October 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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