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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#1
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608804/phytosterols-and-omega-3-supplementation-exert-novel-regulatory-effects-on-metabolic-and-inflammatory-pathways-a-proteomic-study
#2
Carmen Lambert Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Joan Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M Antonijoan, Antonio Perez, Lina Badimon
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. In addition to drug treatment, nutritional interventions or supplementations are becoming a health strategy for CVD prevention. Phytosterols (PhyS) are natural components that have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels; while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids, have shown to reduce triglyceride levels. Here we aimed to investigate whether the proteins in the main lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL)) as well as proteins in the lipid free plasma fraction (LPDP) were regulated by the intake of PhyS-milk or ω3-milk, in overweight healthy volunteers by a proteomic based systems biology approach...
June 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604681/corrigendum-plant-cholesterol-biosynthetic-pathway-overlaps-with-phytosterol-metabolism
#3
Prashant D Sonawane, Jacob Pollier, Sayantan Panda, Jedrzej Szymanski, Hassan Massalha, Meital Yona, Tamar Unger, Sergey Malitsky, Philipp Arendt, Laurens Pauwels, Efrat Almekias-Siegl, Ilana Rogachev, Sagit Meir, Pablo D Cárdenas, Athar Masri, Marina Petrikov, Hubert Schaller, Arthur A Schaffer, Avinash Kamble, Ashok P Giri, Alain Goossens, Asaph Aharoni
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2016.205.
June 12, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578069/model-studies-on-the-formation-of-volatile-compounds-generated-by-a-thermal-treatment-of-steryl-esters-with-different-fatty-acid-moieties
#4
Marianna Raczyk, Dominik Kmiecik, Peter Schieberle, Roman Przybylski, Henryk Jeleń, Magdalena Rudzińska
The consumption of plant sterols is reported to have a beneficial effects on human health, i.e. phytosterols are known for their cholesterol-lowering properties. Whereas, they are prone to oxidation and currently there is ongoing worldwide research aimed at the biological effect of phytosterol oxides. In this study volatile compounds formed during thermal degradation of stigmasteryl esters were identified. The research was conducted using standards of stigmasterol, fatty acids and stigmasteryl esters as well as fat enriched with stigmasteryl esters which were thermally treated at 60°C and 180°C for 12h...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553226/%C3%AE-sitosterol-reduces-the-expression-of-chemotactic-cytokine-genes-in-cystic-fibrosis-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#5
Ilaria Lampronti, Maria C Dechecchi, Alessandro Rimessi, Valentino Bezzerri, Elena Nicolis, Alessandra Guerrini, Massimo Tacchini, Anna Tamanini, Silvia Munari, Elisabetta D'Aversa, Alessandra Santangelo, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianni Sacchetti, Paolo Pinton, Roberto Gambari, Maddalena Agostini, Giulio Cabrini
Extracts from Nigella arvensis L. seeds, which are widely used as anti-inflammatory remedies in traditional medicine of Northern Africa, were able to inhibit the expression of the pro-inflammatory neutrophil chemokine Interleukin (IL)-8 in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells exposed to the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical composition of the extracts led to the identification of three major components, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol, which are the most abundant phytosterols, cholesterol-like molecules, usually found in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447386/unravelling-the-pleiotropic-role-of-the-mceg-atpase-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#6
Julia García-Fernández, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Beatriz Galán, Christopher M Sassetti, José L García
The Mce systems are complex ABC transporters that are encoded by different numbers of homologous operons in Actinobacteria. While the four Mce systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are all energized by a single ATPase, MceG, each system appears to import different fatty acids or sterols. To explore if this behaviour can be extended to saprophytic mycobacteria, whose more complex genomes encode more Mce systems, we have identified and characterized the MceG orthologue of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This bacterium relies on MceG to energize its six Mce systems that contribute to a variety of cellular functions including sterol uptake and cell envelope maintenance...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#7
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond or moieties present at the side chain...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407491/uv-c-radiation-increases-sterol-production-in-the-microalga-pavlova-lutheri
#8
Faruq Ahmed, Peer M Schenk
Plant sterols have become well-known to promote cardiovascular health through the reduction of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood. Plant sterols also have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenicity activities. Microalgae have the potential to become a useful alternative source of plant sterols with several species reported to have higher concentrations than current commercial ones. In order to increase phytosterol production and optimise culture conditions, the high sterol producer Pavlova lutheri was treated in different dosages (50-250 mJ m(-2)) of UV-C radiation and several concentrations (1-500 μmol/L) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the sterol contents were quantified for two days after the treatments...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365392/effects-of-seaweed-sterols-fucosterol-and-desmosterol-on-lipid-membranes
#9
Ole G Mouritsen, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars Duelund, Olav Garvik, John H Ipsen, Adam Cohen Simonsen
Higher sterols are universally present in large amounts (20-30%) in the plasma membranes of all eukaryotes whereas they are universally absent in prokaryotes. It is remarkable that each kingdom of the eukaryotes has chosen, during the course of evolution, its preferred sterol: cholesterol in animals, ergosterol in fungi and yeast, phytosterols in higher plants, and e.g., fucosterol and desmosterol in algae. The question arises as to which specific properties do sterols impart to membranes and to which extent do these properties differ among the different sterols...
June 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359358/rice-bran-enzymatic-extract-reduces-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-and-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-apoe-mice
#10
Cristina Perez-Ternero, Carmen Claro, Juan Parrado, Maria Dolores Herrera, Maria Alvarez de Sotomayor
OBJECTIVE: Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is rich in bioactive molecules such as γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, and tocotrienols. The rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) previously showed vessel remodeling prevention and lipid-lowering, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. The aim of this study was to identify RBEE hypolipidemic mechanisms and to study the effects of RBEE on the progression of atherosclerosis disease and linked vascular dysfunction and liver steatosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed low- or high-fat (LFD, HFD, respectively) and cholesterol diets...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349555/phytosterols-on-growth-performance-antioxidant-enzymes-and-intestinal-morphology-in-weaned-piglets
#11
Qiaoling Hu, Sisi Li, Yiwei Zhang, Zhao Zhuo, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts have been used widely to improve growth, lower cholesterol, exert antioxidative defense and antimicrobial activities in animal production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary phytosterols (PS) on growth performance, antioxidant enzymes and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. RESULTS: A total of 120 crossbred piglets weighed 9.58 ± 0.26 kg were randomly allotted to 3 treatments: control, PS (0...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314390/oxysterols-in-cosmetics-determination-by-planar-solid-phase-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
S Schrack, C Hohl, W Schwack
Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302025/the-use-of-plant-sterols-and-stanols-as-lipid-lowering-agents-in-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Jacek Rysz, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Anna Gluba-Brzózka
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is constantly increasing worldwide. It has been proved that LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) plays causal role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The fact that atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive disease which onsets during the first three decades of life bores questions what to do to maintain LDL-C at low levels throughout life and thus to delay and/or prevent the progress this disease...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296229/phytosterol-mediated-inhibition-of-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-in-mice-is-independent-of-liver-x-receptor
#14
Lídia Cedó, David Santos, Iziar A Ludwig, Reija Silvennoinen, Annabel García-León, Leena Kaipiainen, José M Carbó, Annabel F Valledor, Helena Gylling, Maria-José Motilva, Petri T Kovanen, Miriam Lee-Rueckert, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil
SCOPE: Previous studies have proposed that phytosterols activate liver X receptors (LXR) in the intestine, thereby reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption and promoting fecal cholesterol excretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary phytosterol supplementation on intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion in LXRαβ-deficient mice, and wild-type mice treated with synthetic high-affinity LXRαβ agonists...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291734/safety-assessment-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-the-flowers-of-nymphaea-lotus-linn-nymphaeaceae-acute-neuro-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-studies-in-albinos-wistar-rats
#15
Mireille Kameni Poumeni, Danielle Claude Bilanda, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet Djomeni, Yolande Sandrine Mengue Ngadena, Marguerite Francine Mballa, Madeleine Chantal Ngoungoure, Agnès Carolle Ouafo, Théophile Dimo, Pierre Kamtchouing
BACKGROUND: Nymphaea lotus Linn (N. lotus) is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon popular medicine, to treat neuropsychiatric conditions, male sexual disorders or as food supplement. However, scientific data on the pharmacotoxic profile of this plant are not available. The safety of N. lotus was assessed in acute, neuro- and subchronic toxicity studies by following the OECD guidelines. Effectively, no data have been published until now in regard to its safety on the nervous system...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279967/ezetimibe-increases-endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo...
May 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267434/dietary-phytochemicals-in-the-protection-against-oxysterol-induced-damage
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Cilla, Amparo Alegría, Alessandro Attanzio, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, Luisa Tesoriere, Maria A Livrea
The intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many chronic diseases. These foods contain phytochemicals that often possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity and show anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Many factors can be included in the etiopathogenesis of all of these multifactorial diseases that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and/or cell death processes, oxysterols, i...
March 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256666/neuroprotective-effects-of-phytosterol-esters-against-high-cholesterol-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-aged-rat
#18
Xu Rui, Li Wenfang, Cheng Jing, Chen Meng, Ding Chengcheng, Xu Jiqu, Rong Shuang
Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253422/plant-sterol-enriched-functional-food-and-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Jürgen Köhler, Daniel Teupser, Albrecht Elsässer, Oliver Weingärtner
Hypercholesterolaemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor. A healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle reduces cardiovascular risk. 'Functional foods' supplemented with phytosterols are recommended for the management of hypercholesterolaemia and have become a widely used non-prescription approach to lower plasma cholesterol levels. Two billion euros are spent world-wide each year on various functional foods, which have regulator-approved health claims for the management of elevated cholesterol levels. While international societies, such as the European Atherosclerosis Society or the National Heart Foundation in Australia, still advise phytosterols as an additional dietary option in the management of hypercholesterolaemia, recently released guidelines such as those from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom are more critical of food supplementation with phytosterols and draw attention to significant safety issues...
June 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250649/evaluation-of-cholesterol-lowering-activity-of-standardized-extract-of-mangifera-indica-in-albino-wistar-rats
#20
G M Gururaja, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, A Senthil Kumar, Shekhar Michael Dethe, J Joshua Allan, Amit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
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