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Ekaterina M Budynina, Konstantin L Ivanov, Alexey O Chagarovskiy, Victor B Rybakov, Igor V Trushkov, Mikhail Ya Melnikov
A conceptually new type of donor-acceptor cyclopropane reactivity towards nucleophiles has been disclosed. An essential characteristic of the process is an unusual nucleophilic attack on the C(3)-position of a cyclopropane, combined with typical small ring-opening by cleavage of the C(1)-C(2) bond between the acceptor and the donor. Based on this new reaction between cyclopropane-1,1-diesters and nitroalkanes, we developed a convenient approach to γ-nitroesters that can be efficiently transformed to the substituted pyrrolidones, structural analogues of racetame family drugs (rolipram, phenylpiracetam, etc...
March 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
V I Zhiliuk, V I Mamchur, S V Pavlov
The influence of citicoline, phenylpiracetam, pentoxifylline and N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine on cognitive processes and functional state of mitochondria in the neocortex of alloxan-diabetic rats has been studied. The drug effects on cognitive processes were assessed using passive avoidance tests in the dark-light camera. Latent period and the number of animals with amnesia skill on 6th and 20th days of drug administration were recorded. Functional status of mitochondria was assessed by mitochondrial pore opening and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Y) on 20th day...
2015: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
V I Zhilyuk, A E Levykh, V I Mamchur
In rats with chronic alloxan-induced hyperglycemia, pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam (but not piracetam) had a strong antiaggregant effect that was mediated by various mechanisms of platelet aggregation modulation. The effect of pramiracetam is mainly realized via the inhibition of thromboxane A2 metabolism, while activity of phenylpiracetam is primarily associated with a normalizing effect on function of constitutive NO synthase in platelets and vascular endothelium.
April 2014: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Andrei G Malykh, M Reza Sadaie
There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the literature search was on articles demonstrating evidence-based clinical investigations during the past 10 years for the following therapeutic categories of CNS disorders: (i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischaemia; and (v) stress and anxiety...
February 12, 2010: Drugs
Iu G Bobkov, I S Morozov, O M Glozman, L N Nerobkova, L A Zhmurenko
The central neurotropic effects of 4-phenylpyracetam, a new phenyl analog of pyracetam, were studied and compared with the effects of pyracetam, morpholene and 4-phenylpyrrolidone. 4-Phenylpyracetam was found to activate the operant behavior more powerfully, to remove psychodepressant effects of diazepam, to inhibit post-rotational nystagmus, and to prevent the development of retrograde amnesia. Unlike pyracetam, 4-phenylpyracetam exhibits a specific anticonvulsant action. When given in high doses, the compound under study produces psychodepressant effects...
April 1983: Biulleten' Eksperimental'noĭ Biologii i Meditsiny
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