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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336623/the-effect-of-phytosterol-rich-fraction-from-palm-fatty-acid-distillate-on-blood-serum-lipid-profile-of-dyslipidemia-rats
#1
Kgs Ahmadi, Huda Oktafa, Teti Estiasih
Phytosterol-rich fraction (PRF) obtained from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was investigated for its effect on blood serum lipid profile of dyslipidemia rats. Dyslipidemia was induced by force feeding cholesterol to five groups of rats; one group was a control or normal group. Cholesterol force-fed groups were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg PRF/kg/day for 4 weeks. All groups of rats were fed standard diet. A normal group was fed standard diet without PRF treatment and cholesterol force feeding...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329846/nutritionally-enriched-1-3-diacylglycerol-rich-oil-low-calorie-fat-with-hypolipidemic-effects-in-rats
#2
B L A Prabhavathi Devi, K N Gangadhar, R B N Prasad, D Sugasini, Y Poorna Chandra Rao, B R Lokesh
An enzymatic process was developed for the preparation of a nutritionally enriched 1,3-diacylglycerol(DAG)-rich oil from a blend of refined sunflower and rice bran oils. The process involves hydrolysis of vegetable oil blend using Candida cylindracea followed by esterification with glycerol using Lipozyme RM1M. The resultant DAG-rich oil contains 84% of DAG (66% of 1,3-DAG, 18% of 1,2-DAG) and 16% of triacylglycerol (TAG) along with micro nutrients like γ-oryzanol, tocotrienols, tocopherols and phytosterols...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291429/curcumin-potentiates-cholesterol-lowering-effects-of-phytosterols-in-hypercholesterolaemic-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Jessica J A Ferguson, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND: Dietary phytosterols (PS) are well-known hypocholesterolaemic agents. Curcumin elicits hypolipidaemic and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical studies, however, consistent findings in humans are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Concurrent PS and curcumin supplementation may exhibit enhanced hypocholesterolaemic and anti-inflammatory effects to optimise cardio-protection. The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of dietary intervention with PS with or without curcumin on blood lipids (primary outcome) in hypercholesterolaemic individuals...
December 29, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278384/marine-cryptophytes-are-great-sources-of-epa-and-dha
#4
Elina Peltomaa, Matthew D Johnson, Sami J Taipale
Microalgae have the ability to synthetize many compounds, some of which have been recognized as a source of functional ingredients for nutraceuticals with positive health effects. One well-known example is the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential for human nutrition. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two most important long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) PUFAs involved in human physiology, and both industries are almost exclusively based on microalgae. In addition, algae produce phytosterols that reduce serum cholesterol...
December 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206136/the-effects-of-phytosterols-extracted-from-diascorea-alata-on-the-antioxidant-activity-plasma-lipids-and-hematological-profiles-in-taiwanese-menopausal-women
#5
Chao-Chin Hsu, Hsin-Chih Kuo, Ko-En Huang
The efficacy of phytosterols extracted from Diascorea alata on antioxidant activities, plasma lipids and hematological profiles was assessed in postmenopausal women. Gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry was employed to determine the steroid content of Taiwanese yam (Diascorea alata cv. Tainung No. 2). A two-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigation on 50 postmenopausal women randomly assigned to two groups treated for 12 months with placebo or two sachets daily of Diascorea extracts containing 12 mg/dose was carried out...
December 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177335/molecular-actions-of-hypocholesterolaemic-compounds-from-edible-mushrooms
#6
REVIEW
Alicia Gil-Ramírez, Diego Morales, Cristina Soler-Rivas
Cholesterol levels are strictly regulated to maintain its homeostasis; therefore, if it is not absorbed with the diet, the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is enhanced and vice versa. Nowadays, the commonly prescribed therapeutic treatments for hypocholesterolemic patients are targeted toward the reduction of both cholesterol intestinal absorption and/or its endogenous biosynthesis. But, when hypercholesterolemia is still moderate the consumption of food products with cholesterol-lowering capacities is more desirable than using drugs...
November 27, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111079/phytosterol-enriched-milk-lowers-ldl-cholesterol-levels-in-brazilian-children-and-adolescents-double-blind-cross-over-trial
#7
S A Ribas, R Sichieri, A S B Moreira, D O Souza, C T F Cabral, D T Gianinni, D B Cunha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite evidence of the lipid-lowering effect of plant sterols among adults with hypercholesterolemia, data regarding phytosterol use in children are limited. In this paper, we examined the effects of daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched milk compound on the lipid profiles of Brazilian children and adolescents with dyslipidemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial. Twenty eight dyslipidemics outpatients (aged 6-9 years) from an University Hospital were randomly allocated to control or intervention group...
October 2, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107136/maternal-hypercholesterolemia-enhances-oxysterol-concentration-in-mothers-and-newly-weaned-offspring-but-is-attenuated-by-maternal-phytosterol-supplementation
#8
Jerad H Dumolt, Sandhya K Radhakrishnan, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Khuong Le, Mulchand S Patel, Richard W Browne, Todd C Rideout
In hypercholesterolemic pregnancies, the maternal environment is characterized by excessive levels of atherogenic lipids that may increase cardiovascular disease risk in mothers and their offspring. We examined the influence of maternal hypercholesterolemia and phytosterol (PS) intervention on the concentration and metabolism of oxysterols, bioactive oxygenated cholesterol derivatives that regulate arterial health and lesion progression, in mothers and their newly weaned offspring. Twenty-one female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to three different diets throughout gestation and lactation: (1) chow, (2) high cholesterol (CH; 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107013/changes-in-fenugreek-transcriptome-induced-by-methyl-jasmonate-and-steroid-precursors-revealed-by-rna-seq
#9
Joanna Ciura, Magdalena Szeliga, Michalina Grzesik, Mirosław Tyrka
Changes in fenugreek transcriptome related to enhanced production of steroids were induced by methyl jasmonate, cholesterol and squalene, and recorded using RNA-seq. A total of 112,850 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembling of next generation sequencing data, and used for functional annotations. In steroidal saponins pathway, transcripts involved in mevalonate, terpenoid backbone and plant sterol synthesis were annotated. Overexpression of several transcripts from phytosterol biosynthesis pathway was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR...
October 26, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102321/the-maternal-fetal-gradient-of-free-and-esterified-phytosterols-at-the-time-of-delivery-in-humans
#10
Alessio Correani, Silvia Visentin, Erich Cosmi, Eleonora Ponchia, Sara D'Aronco, Manuela Simonato, Luca Vedovelli, Paola Cogo, Virgilio P Carnielli
BACKGROUND: High dietary intakes of phytosterols (Phyto), such as those consumed by vegans and vegetarians, are not recommended for cholesterol-lowering in pregnant women (PW) because the safety of their use during pregnancy has not been fully established [1]. Information on Phyto in pregnancy is very limited. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the maternal-fetal gradient of free and esterified Phyto at the time of delivery in humans. DESIGN: PW who had a term delivery at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University Hospital of Padua (Padua, Italy), between November 2016 and March 2017, participated in the study...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065513/argan-oil-mediated-attenuation-of-organelle-dysfunction-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-induced-by-7-ketocholesterol-in-murine-oligodendrocytes-158n
#11
Asmaa Badreddine, Amira Zarrouk, El Mostafa Karym, Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Wiem Meddeb, Randa Sghaier, Maryem Bezine, Anne Vejux, Lucy Martine, Stéphane Grégoire, Lionel Bretillon, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Philippe Durand, Michel Prost, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Boubker Nasser, Gérard Lizard
Argan oil is widely used in Morocco in traditional medicine. Its ability to treat cardiovascular diseases is well-established. However, nothing is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with increased oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) resulting from cholesterol auto-oxidation. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, it is important to identify compounds able to impair its harmful effects...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058915/mass-spectrometric-approaches-for-the-analysis-of-phytosterols-in-biological-samples
#12
George Gachumi, Anas El-Aneed
Plant sterols (phytosterols) are important structural components of plant cellular membranes, and they play a major role during development and metabolism. They have health-associated benefits, especially in lowering blood cholesterol levels. Because of their many health claims, there is a growing interest in their analysis. Although various analytical strategies have been employed in analyzing phytosterols, chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (MS) is superior due to its sensitivity. Furthermore, specificity and selectivity are enhanced by utilizing tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034917/%C3%AE-sitosterol-and-stigmasterol-ameliorate-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-western-style-diet
#13
Simin Feng, Zhuqing Dai, Anna Liu, Hong Wang, Jayson Chen, Zisheng Luo, Chung S Yang
Phytosterols, the plant analogues of cholesterol, widely occur in the human diet. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol (both with purities ≥95%) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high fat Western-style diet. Mice treated with DSS developed severe mucosal colitis, with a marked distortion and crypt loss of colonic surface epithelium. Both β-sitosterol and stigmasterol significantly inhibited colon shortening, lowered fecal hemoglobin content, and reduced the severity of colitis in the middle and distal colon (p < 0...
October 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021813/effect-of-a-short-term-dietary-supplementation-with-phytosterols-red-yeast-rice-or-both-on-lipid-pattern-in-moderately-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-a-three-arm-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Martina Rosticci, Angelo Parini, Marina Giovannini, Maddalena Veronesi, Sergio D'Addato, Claudio Borghi
BACKGROUND: Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect on lipid profile of phytosterols, red yeast rice and their association. METHODS: We performed a three parallel arms, double blind, clinical trial randomizing 90 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects to treatment with phytosterols 800 mg (group 1), red yeast rice standardized to contain 5 mg monacolins from Monascus purpureus (group 2), or both combined nutraceuticals (group 3)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993213/consumer-purchase-behaviour-of-foods-with-added-phytosterols-in-six-european-countries-data-from-a-post-launch-monitoring-survey
#15
Rouyanne T Ras, Elke A Trautwein
A variety of foods with added phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols, PS) known to lower elevated blood cholesterol is available on the European market. This paper reports findings from a 2015 post-launch monitoring survey on consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added PS in UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium and Greece. Data from 80,825 households were included. Households were divided into categories depending on number of purchases, household size, age of primary shopper and presence of children <5 years...
October 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982667/endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-is-negatively-associated-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-humans
#16
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Victor G Dávila-Román, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis...
December 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970778/anti-diabetic-activity-of-stigmasterol-from-soybean-oil-by-targeting-the-glut4-glucose-transporter
#17
Jialin Wang, Mi Huang, Jie Yang, Xinhua Ma, Sijian Zheng, Shihao Deng, Yun Huang, Xinzhou Yang, Ping Zhao
The present study investigated the anti-diabetic activity and potential mechanism of stigmasterol (SMR), which is a kind of phytosterols derived from the edible soybean oil in vitro and in vivo. SMR displayed a mild GLUT4 translocation activity by 1.44-fold in L6 cells. L6 cells were treated with different concentration of SMR, showing significant effects on the enhancing glucose uptake. SMR administrated orally to the KK-Ay mice significantly alleviated their insulin resistance and oral glucose tolerance with reducing fasting blood-glucose levels and blood lipid indexes such as triglyceride and cholesterol...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954389/diosgenin-a-phytosterol-substitute-for-cholesterol-prolongs-the-lifespan-and-mitigates-glucose-toxicity-via-daf-16-foxo-and-gst-4-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Govindan Shanmugam, Amirthalingam Mohankumar, Duraisamy Kalaiselvi, Sundararaj Nivitha, Easwaran Murugesh, Piramanayagam Shanmughavel, Palanisamy Sundararaj
Caenorhabditis elegans is a sterol auxotroph requires minute amount of exogenous sterol for their growth and development. To culture the C. elegans, cholesterol was given as sterol molecule to maintain the optimum survival of worms. Diosgenin (DG), a plant derived steroidal saponin, structurally similar to cholesterol has been used as a precursor for the synthesis of steroidal hormones. In this study, worms were cultured with cholesterol (Cho(+)) and cholesterol-free (Cho(-)) medium with DG (5, 10 and 50μg/mL) at 20°C...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930139/critical-analysis-on-characterization-systemic-effect-and-therapeutic-potential-of-beta-sitosterol-a-plant-derived-orphan-phytosterol
#19
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Selim Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasnuva Sharmin, Mohammed Monzur Morshed
Beta-sitosterol (BS) is a phytosterol, widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and known to be involved in the stabilization of cell membranes. To compile the sources, physical and chemical properties, spectral and chromatographic analytical methods, synthesis, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potentials, toxicity, drug delivery and finally, to suggest future research with BS, classical as well as on-line literature were studied. Classical literature includes classical books on ethnomedicine and phytochemistry, and the electronic search included Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others...
November 15, 2016: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911532/bioactive-phytochemicals-in-barley
#20
REVIEW
Emmanuel Idehen, Yao Tang, Shengmin Sang
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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