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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930139/critical-analysis-on-characterization-systemic-effect-and-therapeutic-potential-of-beta-sitosterol-a-plant-derived-orphan-phytosterol
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Selim Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasnuva Sharmin, Mohammed Monzur Morshed
Beta-sitosterol (BS) is a phytosterol, widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and known to be involved in the stabilization of cell membranes. To compile the sources, physical and chemical properties, spectral and chromatographic analytical methods, synthesis, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potentials, toxicity, drug delivery and finally, to suggest future research with BS, classical as well as on-line literature were studied. Classical literature includes classical books on ethnomedicine and phytochemistry, and the electronic search included Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others...
November 15, 2016: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911532/bioactive-phytochemicals-in-barley
#2
REVIEW
Emmanuel Idehen, Yao Tang, Shengmin Sang
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888461/a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-enriched-in-blue-mussels-protects-against-systemic-inflammation-metabolic-dysregulation-and-weight-gain-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Hitesh B Vaidya, Surendiran Gangadaran, Sukhinder K Cheema
High fat-high sucrose (HF-HS) diet, known as the western diet, has been shown to induce the onset of obesity via increasing metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction. Hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are also the primary observations of obesogenic diet induced obesity. We have previously reported anti-adipogenic and insulin sensitizing effects of blue mussels (BM) using 3T3-L1 cells. BM is a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols and other micronutrients that has been shown to elicit benefits under obese conditions using in-vitro cell culture models...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881416/improved-fruit-%C3%AE-tocopherol-carotenoid-squalene-and-phytosterol-content-through-manipulation-of-brassica-juncea-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase1-in-transgenic-tomato
#4
Pan Liao, Xinjian Chen, Mingfu Wang, Thomas J Bach, Mee-Len Chye
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS) in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway generates isoprenoids including phytosterols. Dietary phytosterols are important because they can lower blood cholesterol levels. Previously, the overexpression of Brassica juncea wild-type (wt) and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis and increased sterol content. Recombinant S359A had earlier displayed a 10-fold higher in vitro enzyme activity. Furthermore, tobacco HMGS-overexpressors (OEs) exhibited improved sterol content, plant growth and seed yield...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857206/development-and-validation-of-a-simple-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-analytical-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-phytosterols-cholesterol-and-squalene-in-parenteral-lipid-emulsions
#5
Ana Novak, Mercè Gutiérrez-Zamora, Lluís Domenech, Josep M Suñé-Negre, Montserrat Miñarro, Encarna García-Montoya, Josep M Llop, Josep R Ticó, Pilar Pérez-Lozano
A simple analytical method for simultaneous determination of phytosterols, cholesterol, and squalene in lipid emulsions was developed due to increased interest in their clinical effects. Method development was based on commonly used stationary (C18 , C8 and phenyl) and mobile phases (mixtures of acetonitrile, methanol, and water) under isocratic conditions. Differences in stationary phases resulted in peak overlapping or coelution of different peaks. The best separation of all analyzed compounds was achieved on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (150 x 4...
August 30, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842702/stigmasterol-prevents-glucolipotoxicity-induced-defects-in-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#6
Meliza G Ward, Ge Li, Valéria C Barbosa-Lorenzi, Mingming Hao
Type 2 diabetes results from defects in both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Elevated cholesterol content within pancreatic β-cells has been shown to reduce β-cell function and increase β-cell apoptosis. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia contribute to glucolipotoxicity that leads to type 2 diabetes. Here we examined the capacity of glucolipotoxicity to induce free cholesterol accumulation in human pancreatic islets and the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. Glucolipotoxicity treatment increased free cholesterol in β-cells, which was accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased insulin secretion...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829376/the-potential-of-%C3%AE-spinasterol-to-mimic-the-membrane-properties-of-natural-cholesterol
#7
Ivan Haralampiev, Holger A Scheidt, Daniel Huster, Peter Müller
Sterols play a unique role for the structural and dynamical organization of membranes. The current study reports data on the membrane properties of the phytosterol (3β,5α,22E)-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-β-ol (α-spinasterol), which represents an important component of argan oil and have not been investigated so far in molecular detail. In particular, the impact of α-spinasterol on the structure and organization of lipid membranes was investigated and compared with those of cholesterol. Various membrane parameters such as the molecular packing of the phospholipid fatty acyl chains, the membrane permeability toward polar molecules, and the formation of lateral membrane domains were studied...
August 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828630/lanosterol-synthase-like-is-involved-with-differential-accumulation-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-in-potato
#8
Akhilesh Kumar, Edna Fogelman, Mira Weissberg, Zachariah Tanami, Richard E Veilleux, Idit Ginzberg
Phytosterol homeostasis may be maintained in leaves through diversion of intermediates into glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, whereas in tuber flesh, excess intermediates are catalyzed by tuber-specific StLAS - like , resulting in low tuber glycoalkaloids. Lanosterol synthase (LAS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are phylogenetically related enzymes. Cycloartenol is the accepted precursor leading to cholesterol and phytosterols, and in potato, to steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) biosynthesis. LAS was also shown to synthesize some plant sterols, albeit at trace amounts, questioning its role in sterol homeostasis...
August 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800398/a-13-week-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-and-lifestyle-modification-program-combining-low-glycemic-load-protein-shakes-and-targeted-nutraceuticals-improved-weight-loss-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-over-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-alone
#9
Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, John G Babish, Joseph J Lamb, Sarah Eliason, Holly Brabazon, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Matthew L Tripp
An open label, randomized, exploratory study comprising 44 healthy, overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation including soy, pea and whey proteins, phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil and berberine over 13-weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline, weeks 9 and 13. For DIET and PROG compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764091/development-of-functional-yogurt-containing-free-and-encapsulated-echium-oil-phytosterol-and-sinapic-acid
#10
Talita A Comunian, Isabela Elias Chaves, Marcelo Thomazini, Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes, Roselayne Ferro-Furtado, Inar Alves de Castro, Carmen S Favaro-Trindade
The consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and phytosterol promotes the reduction of cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. However, such compounds are susceptible to oxidation, which hampers their application. The objective of this work was to coencapsulate echium oil, phytosterols and sinapic acid (crosslinker/antioxidant), and incorporate the obtained microcapsules into yogurt. The microcapsules were evaluated for particle size, accelerated oxidation by Rancimat, and simulation of gastric/intestinal release...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745211/the-lipid-lowering-effects-and-associated-mechanisms-of-dietary-phytosterol-supplementation
#11
Jerad H Dumolt, Todd C Rideout
Phytosterols (PS) are plant-based structural analogous of mammalian cholesterol that have been shown to lower blood cholesterol concentrations by ~10%, although inter-individual response to PS supplementation due to subject-specific metabolic and genetic factors is evident. Recent work further suggests that PS may act as effective triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents with maximal TG reductions observed in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Although PS have been demonstrated to interfere with cholesterol and perhaps TG absorption within the intestine, they also have the capacity to modulate the expression of lipid regulatory genes through liver X receptor (LXR) activation...
July 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727814/low-pcsk9-levels-are-correlated-with-mortality-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#12
Valentin Schlegel, Theresa Treuner-Kaueroff, Daniel Seehofer, Thomas Berg, Susen Becker, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Thorsten Kaiser
INTRODUCTION: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in the cholesterol metabolism and is synthesized by the liver. It interacts with the LDL-receptor to promote its degradation. The model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is a well-established tool to estimate the risk of mortality in patients with end-stage chronic liver disease. The study aims to assess the associations between PCSK9, hypocholesterinemia, liver synthesis, cholestasis, MELD score and mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710635/steroid-11-alpha-hydroxylation-by-the-fungi-aspergillus-nidulans-and-aspergillus-ochraceus
#13
Lidia Ortega-de Los Ríos, José M Luengo, José M Fernández-Cañón
Steroids are a group of natural compounds derived from the cyclopentane-perhydro-phenantrene nucleus that have a great interest for the pharmaceutical industries as a consequence of their physiological effects. Among their functions are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or contraceptive activities. Nowadays, microbial transformation of steroid precursors is winning relevance opposite to the chemical synthesis, since it allows for decreasing time, expenses, and environmental pollution. Pharmaceutical industry tends to use cholesterol and phytosterols as starting materials due to their low cost...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710634/obtaining-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-17-dione-from-natural-sterols
#14
Dmitry Dovbnya, Sergey Khomutov, Vyacheslav Kollerov, Marina V Donova
Two-step one-pot microbial transformation enables obtaining of valuable steroids that are difficult to produce chemically. Here we describe a method for obtaining 11α-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (11α-HAD) from cheap and available natural sterols (phytosterols or cholesterol).11α-HAD is a primary adrenal steroid in mammals and also a key precursor in the syntheses of halogenated corticoids. Conventional routes for its obtaining are based on chemical synthesis, or microbial hydroxylation of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710626/stigmasterol-removal-by-an-aerobic-treatment-system
#15
Soledad Chamorro, Claudia Xavier, Víctor Hernández, José Becerra, Gladys Vidal
Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. Furthermore, stigmasterol contained in Kraft mill effluent shows high toxicity (25-fold that of β-sitosterol) to aquatic organisms such as Daphnia magna (24-48 h). However, the operation of the aerobic treatment and biomass adaptation could be affecting their removal. The performances of activated sludge (AS), aerated lagoon (AL), and moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) are compared for removing stigmasterol contained in Kraft mill effluent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702423/food-ingredients-that-inhibit-cholesterol-absorption
#16
REVIEW
Elliot D Jesch, Timothy P Carr
Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687937/short-term-effects-of-a-combined-nutraceutical-on-lipid-level-fatty-liver-biomarkers-hemodynamic-parameters-and-estimated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Marilisa Bove, Maddalena Veronesi, Manfredi Rizzo, Marina Giovannini, Claudio Borghi
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing interest in nutraceuticals improving cardiovascular risk factor levels and related organ damage. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial aims to compare the effect of a combined nutraceutical containing red yeast rice (10 mg), phytosterols (800 mg), and L-tyrosol (5 mg) on lipid profile, blood pressure, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in a group of 60 patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia resistant to Mediterranean diet...
July 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673668/impact-of-thermooxidation-of-phytosteryl-and-phytostanyl-fatty-acid-esters-on-cholesterol-micellarization-in-vitro
#18
Birgit Scholz, Renate Weiherer, Karl-Heinz Engel
The effects of thermooxidation of a phytosteryl/-stanyl and a phytostanyl fatty acid ester mixture on cholesterol micellarization were investigated using an in vitro digestion model simulating enzymatic hydrolysis by cholesterol esterase and subsequent competition of the liberated phytosterols/-stanols with cholesterol for incorporation into mixed micelles. As a first step, relationships between different doses of the ester mixtures and the resulting micellarized cholesterol were established. Subsequent subjection of the thermooxidized ester mixtures to the in vitro digestion model resulted in three principal observations: (i) thermal treatment of the ester mixtures led to substantial decreases of the intact esters, (ii) in vitro digestion of cholesterol in the presence of the thermooxidized ester mixtures resulted in significant increases of cholesterol micellarization, and (iii) the extents of the observed effects on cholesterol micellarization were strongly associated to the remaining contents of intact esters...
June 30, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#19
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608804/phytosterols-and-omega-3-supplementation-exert-novel-regulatory-effects-on-metabolic-and-inflammatory-pathways-a-proteomic-study
#20
Carmen Lambert, Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Joan Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M Antonijoan, Antonio Perez, Lina Badimon
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. In addition to drug treatment, nutritional interventions or supplementations are becoming a health strategy for CVD prevention. Phytosterols (PhyS) are natural components that have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels; while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids, have shown to reduce triglyceride levels. Here we aimed to investigate whether the proteins in the main lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL)) as well as proteins in the lipid free plasma fraction (LPDP) were regulated by the intake of PhyS-milk or ω3-milk, in overweight healthy volunteers by a proteomic based systems biology approach...
June 13, 2017: Nutrients
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