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Smart drugs

Jingjing Hu, Yihua Chen, Yunqi Li, Zhengjie Zhou, Yiyun Cheng
The development of thermo-degradable hydrogels is of great importance in drug delivery. However, it still remains a huge challenge to prepare thermo-degradable hydrogels with inherent degradation, reproducible, repeated and tunable dosing. Here, we reported a thermo-degradable hydrogel that is rapidly degraded above 44 °C by a facile chemistry. Besides thermo-degradability, the hydrogel also undergoes rapid photolysis with ultraviolet light. By embedding photothermal nanoparticles or upconversion nanoparticles into the gel, it can release the entrapped cargoes such as dyes, enzymes and anticancer drugs in an on-demand and dose-tunable fashion upon near-infrared light exposure...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Airama Albisa, Laura Español, Martin Prieto, Victor Sebastian
BACKGROUND: Bio-nanomaterials assembled into nanomembrane entities are actively studied to circumvent the uncontrollable list of shortcomings of conventional delivery systems: low water solubility, unfavorable stability, short circulation time in plasma, rapid clearance from the human body, poor bioavailability, non-specific toxicity against normal tissue and cells, low cellular uptake and susceptibility to enzyme degradation. Basically, these nanoentities enable to exploit the therapeutic value of many promising biomolecules and drugs (B&D), controlling the mass transport of B&D at a certain rate or even on demand if a stimulus is applied...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Andrew A M Ibey, Derek Andrews, Barb Ferreira
The authors present a case in which a physical anomaly with an infusion pump resulted in an unforeseen fault that the nurse's attempts to resolve unknowingly exacerbated. This case study presents the first report in the literature to detail the difficulty in recreating a patient safety event using smart pump logs, support server continuous quality improvement (CQI) data, and the drug order entry system to elucidate the clinical scenario. A 75-year-old male patient presented to a major teaching hospital and was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a massive gastrointestinal bleed and myocardial infarction, then stabilized...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Kanjiro Miyata
In recent decades, nucleic acid therapeutics have been attracting much attention because of their potential as treatments for various diseases that require high target specificity. Nevertheless, the number of approved nucleic acid drugs is very limited due to substantially poor bioavailability, thereby generating the need for nucleic acid delivery carriers. A variety of delivery formulations have been reported so far. This review particularly describes polymer-based delivery carriers for systemic administration, highlighting the potential of biological environment-responsive chemistry for overcoming the biological barriers to nucleic acid delivery...
October 17, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Zhijun Shi, Xing Gao, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Sixiang Li, Qun Wang, Guang Yang
Hydrogels prepared from natural polymers have received immense considerations over the past decade due to their safe nature, biocompatibility, hydrophilic properties, and biodegradable nature. More recently, when treated with electroactive materials, these hydrogels were endowed with high electrical conductivity, electrochemical redox properties, and electromechanical properties; consequently, forming a smart hydrogel. The biological properties of these smart hydrogels, classified as electroconductive hydrogels, can be combined with electronics...
December 2016: Biomaterials
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Cui Tan, Xiaoxu Zhang, Qing Li
Two major problems with magnesium (Mg) alloy biomaterials are the poor corrosion resistance and infection associated with implantation. In this study, a novel calcium phosphate (CaP)/tetracycline (TC) composite coating for Mg implants that can both improve the corrosion resistance of Mg and release a drug in a durable way is reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that TC additives make the CaP coating more compact and uniform. Electrochemical tests indicated CaP/TC coatings can provide excellent corrosion protection for Mg alloy substrates...
October 8, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Emily L Newman, Georgia Gunner, Polly Huynh, Darrel Gachette, Stephen J Moss, Trevor G Smart, Uwe Rudolph, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABAA receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. METHODS: Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABAA receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Amelie Heuer-Jungemann, Afaf H El-Sagheer, Peter M Lackie, Tom Brown, Antonios G Kanaras
The design of nanoparticles that can selectively perform multiple roles is of utmost importance for the development of the next generation of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. So far most research studies are focused on the customization of nanoparticulate carriers to maximize their drug loading, enhance their optical signature for tracking in cells or provide photo-responsive effects for therapeutic purposes. However, a vital requirement of the new generation of drug carriers must be the ability to deliver their payload selectively only to cells of interest rather than the majority of various cells in the vicinity...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
Christopher D Jones, Jonathan W Steed
Advances in the field of supramolecular chemistry have made it possible, in many situations, to reliably engineer soft materials to address a specific technological problem. Particularly exciting are "smart" gels that undergo reversible physical changes on exposure to remote, non-invasive environmental stimuli. This review explores the development of gels which are transformed by heat, light and ultrasound, as well as other mechanical inputs, applied voltages and magnetic fields. Focusing on small-molecule gelators, but with reference to organic polymers and metal-organic systems, we examine how the structures of gelator assemblies influence the physical and chemical mechanisms leading to thermo-, photo- and mechano-switchable behaviour...
September 20, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Dunyin Gu, Andrea J O'Connor, Greg G H Qiao, Katharina Ladewig
Smart hydrogel systems present opportunities to not only provide hydrophobic molecule encapsulation capability but to also respond to specific delivery routes. Areas Covered: An overview of the design principles, preparation methods and applications of hydrogel systems for delivery of hydrophobic drugs is given. It begins with a summary of the advantages of hydrogels as delivery vehicles over other approaches, particularly macromolecular nanocarriers, before proceeding to address the design and preparation strategies and chemistry involved, with a particular focus on the introduction of hydrophobic domains into (naturally) hydrophilic hydrogels...
October 5, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Qun Wang, Jian-Ying Huang, Hua-Qiong Li, Zhong Chen, Allan Zi-Jian Zhao, Yi Wang, Ke-Qin Zhang, Hong-Tao Sun, Salem S Al-Deyab, Yue-Kun Lai
Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays are recognized as promising materials for localized drug delivery implants because of their excellent properties and facile preparation process. This review highlights the concept of localized drug delivery systems based on TNTs, considering their outstanding biocompatibility in a series of ex vivo and in vivo studies. Considering the safety of TNT implants in the host body, studies of the biocompatibility present significant importance for the clinical application of TNT implants...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tingjie Yin, Jiyong Liu, Zekai Zhao, Lihui Dong, Han Cai, Lifang Yin, Jianping Zhou, Meirong Huo
Co-delivery systems capable of transporting hydrophobic chemotherapeutics and hydrophilic siRNA to the same cell population with simultaneous burst release of both drugs to maximize synergistic anticancer efficacy remains elusive. In this light, a multifunctional nanoparticle (HA-PSR) consisting of a redox-sensitive core and detachable crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) shell was developed. Octyl modified PEI containing disulfide linkages (PSR) were synthesized as the core materials for co-encapsulation of chemotherapeutics and siRNA, while a HAase-sensitive thiolated HA (HA-SH) was collaboratively assembled to the anionic shell for CD44-mediated active targeting along with enhanced and detachable protection for drug loaded inner cores...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Liang Ee Low, Beng Ti Tey, Boon Hoong Ong, Eng Seng Chan, Siah Ying Tang
We studied the formation of palm olein-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsion stabilized by Fe3O4-cellulose nanocrystals (MCNC) nanocomposites obtained by ultrasound assisted in-situ co-precipitation method. The synthesized MCNC nanocomposites successfully stabilized Pickering emulsion with dual responses. The magnetic tests revealed a direct-relation between attractability of MCNC-stabilized Pickering emulsions and the emulsion droplet diameter. The Pickering emulsions were stable under pH ranging from 3 to 6. The stability substantially reduced around pH 8-10, and regained slowly when approaching pH 13...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
William Campbell, Reid K Hester, Kathryn L Lenberg, Harold D Delaney
BACKGROUND: Despite empirical evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for problem drinking, much remains unknown about factors that influence their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the performance of 2 resources for people who want to achieve and maintain abstinence: SMART Recovery (SR) and Overcoming Addictions (OA). OA is a Web application based on SR. We also examined participant and intervention-related factors hypothesized to impact clinical outcomes of Web-based interventions...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jean Amiral, Claire Dunois, Cédric Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
In the past decade Direct Oral Anti-Coagulants (DOACs), targeting Thrombin or Factor Xa, have enormously facilitated the daily treatment of all relevant patients, including those requiring lifelong therapy. These DOACs have considerable advantages over the use of oral Vitamin K Antagonist (VKA) treatments, in view of having little interferences with food and other medications and also not requiring adjustment for age, gender or weight, with some well-defined exceptions. In this current What's Happening Section we focus on measurements of DiXaIs in plasma using anti-Xa assays, with the objective of providing a tribute to Professor Michel Meyer Samama, who was not only a real leader in this field but, in the past, both authors benefited from his wisdom, as a teacher who dedicated his scientific and professional life (among many other interests in hemostasis, thrombosis and fibrinolysis) to develop and promote methods and strategies for laboratory monitoring of anticoagulants...
October 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Danyang Liu, Sijia Wang, Shouhong Xu, Honglai Liu
Azobenzene-contained glycolipids GlyAzoCns, newly structured azobenzene derivatives, which have an azobenzene moiety between the galactosyl and carbon chains of various sizes, have been synthesized. The GlyAzoCns undergo reversible photo-induced isomerization in both ethanol solution (free state) and liposomal bilayer (restricted state) upon irradiation with UV and Vis-light alternately. The drug release of Liposome@Gly induced by isomerization was found to be an instantaneous behavior. The photo-induced control of DOX release from liposome was investigated in various modes...
September 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
May Griffith, Mohammad M Islam, Joel Edin, Georgia Papapavlou, Oleksiy Buznyk, Hirak K Patra
Biomaterials are now being used or evaluated clinically as implants to supplement the severe shortage of available human donor organs. To date, however, such implants have mainly been developed as scaffolds to promote the regeneration of failing organs due to old age or congenital malformations. In the real world, however, infection or immunological issues often compromise patients. For example, bacterial and viral infections can result in uncontrolled immunopathological damage and lead to organ failure. Hence, there is a need for biomaterials and implants that not only promote regeneration but also address issues that are specific to compromised patients, such as infection and inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Leslie A Hamilton, Andrea Franks, R Eric Heidel, Sharon L K McDonough, Katie J Suda
Objective. To assess student preferences regarding online learning and technology and to evaluate student pharmacists' social media use for educational purposes. Methods. An anonymous 36-question online survey was administered to third-year student pharmacists enrolled in the Drug Information and Clinical Literature Evaluation course. Results. Four hundred thirty-one students completed the survey, yielding a 96% response rate. The majority of students used technology for academic activities, with 90% using smart phones and 91% using laptop computers...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Nadia M Morsi, Ahmed A Aboelwafa, Marwa H S Dawoud
Timolol maleate (TiM), a nonselective β-adrenergic blocker, is a potent highly effective agent for management of hypertension. The drug suffers from extensive first pass effect, resulting in a reduction of oral bioavailability (F%) to 50% and a short elimination half-life of 4 h; parameters necessitating its frequent administration. The current study was therefore, designed to formulate and optimize the transfersomal TiM gel for transdermal delivery. TiM loaded transfersomal gel was optimized using two 2(3) full factorial designs; where the effects of egg phosphatidyl choline (PC): surfactant (SAA) molar ratio, solvent volumetric ratio, and the drug amount were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
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