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Phytosterol and cholesterol

Gabriela Calegario, Jacob Pollier, Philipp Arendt, Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Cristiane Thompson, Angélica Ribeiro Soares, Renato Crespo Pereira, Alain Goossens, Fabiano L Thompson
The red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea belongs to the Rhodophyta, a phylum of eukaryotic algae that is widely distributed across the oceans and that constitute an important source of bioactive specialized metabolites. Laurencia species have been studied since 1950 and were found to contain a plethora of specialized metabolites, mainly halogenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes that possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and ecological activities. The first committed step in the biosynthesis of triterpenes is the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene, an enzymatic reaction carried out by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), giving rise to a broad range of different compounds, such as the sterol precursors cycloartenol and lanosterol, or triterpene precursors such as cucurbitadienol and β-amyrin...
2016: PloS One
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
November 8, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Beatriz Galán, Iria Uhía, Esther García-Fernández, Igor Martínez, Esther Bahíllo, Juan L de la Fuente, José L Barredo, Lorena Fernández-Cabezón, José L García
A number of pharmaceutical steroid synthons are currently produced through the microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols as an alternative to multi-step chemical synthesis. Industrially, these synthons have been usually produced through fermentative processes using environmental isolated microorganisms or their conventional mutants. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 is a model organism for tuberculosis studies which uses cholesterol as the sole carbon and energy source for growth, as other mycobacterial strains...
November 2, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Rong Shuang, Xu Rui, Li Wenfang
As the aging of the world's population is becoming increasingly serious, dementia-related diseases have become a hot topic in public health research. In recent years, human epidemiological studies have focused on lipid metabolism disorders and dementia. The efficacy of phytosterol intake as a cholesterol-lowering agent has been demonstrated. Phytosterols directly serve as ligands of the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of dementia...
September 23, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Sara Savini, Alessio Correani, Daniele Pupillo, Rita D'Ascenzo, Chiara Biagetti, Adriana Pompilio, Manuela Simonato, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marina Taus, Albano Nicolai, Virgilio Paolo Carnielli
Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN)...
September 24, 2016: Lipids
Beata Olas
Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) offers many health benefits. It has significant cardioprotective activity and exerts many positive healing effects on the cardiovascular system, including inhibiting blood platelet activation (especially platelet aggregation), lowering cholesterol concentration and blood pressure, and providing antioxidant activity. In addition, sea buckthorn has antibacterial and antiviral properties. The leaves and fruits of the plant, and its oils, are sources of many bioactive substances including vitamins (A, C and E), unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and phytosterols, which bestow positive effects on the cardiovascular system...
September 9, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara, M A Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Phytosterols are a kind of plant metabolite belonging to the triterpene family. These compounds are essential biomolecules for human health, and so they must be taken from foods. β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol are the main phytosterols found in plants. Phytosterols have beneficial effects on human health since they are able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and have antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. However, there are many difficulties in obtaining them, since the levels of these compounds produced from plant raw materials are low and their chemical synthesis is not economically profitable for commercial exploitation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Doyun Kim, Jung Bae Park, Woong-Kee Choi, Seung Jun Lee, Ilho Lim, Soo Kyung Bae
A liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol in rat plasma. Cholesterol-d6 was used as an internal standard. To avoid interference of the three phytosterols in rat plasma and minimize matrix effects, a small volume (10 μL) of 4% bovine serum albumin was used as a surrogate matrix for making calibrators and quality control samples...
November 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Anneleen I Decloedt, Anita Van Landschoot, Lynn Vanhaecke
Phytosterols are ubiquitous in plants, as they play an important role in cell membrane stability and as signal transducers. Over the last few decades, scientific interest in phytosterols has significantly increased. Most of the interest has focused on the cholesterol-lowering properties of phytosterols, but they may also interfere with endogenous steroid hormone synthesis. Despite this dual interest in phytosterols, accurate and fully validated methods for the quantification of phytosterols in food and feed samples are scarce...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Magdalena Brzeska, Krystyna Szymczyk, Arkadiusz Szterk
For years food consumers have been warned that a cholesterol-rich diet may result in atherosclerosis. It is also well known that consumption of large amounts of phytosterols decreases concentration of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in blood (LDLs are regarded a key risk factor in development of cardiovascular diseases). However, no scientific evidence has unambiguously proved any direct connection between amount of consumed cholesterol and LDL level in blood. On the other hand, concentration of cholesterol oxidation products, oxysterols, seems to be indeed relevant; for example, they significantly impact appearance of atherosclerotic lesions (plaques)...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Qin Li, Baoheng Xing
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become a serious health risk among pregnant women throughout the world. Phytosterol-enriched margarines are capable of lowering total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but little is known about its effects on GDM. We aimed to examine the effects of daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread on insulin resistance and lipid profile in pregnant GDM women. METHODS: Pregnant women suffering from GDM in their second trimester were recruited and randomly assigned to consume a margarine spread either with or without phytosterols daily for 16 weeks...
August 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Jessica J A Ferguson, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Manohar L Garg
The most common form of phytosterol (PS) fortified foods are fat spreads and dairy products. The predominant fats used are soybean/sunflower (SS) or rapeseed/canola (RC) oils and animal fat (D) in dairy products. This review aimed to investigate whether the carrier fat is a determinant of the hypocholesterolaemic effects of PS fortified foods. Databases were searched using relevant keywords and published RCTs from 1990 investigating the effects of dietary PS intervention (≥1.5g per day) on total cholesterol and LDL-C were included...
August 4, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Shan Dong, Ran Zhang, Ya-Cheng Ji, Jia-Yin Hao, Wei-Wei Ma, Xu-Dong Chen, Rong Xiao, Huan-Ling Yu
Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)...
August 2016: Nutrition Research
Soledad Chamorro, Juan P Vergara, Mayra Jarpa, Victor Hernandez, Jose Becerra, Gladys Vidal
Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluents treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with steroidal metabolite detection. The MBBR was operated for 145 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 2 days. Stigmasterol and steroidal metabolites were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector during MBBR operation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Jinsoo Yi, Tine A Knudsen, Anne-Louise Nielsen, Lars Duelund, Morten Christensen, Pablo Hervella, David Needham, Ole G Mouritsen
We have quantified the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol transport by pine-derived phytosterols using an HT29-MTX intestine cell model that forms a mucus layer similar to that in the intestine. An artificial intestinal fluid consisting of digested fat, bile salt, cholesterol, and phytosterols was formulated in order to mimic the conditions in the intestine. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the positive control, i.e., 0.1mM of cholesterol solubilized in the artificial intestine fluid, was found to be 0...
June 29, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Mehran Shaghaghi, Mei-Ting Chen, Ya-Wei Hsueh, Martin J Zuckermann, Jenifer L Thewalt
The effect of a series of phytosterols on lipid chain ordering in 1-palmitoyl((2)H31)-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC-d31) multibilayer vesicles was examined by (2)H NMR spectroscopy at 25 °C. These results, along with existing data for other sterols, indicate that the ordering power of sterols in POPC-d31 depends on subtle aspects of sterol structure. Cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), campesterol, β-sitosterol, ergosterol, brassicasterol, and stigmasterol all increase the lipid chain order as sterol concentration is increased...
August 2, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ioanna Andreadou, Sofia Mitakou, Sotirios Paraschos, Panagiotis Efentakis, Prokopios Magiatis, Loukas Kaklamanis, Maria Halabalaki, Leandros Skaltsounis, Efstathios K Iliodromitis
HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo the potential anti-ischemic and antiatheromatic activity of Chios Mastic gum, the resin of the trunk and branches of "Pistacia lentiscus var. chia", used since antiquity in traditional Greek medicine. The main compounds of mastic are triterpenes, possessing phytosterol-like structures. This led to the hypothesis that mastic and particularly its neutral fraction, enriched in phytosterol-like compounds, possess antiatheromatic activities...
October 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
J Pega, S Rizzo, C D Pérez, L Rossetti, G Díaz, S M Ruzal, M Nanni, A M Descalzo
The quality of functional food products designed for the prevention of degenerative diseases can be affected by the incorporation of bioactive compounds. In many types of cheese, the performance of starter microorganisms is critical for optimal elaboration and for providing potential probiotic benefits. Phytosterols are plant lipophilic triterpenes that have been used for the design of functional dairy products because of their ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in humans. However, their effect on the starter culture behavior during cheesemaking has not yet been studied...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Rosana M Alberici, Gabriel D Fernandes, Andréia M Porcari, Marcos N Eberlin, Daniel Barrera-Arellano, Facundo M Fernández
Plant-derived sterols, often referred to as phytosterols, are important constituents of plant membranes where they assist in maintaining phospholipid bilayer stability. Consumption of phytosterols has been suggested to positively affect human health by reducing cholesterol levels in blood via inhibition of its absorption in the small intestine, thus protecting against heart attack and stroke. Sterols are challenging analytes for mass spectrometry, since their low polarity makes them difficult to ionize by both electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), typically requiring derivatization steps to overcome their low ionization efficiencies...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Fuming Yang, Samson A Oyeyinka, Ying Ma
Phytosterols are important bioactive compounds which have several health benefits including reduction of serum cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The most widely used method in the synthesis of its ester analogous form is the use of catalysts and solvents. These methods have been found to present some safety and health concern. In this paper, an alternative method of synthesizing phytosterol ester from soybean sterol and acetic anhydride was investigated. Process parameters such as mole ratio, temperature and time were optimized...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
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