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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447386/unravelling-the-pleiotropic-role-of-the-mceg-atpase-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#1
Julia García-Fernández, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Beatriz Galán, Christopher M Sassetti, José L García
The Mce systems are complex ABC transporters that are encoded by different numbers of homologous operons in Actinobacteria. While the four Mce systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are all energized by a single ATPase, MceG, each system appears to import different fatty acids or sterols. To explore if this behaviour can be extended to saprophytic mycobacteria, whose more complex genomes encode more Mce systems, we have identified and characterized the MceG orthologue of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This bacterium relies on MceG to energize its six Mce systems that contribute to a variety of cellular functions including sterol uptake and cell envelope maintenance...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#2
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond, or moieties present at the side chain...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407491/uv-c-radiation-increases-sterol-production-in-the-microalga-pavlova-lutheri
#3
Faruq Ahmed, Peer M Schenk
Plant sterols have become well-known to promote cardiovascular health through the reduction of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood. Plant sterols also have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenicity activities. Microalgae have the potential to become a useful alternative source of plant sterols with several species reported to have higher concentrations than current commercial ones. In order to increase phytosterol production and optimise culture conditions, the high sterol producer Pavlova lutheri was treated in different dosages (50-250 mJ m(-2)) of UV-C radiation and several concentrations (1-500 μmol/L) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the sterol contents were quantified for two days after the treatments...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365392/effects-of-seaweed-sterols-fucosterol-and-desmosterol-on-lipid-membranes
#4
Ole G Mouritsen, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars Duelund, Olav Garvik, John H Ipsen, Adam Cohen Simonsen
Higher sterols are universally present in large amounts (20-30%) in the plasma membranes of all eukaryotes whereas they are universally absent in prokaryotes. It is remarkable that each kingdom of the eukaryotes has chosen, during the course of evolution, its preferred sterol: cholesterol in animals, ergosterol in fungi and yeast, phytosterols in higher plants, and e.g., fucosterol and desmosterol in algae. The question arises as to which specific properties do sterols impart to membranes and to which extent do these properties differ among the different sterols...
March 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359358/rice-bran-enzymatic-extract-reduces-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-and-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-apoe-mice
#5
Cristina Perez-Ternero, Carmen Claro, Juan Parrado, Maria Dolores Herrera, Maria Alvarez de Sotomayor
OBJECTIVE: Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is rich in bioactive molecules such as γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, and tocotrienols. The rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) previously showed vessel remodeling prevention and lipid-lowering, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. The aim of this study was to identify RBEE hypolipidemic mechanisms and to study the effects of RBEE on the progression of atherosclerosis disease and linked vascular dysfunction and liver steatosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed low- or high-fat (LFD, HFD, respectively) and cholesterol diets...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349555/phytosterols-on-growth-performance-antioxidant-enzymes-and-intestinal-morphology-in-weaned-piglets
#6
Qiaoling Hu, Sisi Li, Yiwei Zhang, Zhao Zhuo, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts have been used widely to improve growth, lower cholesterol, exert antioxidative defense and antimicrobial activities in animal production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary phytosterols (PS) on growth performance, antioxidant enzymes and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. RESULTS: A total of 120 crossbred piglets weighed 9.58 ± 0.26 kg were randomly allotted to 3 treatments: control, PS (0...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314390/oxysterols-in-cosmetics-determination-by-planar-solid-phase-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#7
S Schrack, C Hohl, W Schwack
Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302025/the-use-of-plant-sterols-and-stanols-as-lipid-lowering-agents-in-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Jacek Rysz, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Anna Gluba-Brzózka
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is constantly increasing worldwide. It has been proved that LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) plays causal role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The fact that atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive disease which onsets during the first three decades of life bores questions what to do to maintain LDL-C at low levels throughout life and thus to delay and/or prevent the progress this disease...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296229/phytosterol-mediated-inhibition-of-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-in-mice-is-independent-of-liver-x-receptor
#9
Lídia Cedó, David Santos, Iziar A Ludwig, Reija Silvennoinen, Annabel García-León, Leena Kaipiainen, José M Carbó, Annabel F Valledor, Helena Gylling, Maria-José Motilva, Petri T Kovanen, Miriam Lee-Rueckert, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil
SCOPE: Previous studies have proposed that phytosterols activate liver X receptors (LXR) in the intestine, thereby reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption and promoting fecal cholesterol excretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary phytosterol supplementation on intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion in LXRαβ-deficient mice, and wild-type mice treated with synthetic high-affinity LXRαβ agonists...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291734/safety-assessment-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-the-flowers-of-nymphaea-lotus-linn-nymphaeaceae-acute-neuro-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-studies-in-albinos-wistar-rats
#10
Mireille Kameni Poumeni, Danielle Claude Bilanda, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet Djomeni, Yolande Sandrine Mengue Ngadena, Marguerite Francine Mballa, Madeleine Chantal Ngoungoure, Agnès Carolle Ouafo, Théophile Dimo, Pierre Kamtchouing
BACKGROUND: Nymphaea lotus Linn (N. lotus) is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon popular medicine, to treat neuropsychiatric conditions, male sexual disorders or as food supplement. However, scientific data on the pharmacotoxic profile of this plant are not available. The safety of N. lotus was assessed in acute, neuro- and subchronic toxicity studies by following the OECD guidelines. Effectively, no data have been published until now in regard to its safety on the nervous system...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279967/ezetimibe-increases-endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#11
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo...
March 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267434/dietary-phytochemicals-in-the-protection-against-oxysterol-induced-damage
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Cilla, Amparo Alegría, Alessandro Attanzio, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, Luisa Tesoriere, Maria A Livrea
The intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many chronic diseases. These foods contain phytochemicals that often possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity and show anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Many factors can be included in the etiopathogenesis of all of these multifactorial diseases that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and/or cell death processes, oxysterols, i...
March 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256666/neuroprotective-effects-of-phytosterol-esters-against-high-cholesterol-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-aged-rat
#13
Xu Rui, Li Wenfang, Cheng Jing, Chen Meng, Ding Chengcheng, Xu Jiqu, Rong Shuang
Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253422/plant-sterol-enriched-functional-food-and-atherosclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Jürgen Köhler, Daniel Teupser, Albrecht Elsässer, Oliver Weingärtner
Hypercholesterolaemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor. A healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle reduces cardiovascular risk. 'Functional foods' supplemented with phytosterols are recommended for the management of hypercholesterolaemia and have become a widely used non-prescription approach to lower plasma cholesterol levels. Two billion euros are spent world-wide each year on various functional foods, which have regulator-approved health claims for the management of elevated cholesterol levels. While international societies, such as the European Atherosclerosis Society or the National Heart Foundation in Australia, still advise phytosterols as an additional dietary option in the management of hypercholesterolaemia, recently released guidelines such as those from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom are more critical of food supplementation with phytosterols and draw attention to significant safety issues...
June 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250649/evaluation-of-cholesterol-lowering-activity-of-standardized-extract-of-mangifera-indica-in-albino-wistar-rats
#15
G M Gururaja, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, A Senthil Kumar, Shekhar Michael Dethe, J Joshua Allan, Amit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157655/phytosterols-as-a-natural-anticancer-agent-current-status-and-future-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Naiyer Shahzad, Wajahatullah Khan, Shadab Md, Asgar Ali, Sundeep Singh Saluja, Sadhana Sharma, Faisal A Al-Allaf, Zainularifeen Abduljaleel, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Ali Fathi Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed Abdelaziz Afify, Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi
Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130879/variations-in-dietary-intake-and-plasma-concentrations-of-plant-sterols-across-plant-based-diets-among-north-american-adults
#17
Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Dieter Lütjohann, Rawiwan Sirirat, Andrew Mashchak, Gary E Fraser, Ella Haddad
SCOPE: Phytosterols are bioactive compounds in plants with similar cholesterol-lowering properties as vegetarian diets. However, information on phytosterol intake and plasma plant sterols among vegetarians is sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined dietary intake and plasma concentration of plant sterols and cholesterol across five dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 Calibration Sub-study (n = 861, 66% females, average age 61 years). To measure intake and plasma concentrations of these compounds, we used 24-h dietary recalls and gas-liquid chromatography-flame ionization detection, respectively...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117688/lipidomic-and-antioxidant-response-to-grape-seed-corn-and-coconut-oils-in-healthy-wistar-rats
#18
Abraham Wall-Medrano, Laura A de la Rosa, Alma A Vázquez-Flores, Gilberto Mercado-Mercado, Rogelio González-Arellanes, José A López-Díaz, Aarón F González-Córdova, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba, Francisco J Molina-Corral
Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats...
January 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117400/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-effect-of-phytosterols-enriched-low-fat-milk-on-lipid-profile-in-chinese
#19
Ching-Lung Cheung, Daniel Ka-Chun Ho, Chor-Wing Sing, Man-Fung Tsoi, Vincent Ka-Fai Cheng, Grace Koon-Yee Lee, Yuk-Nam Ho, Bernard M Y Cheung
Phytosterols found naturally in plants are known to reduce cholesterol absorption in the gut. The traditional southern Chinese diet typically contains many vegetables and not much meat, and there is high prevalence of lactose intolerance in Chinese; we therefore aimed to test if phytosterols-enriched milk is effective in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol in Chinese. Two hundred and twenty-one participants (41 men and 180 women; age 24-79) without cholesterol-lowering drugs or diabetes mellitus were randomized to daily intake of phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk which contained 1...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091647/phytosterol-nutritional-supplement-improves-pregnancy-and-neonatal-complications-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-clinical-study
#20
Fang Gao, Guangya Wang, Linxia Wang, Ningning Guo
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly serious health problem among pregnant women. Phytosterol-enriched spreads are known to reduce total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but little is known about their effects on GDM. We aimed to examine the effect of the daily consumption of phytosterol-enriched spreads on both the maternal and neonatal outcomes of GDM patients. GDM patients during the third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled and assigned randomly to consume a regular spread or phytosterol-enriched spread daily until the end of their pregnancy...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
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