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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768109/effects-of-phytosterol-supplementation-on-serum-levels-of-lipid-profiles-liver-enzymes-inflammatory-markers-adiponectin-and-leptin-in-patients-affected-by-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Mohammad Ali Javanmardi, Majid Mohammad Shahi, Seyed Saeed Seyedian, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh
OBJECTIVE: Considering the high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and based on the evidence about the role of dietary cholesterol in liver inflammation, and also with regard to the effect of phytosterols on the metabolism of cholesterol, we aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of phytosterol supplementation against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. METHOD: Thirty-eight patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were randomly divided into two groups: The phytosterol group (n = 19) received a 1...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764733/genetic-polymorphism-of-sterol-transporters-in-children-with-future-gallstones
#2
Markku J Nissinen, Niina Pitkänen, Piia Simonen, Helena Gylling, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki, Markus Juonala, Mikko P Pakarinen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallstone disease is related to hypersecretion of cholesterol in bile, and low serum phytosterol levels. We examined how genetic polymorphisms of sterol transporters affect childhood cholesterol metabolism trait predicting adult gallstone disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In retrospective controlled study, we determined D19H polymorphism of ABCG8 gene, genetic variation at Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) gene locus (rs41279633, rs17655652, rs2072183, rs217434 and rs2073548), and serum cholesterol, noncholesterol sterols and lipids in children affected by gallstones decades later (n = 66) and controls (n = 126)...
April 26, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746008/exogenously-added-oxyphytosterols-do-not-affect-macrophage-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#3
Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Tom Houben, Mike L J Jeurissen, Albert V Bitorina, Maurice Konings, Sabine Baumgartner, Jogchum Plat, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Although phytosterols, plant-derived sterol-like components, are well known for their cholesterol-lowering properties, their atherogenic potential is still under debate. Although they are known to share structural similarities with cholesterol, it is unclear whether their oxidized forms (oxyphytosterols) have the capacity to mediate proinflammatory responses in macrophages. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins, oxyphytosterols (7keto-sito/campesterol [7keto-sit/camp] or 7-beta-hydroxy-sito/campesterol [7βOH-sit/camp]), nonoxidized phytosterol (β-sitosterol), or carrier-control (cyclodextrin) in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 10, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730298/exploring-the-biophysical-properties-of-phytosterols-in-the-plasma-membrane-for-novel-cancer-prevention-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Omar Fakih, Didem Sanver, David Kane, James L Thorne
Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728384/characterization-and-engineering-of-3-ketosteroid-9%C3%AE-hydroxylases-in-mycobacterium-neoaurum-atcc-25795-for-the-development-of-androst-1-4-diene-3-17-dione-and-9%C3%AE-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3-17-dione-producing-strains
#5
Hao-Hao Liu, Li-Qin Xu, Kang Yao, Liang-Bin Xiong, Xin-Yi Tao, Min Liu, Feng-Qing Wang, Dong-Zhi Wei
3-Ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase (Ksh) consists of a terminal oxygenase (KshA) and a ferredoxin reductase and is indispensable in the cleavage of steroid nucleus in microorganisms. The activities of Kshs are crucial factors in determining the yield and distribution of products in the biotechnological transformation of sterols in industrial applications. In this study, two KshA homologues, KshA1N and KshA2N , were characterized and further engineered in a sterol-digesting strain, Mycobacterium neoaurum ATCC 25795 to construct androstenone-producing strains...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695442/sterols-and-stanols-as-novel-tracers-of-waterbird-population-dynamics-in-freshwater-ponds
#6
Kathryn E Hargan, Emily M Stewart, Neal Michelutti, Christopher Grooms, Linda E Kimpe, Mark L Mallory, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
With the expansion of urban centres in the mid-twentieth century and the post-1970 decrease in pesticides, populations of double-crested cormorants ( Phalacrocorax auritus ) and ring-billed gulls ( Larus delawarensis ) around Lake Ontario (Canada and USA) have rapidly rebounded, possibly to unprecedented numbers. Along with the use of traditional palaeolimnological methods (e.g. stable isotopes, biological proxies), we now have the capacity to develop specific markers for directly tracking the presence of waterbirds on nesting islands...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683854/increased-cholesterol-absorption-rather-than-synthesis-is-involved-in-boosted-protease-inhibitor-associated-hypercholesterolaemia
#7
Pere Leyes, Montserrat Cofan, Ana González-Cordón, Elisa de Lazzari, Joan Trabal, Pere Domingo, Eugenia Negredo, Francesc Vidal, Maria T Forga, Jose M Gatell, Emili Ros, Esteban Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of first-line efavirenz (EFV)-based vs. boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral regimens on cholesterol metabolism. DESIGN: Multicentre, open-label, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Forty-nine naïve HIV-infected patients were randomized (1 : 1) to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) or EFV both in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine (ClinicalTrials...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680944/effect-of-terbinafine-on-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-isoprenoid-compounds-in-carrot-suspension-cultured-cells
#8
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Lorena Almagro, María Angeles Pedreño, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara
Terbinafine induced a significant increase of squalene production. Terbinafine increased the expression levels of squalene synthase. Cyclodextrins did not work as elicitors due to the gene expression levels obtained. Plant sterols are essential components of membrane lipids, which contributing to their fluidity and permeability. Besides their cholesterol-lowering properties, they also have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer activities. Squalene, which is phytosterol precursor, is widely used in medicine, foods and cosmetics due to its anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-aging activities...
April 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675736/decreased-content-rate-of-synthesis-and-export-of-cholesterol-in-the-brain-of-apoe-knockout-mice
#9
Valéria Sutti Nunes, Patrícia Miralda Cazita, Sérgio Catanozi, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Eder Carlos Rocha Quintão
Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-KO) mice present synaptic loss, cognitive dysfunction, and high plasma lipid levels that may affect brain function simulating Alzheimer disease. Plasma and brain sterols were measured in apoE-KO and in wild type control mice on a cholesterol-free, phytosterol-containing diet by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Plasma cholesterol and phytosterols (campesterol and sitosterol) were higher in apoE-KO compared to control mice. Cholesterol precursors (desmosterol and lathosterol) were not detected in plasma of control mice but were present in apoE-KO mice...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663389/noncholesterol-sterols-as-surrogate-markers-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#10
Perttu Sahlman, Markku Nissinen, Piia Simonen, Martti Färkkilä
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition lacking good serologic markers to tailor treatment and predict recovery. We examined the cholesterol metabolism in severe AH to explore prognostic markers and evaluate the profile of cholesterol precursors, cholestanol and phytosterols, in this context. We assessed serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors, cholestanol, phytosterols, and biochemical markers in 24 patients with severe AH treated with prednisolone and randomized to ciprofloxacin in the ratio 1:1...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655700/effects-on-oral-fat-load-of-a-nutraceutical-combination-of-fermented-red-rice-sterol-esters-and-stanols-curcumin-and-olive-polyphenols-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Giuseppe Derosa, Gabriele Catena, Riccardo Raddino, Giovanni Gaudio, Antonio Maggi, Angela D'Angelo, Pamela Maffioli
BACKGROUND: In literature, there are several studies about the effects of nutraceutical combinations at fasting, but data in post-prandial phase are lacking. PURPOSE: We planned a study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutraceutical agent containing fermented red rice, phytosterols and olive polyphenols compared to placebo in a sample of Caucasian patients with low cardiovascular risk, both at fasting and after an oral fat load. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty patients were randomized to receive, as addition to diet and physical activity, a nutraceutical combination containing fermented red rice, sterol esters and stanols, curcumin, and olive polyphenols or placebo (control group), once a day...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627611/phytosterols-and-their-derivatives-structural-diversity-distribution-metabolism-analysis-and-health-promoting-uses
#12
REVIEW
Robert A Moreau, Laura Nyström, Bruce D Whitaker, Jill K Winkler-Moser, David J Baer, Sarah K Gebauer, Kevin B Hicks
Phytosterols (plant sterols) occur in the cells of all plants. They are important structural components that stabilize the biological membranes of plants. Sterols can occur in the "free" unbound form or they can be covalently bound via an ester or glycosidic bond. Since our previous 2002 review on phytosterols and phytosterol conjugates, phytosterol glucosides have been found to be important structural components in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of plant cells, where they are thought to be essential to the function of plasma membrane enzymes and perhaps other proteins...
April 5, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583004/effects-of-stigmasterol-and-%C3%AE-sitosterol-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-mouse-model-a-lipidomic-analysis
#13
Simin Feng, Ling Gan, Chung S Yang, Anna B Liu, Wenyun Lu, Ping Shao, Zhuqing Dai, Peilong Sun, Zisheng Luo
To study the effects of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol on high-fat Western diet (HFWD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipidomic analyses were conducted in liver samples collected after 33 weeks of the treatment. Principal component analysis showed these phytosterols were effective in protecting against HFWD-induced NAFLD. Orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) and S-plots showed that triacylglycerols (TGs), phosphatidylcholines, cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) were the major lipid species contributing to these discriminations...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548289/associations-of-dietary-phytosterols-with-blood-lipid-profiles-and-prevalence-of-obesity-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Yan-Chuan Li, Chun-Long Li, Rui Li, Yang Chen, Meng Zhang, Pan-Pan Guo, Dan Shi, Xiao-Ning Ji, Ren-Nan Feng, Chang-Hao Sun
BACKGROUND: It has been established in RCTs that high dose of phytosterols can significantly reduce blood cholesterol. However, it was uncertain whether low dose of phytosterols from daily diets was effective. In this study, we evaluated the associations between dietary phytosterols and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood glucose, serum lipid profiles and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in healthy subjects. METHODS: Four hundred nine men and 503 women aged 18-60 years were included in this study...
March 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531380/-nutraceuticals-a-useful-tool-for-cardiologists-to-improve-lipid-profile
#15
Elisa Covolo, Claudio Bilato
Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies include both lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy. Statins are among the most effective agents to achieve optimal LDL-cholesterol levels, but, not infrequently, patients suffer from myalgia or other side effects. The proven or perceived intolerance to statins requires, therefore, alternative lipid-lowering strategies. In recent years, nutraceuticals have become extensively accepted, and a growing number of molecules with hypothetical cholesterol-lowering activity have been proposed, sometimes with no scientific evidence and/or no methodological accuracy, based only on the belief that these agents are "natural" and do not show side effects...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514421/cytotoxic-activity-of-stigmasteryl-esters-and-products-of-their-thermo-oxidative-degradation-against-drug-sensitive-and-drug-resistant-human-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#16
Marianna Raczyk, Anna Paszel-Jaworska, Magdalena Rudzińska
BACKGROUND: Phytosterols are mainly known as a cholesterol-lowering factor, although they form oxidation products during food storage and processing. Moreover, phytosterol oxidation products (POP) can be ab- sorbed and found in human serum, so there is the need to investigate their impact on different kinds of cells. METHODS: Esters of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic) with stigmasterol were synthetized and heated at 180°C, for 1–12 hours...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478542/enhancing-stability-of-echium-seed-oil-and-beta-sitosterol-by-their-coencapsulation-by-complex-coacervation-using-different-combinations-of-wall-materials-and-crosslinkers
#17
Talita A Comunian, Marina Nogueira, Bianca Scolaro, Marcelo Thomazini, Roselayne Ferro-Furtado, Inar Alves de Castro, Carmen S Favaro-Trindade
Intake of omega-3 fatty acids and phytosterols aids in the reduction of cholesterol and serum triglycerides. However, both fatty acids and phytosterols are susceptible to oxidation. This work coencapsulated echium oil (source of stearidonic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids) and beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) by complex coacervation using different combinations of wall materials, and sinapic acid (SA) and transglutaminase as crosslinkers. High encapsulation yields were obtained (29-93% for SA; 68-100% for the mixture of oil and phytosterols) and retention of 49-99% and 16% for encapsulated and free SA, at 30 days-storage...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445325/biomarkers-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-current-status-and-interest-of-oxysterols-and-phytosterols
#18
REVIEW
Anne Vejux, Amira Namsi, Thomas Nury, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a non-demyelinating neurodegenerative disease in adults with motor disorders. Two forms exist: a sporadic form (90% of cases) and a family form due to mutations in more than 20 genes including the Superoxide dismutase 1, TAR DNA Binding Protein, Fused in Sarcoma, chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 and VAPB genes. The mechanisms associated with this pathology are beginning to be known: oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, protein aggregation, reticulum endoplasmic stress, neuroinflammation, alteration of RNA metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410082/cholesterol-internalization-and-metabolism-in-insect-prothoracic-gland-a-steroidogenic-organ-via-lipoproteins
#19
Fumihiko Igarashi, Mari H Ogihara, Masatoshi Iga, Hiroshi Kataoka
Dietary sterols including cholesterol and phytosterols are essential substrates for insect steroid hormone (ecdysteroid) synthesis in the prothoracic glands (PGs). In the silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the model species of insects, the steroidogenesis has been well demonstrated that cholesterol biotransformation into ecdysone in the PG cells. Because insects lack the ability to synthesize cellular sterol de novo, lipoprotein, lipophorin (Lp), has been thought to be the major cholesterol supply source; however, details of cholesterol behavior from Lp to the PG cells has not been analyzed till date...
June 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397797/tissue-sterol-composition-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-depends-on-the-dietary-cholesterol-content-and-on-the-dietary-phytosterol-cholesterol-ratio-but-not-on-the-dietary-phytosterol-content
#20
Nini H Sissener, Grethe Rosenlund, Ingunn Stubhaug, Nina S Liland
The aim of the study was to investigate how the dietary sterol composition, including cholesterol, phytosterol:cholesterol ratio and phytosterols, affect the absorption, biliary excretion, retention, tissue storage and distribution of cholesterol and individual phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). A feeding trial was conducted at two different temperatures (6 and 12°C), using nine different diets with varying contents of phytosterols, cholesterol and phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Cholesterol retention values were clearly dependent on dietary cholesterol, and showed that fish fed cholesterol levels <1000 mg/kg feed produced considerable quantities of cholesterol de novo...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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