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Santosh Mathapati, Richard Siller, Agata A R Impellizzeri, Max Lycke, Karianne Vegheim, Runar Almaas, Gareth J Sullivan
Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) generated in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide an invaluable resource for basic research, regenerative medicine, drug screening, toxicology, and modeling of liver disease and development. This unit describes a small-molecule-driven protocol for in vitro differentiation of hPSCs into HLCs without the use of growth factors. hPSCs are coaxed through a developmentally relevant route via the primitive streak to definitive endoderm (DE) using the small molecule CHIR99021 (a Wnt agonist), replacing the conventional growth factors Wnt3A and activin A...
2016: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Phillip M Uribe, Leen H Kawas, Joseph W Harding, Allison B Coffin
Loss of sensory hair cells from exposure to certain licit drugs (e.g., aminoglycoside antibiotics, platinum-based chemotherapy agents) can result in permanent hearing loss. Here we ask if allosteric activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cascade via Dihexa, a small molecule drug candidate, can protect hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity. Unlike native HGF, Dihexa is chemically stable and blood-brain barrier permeable. As a synthetic HGF mimetic, it forms a functional ligand by dimerizing with endogenous HGF to activate the HGF receptor and downstream signaling cascades...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
John W Wright, Joseph W Harding
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease increasing in frequency as life expectancy of the world's population increases. There are an estimated 5 million diagnosed AD patients in the U.S. and 16 million worldwide with no adequate treatment presently available. New therapeutic approaches are needed to slow, and hopefully reverse, disease progression. This review summarizes available information regarding an overlooked therapeutic target that may offer a treatment to slow and hopefully halt AD, namely the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met receptor system...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
John W Wright, Leen H Kawas, Joseph W Harding
Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases are neurodegenerative diseases presently without effective drug treatments. AD is characterized by general cognitive impairment, difficulties with memory consolidation and retrieval, and with advanced stages episodes of agitation and anger. AD is increasing in frequency as life expectancy increases. Present FDA approved medications do little to slow disease progression and none address the underlying progressive loss of synaptic connections and neurons. New drug design approaches are needed beyond cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists...
February 2015: Progress in Neurobiology
Shu-Kai Hu, Ya-Ming Chen, Ling Chao
Supported lipid bilayer (SLB) platforms have been developed to transport and separate membrane-embedded species in the species' native bilayer environment. In this study, we used the phase segregation phenomenon of lipid mixtures containing a polymerizable diacetylene phospholipid, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DiynePC), and a nonpolymerizable phospholipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), to create filter barrier structures in SLBs. Upon exposing the phase segregated samples to UV light, the DiynePC-rich domains could become crosslinked and remain fixed on the surface of the support, while the DOPC-rich regions, where no crosslinking could happen, could be removed later by detergent washing, and thus became the void regions in the filter...
September 2014: Biomicrofluidics
Caroline C Benoist, Leen H Kawas, Mingyan Zhu, Katherine A Tyson, Lori Stillmaker, Suzanne M Appleyard, John W Wright, Gary A Wayman, Joseph W Harding
A subset of angiotensin IV (AngIV)-related molecules are known to possess procognitive/antidementia properties and have been considered as templates for potential therapeutics. However, this potential has not been realized because of two factors: 1) a lack of blood-brain barrier-penetrant analogs, and 2) the absence of a validated mechanism of action. The pharmacokinetic barrier has recently been overcome with the synthesis of the orally active, blood-brain barrier-permeable analog N-hexanoic-tyrosine-isoleucine-(6) aminohexanoic amide (dihexa)...
November 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Stella W Nowotarska, Krzysztof J Nowotarski, Mendel Friedman, Chen Situ
Monolayers composed of bacterial phospholipids were used as model membranes to study interactions of the naturally occurring phenolic compounds 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, and the plant essential oil compounds carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and geraniol, previously found to be active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms. The lipid monolayers consist of 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), 1,2-dihexa- decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG), and 1,1',2,2'-tetratetradecanoyl cardiolipin (cardiolipin)...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alene T McCoy, Caroline C Benoist, John W Wright, Leen H Kawas, Jyote M Bule-Ghogare, Mingyan Zhu, Suzanne M Appleyard, Gary A Wayman, Joseph W Harding
Angiotensin IV (AngIV: VYIHPF)-related peptides have long been recognized as procognitive agents with potential as antidementia therapeutics. Their development as useful therapeutics, however, has been limited by physiochemical properties that make them susceptible to metabolic degradation and impermeable to gut and blood-brain barriers. A previous study demonstrated that the core structural information required to impart the procognitive activity of the AngIV analog, norleucine(1)-angiotensin IV, resides in its three N-terminal amino acids, Nle-Tyr-Ile...
January 2013: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Jean-Philippe Bapst, Sylvie Froidevaux, Martine Calame, Heidi Tanner, Alex N Eberle
Dimeric analogs of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) labeled with radiometals are potential candidates for diagnosis and therapy of melanoma by receptor-mediated tumor targeting. Both melanotic and amelanotic melanomas (over-)express the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), the target for alpha-MSH. In the past, dimerized MSH analogs have been shown to display increased receptor affinity compared to monomeric MSH, offering the possibility of improving the ratio between specific uptake of radiolabeled alpha-MSH by melanoma and nonspecific uptake by the kidneys...
2007: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
David Kessel, Mary Conley, M Gra├ža H Vicente, John J Reiners
This study was designed to provide more detailed information on the subcellular sites of binding of the porphycene, termed 9-capronyloxytetrakis (methoxyethyl) porphycene (CPO), with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. The proximity of CPO to two fluorescent probes was determined: nonyl acridine orange (NAO), a dye with specific affinity for the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, and dihexa-oxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), an agent that labels the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). FRET spectra indicated energy transfer between DiOC6 and CPO but no significant transfer between NAO and CPO...
May 2005: Photochemistry and Photobiology
E D Rider, M Ikegami, A H Jobe
Localization of surfactant phospholipid clearance in lung cells was investigated in vivo in rabbits using radiolabeled dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dihexa-decyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC-ether), a phospholipase A1- and A2-resistant analogue of DPPC. After intratracheal injection of liposomes of the labeled lipids associated with unlabeled surfactant, adult rabbits were killed in groups of three to five at 0, 4, 12, and 24 h with recovery of bronchoalveolar lavages for alveolar macrophages and surfactant...
August 1992: American Journal of Physiology
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