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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727814/low-pcsk9-levels-are-correlated-with-mortality-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#1
Valentin Schlegel, Theresa Treuner-Kaueroff, Daniel Seehofer, Thomas Berg, Susen Becker, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Thorsten Kaiser
INTRODUCTION: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in the cholesterol metabolism and is synthesized by the liver. It interacts with the LDL-receptor to promote its degradation. The model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is a well-established tool to estimate the risk of mortality in patients with end-stage chronic liver disease. The study aims to assess the associations between PCSK9, hypocholesterinemia, liver synthesis, cholestasis, MELD score and mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710635/steroid-11-alpha-hydroxylation-by-the-fungi-aspergillus-nidulans-and-aspergillus-ochraceus
#2
Lidia Ortega-de Los Ríos, José M Luengo, José M Fernández-Cañón
Steroids are a group of natural compounds derived from the cyclopentane-perhydro-phenantrene nucleus that have a great interest for the pharmaceutical industries as a consequence of their physiological effects. Among their functions are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or contraceptive activities. Nowadays, microbial transformation of steroid precursors is winning relevance opposite to the chemical synthesis, since it allows for decreasing time, expenses, and environmental pollution. Pharmaceutical industry tends to use cholesterol and phytosterols as starting materials due to their low cost...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710634/obtaining-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-17-dione-from-natural-sterols
#3
Dmitry Dovbnya, Sergey Khomutov, Vyacheslav Kollerov, Marina V Donova
Two-step one-pot microbial transformation enables obtaining of valuable steroids that are difficult to produce chemically. Here we describe a method for obtaining 11α-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (11α-HAD) from cheap and available natural sterols (phytosterols or cholesterol).11α-HAD is a primary adrenal steroid in mammals and also a key precursor in the syntheses of halogenated corticoids. Conventional routes for its obtaining are based on chemical synthesis, or microbial hydroxylation of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710626/stigmasterol-removal-by-an-aerobic-treatment-system
#4
Soledad Chamorro, Claudia Xavier, Víctor Hernández, José Becerra, Gladys Vidal
Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. Furthermore, stigmasterol contained in Kraft mill effluent shows high toxicity (25-fold that of β-sitosterol) to aquatic organisms such as Daphnia magna (24-48 h). However, the operation of the aerobic treatment and biomass adaptation could be affecting their removal. The performances of activated sludge (AS), aerated lagoon (AL), and moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) are compared for removing stigmasterol contained in Kraft mill effluent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702423/food-ingredients-that-inhibit-cholesterol-absorption
#5
REVIEW
Elliot D Jesch, Timothy P Carr
Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687937/short-term-effects-of-a-combined-nutraceutical-on-lipid-level-fatty-liver-biomarkers-hemodynamic-parameters-and-estimated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Marilisa Bove, Maddalena Veronesi, Manfredi Rizzo, Marina Giovannini, Claudio Borghi
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing interest in nutraceuticals improving cardiovascular risk factor levels and related organ damage. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial aims to compare the effect of a combined nutraceutical containing red yeast rice (10 mg), phytosterols (800 mg), and L-tyrosol (5 mg) on lipid profile, blood pressure, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in a group of 60 patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia resistant to Mediterranean diet...
July 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673668/impact-of-thermooxidation-of-phytosteryl-and-phytostanyl-fatty-acid-esters-on-cholesterol-micellarization-in-vitro
#7
Birgit Scholz, Renate Weiherer, Karl-Heinz Engel
The effects of thermooxidation of a phytosteryl/-stanyl and a phytostanyl fatty acid ester mixture on cholesterol micellarization were investigated using an in vitro digestion model simulating enzymatic hydrolysis by cholesterol esterase and subsequent competition of the liberated phytosterols/-stanols with cholesterol for incorporation into mixed micelles. As a first step, relationships between different doses of the ester mixtures and the resulting micellarized cholesterol were established. Subsequent subjection of the thermooxidized ester mixtures to the in vitro digestion model resulted in three principal observations: (i) thermal treatment of the ester mixtures led to substantial decreases of the intact esters, (ii) in vitro digestion of cholesterol in the presence of the thermooxidized ester mixtures resulted in significant increases of cholesterol micellarization, and (iii) the extents of the observed effects on cholesterol micellarization were strongly associated to the remaining contents of intact esters...
June 30, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#8
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608804/phytosterols-and-omega-3-supplementation-exert-novel-regulatory-effects-on-metabolic-and-inflammatory-pathways-a-proteomic-study
#9
Carmen Lambert, Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Joan Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M Antonijoan, Antonio Perez, Lina Badimon
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. In addition to drug treatment, nutritional interventions or supplementations are becoming a health strategy for CVD prevention. Phytosterols (PhyS) are natural components that have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels; while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids, have shown to reduce triglyceride levels. Here we aimed to investigate whether the proteins in the main lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL)) as well as proteins in the lipid free plasma fraction (LPDP) were regulated by the intake of PhyS-milk or ω3-milk, in overweight healthy volunteers by a proteomic based systems biology approach...
June 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604681/corrigendum-plant-cholesterol-biosynthetic-pathway-overlaps-with-phytosterol-metabolism
#10
Prashant D Sonawane, Jacob Pollier, Sayantan Panda, Jedrzej Szymanski, Hassan Massalha, Meital Yona, Tamar Unger, Sergey Malitsky, Philipp Arendt, Laurens Pauwels, Efrat Almekias-Siegl, Ilana Rogachev, Sagit Meir, Pablo D Cárdenas, Athar Masri, Marina Petrikov, Hubert Schaller, Arthur A Schaffer, Avinash Kamble, Ashok P Giri, Alain Goossens, Asaph Aharoni
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2016.205.
June 12, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578069/model-studies-on-the-formation-of-volatile-compounds-generated-by-a-thermal-treatment-of-steryl-esters-with-different-fatty-acid-moieties
#11
Marianna Raczyk, Dominik Kmiecik, Peter Schieberle, Roman Przybylski, Henryk Jeleń, Magdalena Rudzińska
The consumption of plant sterols is reported to have a beneficial effects on human health, i.e. phytosterols are known for their cholesterol-lowering properties. Whereas, they are prone to oxidation and currently there is ongoing worldwide research aimed at the biological effect of phytosterol oxides. In this study volatile compounds formed during thermal degradation of stigmasteryl esters were identified. The research was conducted using standards of stigmasterol, fatty acids and stigmasteryl esters as well as fat enriched with stigmasteryl esters which were thermally treated at 60°C and 180°C for 12h...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553226/%C3%AE-sitosterol-reduces-the-expression-of-chemotactic-cytokine-genes-in-cystic-fibrosis-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#12
Ilaria Lampronti, Maria C Dechecchi, Alessandro Rimessi, Valentino Bezzerri, Elena Nicolis, Alessandra Guerrini, Massimo Tacchini, Anna Tamanini, Silvia Munari, Elisabetta D'Aversa, Alessandra Santangelo, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianni Sacchetti, Paolo Pinton, Roberto Gambari, Maddalena Agostini, Giulio Cabrini
Extracts from Nigella arvensis L. seeds, which are widely used as anti-inflammatory remedies in traditional medicine of Northern Africa, were able to inhibit the expression of the pro-inflammatory neutrophil chemokine Interleukin (IL)-8 in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells exposed to the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical composition of the extracts led to the identification of three major components, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol, which are the most abundant phytosterols, cholesterol-like molecules, usually found in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447386/unravelling-the-pleiotropic-role-of-the-mceg-atpase-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#13
Julia García-Fernández, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Beatriz Galán, Christopher M Sassetti, José L García
The Mce systems are complex ABC transporters that are encoded by different numbers of homologous operons in Actinobacteria. While the four Mce systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are all energized by a single ATPase, MceG, each system appears to import different fatty acids or sterols. To explore if this behaviour can be extended to saprophytic mycobacteria, whose more complex genomes encode more Mce systems, we have identified and characterized the MceG orthologue of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This bacterium relies on MceG to energize its six Mce systems that contribute to a variety of cellular functions including sterol uptake and cell envelope maintenance...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#14
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond or moieties present at the side chain...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407491/uv-c-radiation-increases-sterol-production-in-the-microalga-pavlova-lutheri
#15
Faruq Ahmed, Peer M Schenk
Plant sterols have become well-known to promote cardiovascular health through the reduction of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood. Plant sterols also have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenicity activities. Microalgae have the potential to become a useful alternative source of plant sterols with several species reported to have higher concentrations than current commercial ones. In order to increase phytosterol production and optimise culture conditions, the high sterol producer Pavlova lutheri was treated in different dosages (50-250 mJ m(-2)) of UV-C radiation and several concentrations (1-500 μmol/L) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the sterol contents were quantified for two days after the treatments...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365392/effects-of-seaweed-sterols-fucosterol-and-desmosterol-on-lipid-membranes
#16
Ole G Mouritsen, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars Duelund, Olav Garvik, John H Ipsen, Adam Cohen Simonsen
Higher sterols are universally present in large amounts (20-30%) in the plasma membranes of all eukaryotes whereas they are universally absent in prokaryotes. It is remarkable that each kingdom of the eukaryotes has chosen, during the course of evolution, its preferred sterol: cholesterol in animals, ergosterol in fungi and yeast, phytosterols in higher plants, and e.g., fucosterol and desmosterol in algae. The question arises as to which specific properties do sterols impart to membranes and to which extent do these properties differ among the different sterols...
June 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359358/rice-bran-enzymatic-extract-reduces-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-and-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-apoe-mice
#17
Cristina Perez-Ternero, Carmen Claro, Juan Parrado, Maria Dolores Herrera, Maria Alvarez de Sotomayor
OBJECTIVE: Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is rich in bioactive molecules such as γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, and tocotrienols. The rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) previously showed vessel remodeling prevention and lipid-lowering, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. The aim of this study was to identify RBEE hypolipidemic mechanisms and to study the effects of RBEE on the progression of atherosclerosis disease and linked vascular dysfunction and liver steatosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed low- or high-fat (LFD, HFD, respectively) and cholesterol diets...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349555/phytosterols-on-growth-performance-antioxidant-enzymes-and-intestinal-morphology-in-weaned-piglets
#18
Qiaoling Hu, Sisi Li, Yiwei Zhang, Zhao Zhuo, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts have been used widely to improve growth, lower cholesterol, exert antioxidative defense and antimicrobial activities in animal production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary phytosterols (PS) on growth performance, antioxidant enzymes and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. RESULTS: A total of 120 crossbred piglets weighed 9.58 ± 0.26 kg were randomly allotted to 3 treatments: control, PS (0...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314390/oxysterols-in-cosmetics-determination-by-planar-solid-phase-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#19
S Schrack, C Hohl, W Schwack
Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302025/the-use-of-plant-sterols-and-stanols-as-lipid-lowering-agents-in-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Jacek Rysz, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Anna Gluba-Brzózka
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is constantly increasing worldwide. It has been proved that LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) plays causal role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The fact that atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive disease which onsets during the first three decades of life bores questions what to do to maintain LDL-C at low levels throughout life and thus to delay and/or prevent the progress this disease...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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