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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157655/phytosterols-as-a-natural-anticancer-agent-current-status-and-future-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Naiyer Shahzad, Wajahatullah Khan, Shadab Md, Asgar Ali, Sundeep Singh Saluja, Sadhana Sharma, Faisal A Al-Allaf, Zainularifeen Abduljaleel, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Ali Fathi Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed Abdelaziz Afify, Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi
Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation...
January 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130879/variations-in-dietary-intake-and-plasma-concentration-of-plant-sterols-across-plant-based-diets-among-north-american-adults
#2
Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Dieter Lütjohann, Rawiwan Sirirat, Andrew Mashchak, Gary E Fraser, Ella Haddad
SCOPE: Phytosterols are bioactive compounds in plants with similar cholesterol-lowering properties as vegetarian diets. However, information on phytosterol intake and plasma plant sterols among vegetarians is sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined dietary intake and plasma concentration of plant sterols and cholesterol across five dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 Calibration Sub-study (n = 861, 66% females, average age 61 y). To measure intake and plasma concentration of these compounds, we used 24-hour dietary recalls and gas-liquid chromatography-flame ionization detection, respectively...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117688/lipidomic-and-antioxidant-response-to-grape-seed-corn-and-coconut-oils-in-healthy-wistar-rats
#3
Abraham Wall-Medrano, Laura A de la Rosa, Alma A Vázquez-Flores, Gilberto Mercado-Mercado, Rogelio González-Arellanes, José A López-Díaz, Aarón F González-Córdova, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba, Francisco J Molina-Corral
Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats...
January 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117400/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-effect-of-phytosterols-enriched-low-fat-milk-on-lipid-profile-in-chinese
#4
Ching-Lung Cheung, Daniel Ka-Chun Ho, Chor-Wing Sing, Man-Fung Tsoi, Vincent Ka-Fai Cheng, Grace Koon-Yee Lee, Yuk-Nam Ho, Bernard M Y Cheung
Phytosterols found naturally in plants are known to reduce cholesterol absorption in the gut. The traditional southern Chinese diet typically contains many vegetables and not much meat, and there is high prevalence of lactose intolerance in Chinese; we therefore aimed to test if phytosterols-enriched milk is effective in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol in Chinese. Two hundred and twenty-one participants (41 men and 180 women; age 24-79) without cholesterol-lowering drugs or diabetes mellitus were randomized to daily intake of phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk which contained 1...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091647/phytosterol-nutritional-supplement-improves-pregnancy-and-neonatal-complications-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-clinical-study
#5
Fang Gao, Guangya Wang, Linxia Wang, Ningning Guo
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly serious health problem among pregnant women. Phytosterol-enriched spreads are known to reduce total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but little is known about their effects on GDM. We aimed to examine the effect of the daily consumption of phytosterol-enriched spreads on both the maternal and neonatal outcomes of GDM patients. GDM patients during the third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled and assigned randomly to consume a regular spread or phytosterol-enriched spread daily until the end of their pregnancy...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078712/comparative-study-on-fatty-acid-composition-of-olive-olea-europaea-l-with-emphasis-on-phytosterol-contents
#6
Ali Ozkan, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein, Muhittin Kulak, Recep Bindak
The present study was designed to determine the fatty acid composition and phytosterol contents of Turkish native olive cultivars namely (Kilis Yağlık and Nizip Yağlık cv.). In this context, olive fruits from thirty-four locations were sampled and then screened for their components in comparison. Fifteen different fatty acids were found in both olive oils. In the order of abundance, the most important ones were: oleic acid (18:1) > palmitic acid (16:0) > linoleic acid (18:2) > stearic acid (18:0)...
January 12, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054011/data-for-the-size-of-cholesterol-fat-micelles-as-a-function-of-bile-salt-concentration-and-the-physico-chemical-properties-of-six-liquid-experimental-pine-derived-phytosterol-formulations-in-a-cholesterol-containing-artificial-intestine-fluid
#7
Jinsoo Yi, Tine A Knudsen, Anne-Louise Nielsen, Lars Duelund, Morten Christensen, Pablo Hervella, David Needham, Ole G Mouritsen
The data in this paper are additional information to the research article entiltled "Inhibition of cholesterol transport in an intestine cell model by pine-derived phytosterols" (Yi et al.,2016) [1]. The data derived from the measurement on six liquid formulations of commercial pine-derived phytosterol (CPP) by dynamic light scattering. The data cover micelle size and the zeta-potential for formulations with cholesterol including monoglyceride, oleic acid, and bile salt. The data demonstrate the critical effect of the bile salt concentration on the size of cholesterol-digested fat micelles...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005066/plant-cholesterol-biosynthetic-pathway-overlaps-with-phytosterol-metabolism
#8
Prashant D Sonawane, Jacob Pollier, Sayantan Panda, Jedrzej Szymanski, Hassan Massalha, Meital Yona, Tamar Unger, Sergey Malitsky, Philipp Arendt, Laurens Pauwels, Efrat Almekias-Siegl, Ilana Rogachev, Sagit Meir, Pablo D Cárdenas, Athar Masri, Marina Petrikov, Hubert Schaller, Arthur A Schaffer, Avinash Kamble, Ashok P Giri, Alain Goossens, Asaph Aharoni
The amount of cholesterol made by many plants is not negligible. Whereas cholesterogenesis in animals was elucidated decades ago, the plant pathway has remained enigmatic. Among other roles, cholesterol is a key precursor for thousands of bioactive plant metabolites, including the well-known Solanum steroidal glycoalkaloids. Integrating tomato transcript and protein co-expression data revealed candidate genes putatively associated with cholesterol biosynthesis. A combination of functional assays including gene silencing, examination of recombinant enzyme activity and yeast mutant complementation suggests the cholesterol pathway comprises 12 enzymes acting in 10 steps...
December 22, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958658/degradation-of-phytosterols-in-tobacco-waste-extract-by-a-novel-paenibacillus-sp
#9
Jianbin Ye, Zhan Zhang, Ji Yan, Hui Hao, Xiangzhen Liu, Zongcan Yang, Ke Ma, Xuepeng Yang, Duobin Mao, Hao Zhou
Phytosterols have been demonstrated to be precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed during biomass pyrolysis. Here, a novel Paenibacillus sp. was evaluated for its ability to degrade phytosterols in tobacco waste extract (TWE). The optimal conditions for cell growth and stigmasterol (a representative of phytosterols) degradation were 37°C, pH 7.0, 1.0 g/l yeast extract and 6.0 g/l glucose. Paenibacillus sp. could degrade stigmasterol under high concentrations of glucose (up to 130 g/l) and tolerate wide pHs (5...
December 13, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956024/joint-position-statement-on-nutraceuticals-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia-of-the-italian-society-of-diabetology-sid-and-of-the-italian-society-for-the-study-of-arteriosclerosis-sisa
#10
REVIEW
M Pirro, C Vetrani, C Bianchi, M R Mannarino, F Bernini, A A Rivellese
AIM: Evidence showed that LDL-cholesterol lowering is associated with a significant cardiovascular risk reduction. The initial therapeutic approach to hypercholesterolemia includes dietary modifications but the compliance to recommendations is often inadequate. Some dietary components with potential cholesterol-lowering activity are present in small amounts in food. Therefore, in recent years the use of "nutraceuticals" (i.e., nutrients and/or bioactive compounds with potential beneficial effects on human health) has become widespread...
January 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832119/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-cycloartenol-synthase-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-dendroidea
#11
Gabriela Calegario, Jacob Pollier, Philipp Arendt, Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Cristiane Thompson, Angélica Ribeiro Soares, Renato Crespo Pereira, Alain Goossens, Fabiano L Thompson
The red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea belongs to the Rhodophyta, a phylum of eukaryotic algae that is widely distributed across the oceans and that constitute an important source of bioactive specialized metabolites. Laurencia species have been studied since 1950 and were found to contain a plethora of specialized metabolites, mainly halogenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes that possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and ecological activities. The first committed step in the biosynthesis of triterpenes is the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene, an enzymatic reaction carried out by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), giving rise to a broad range of different compounds, such as the sterol precursors cycloartenol and lanosterol, or triterpene precursors such as cucurbitadienol and β-amyrin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#12
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804278/mycobacterium-smegmatis-is-a-suitable-cell-factory-for-the-production-of-steroidic-synthons
#13
Beatriz Galán, Iria Uhía, Esther García-Fernández, Igor Martínez, Esther Bahíllo, Juan L de la Fuente, José L Barredo, Lorena Fernández-Cabezón, José L García
A number of pharmaceutical steroid synthons are currently produced through the microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols as an alternative to multi-step chemical synthesis. Industrially, these synthons have been usually produced through fermentative processes using environmental isolated microorganisms or their conventional mutants. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 is a model organism for tuberculosis studies which uses cholesterol as the sole carbon and energy source for growth, as other mycobacterial strains...
January 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663717/phytosterols-and-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Rong Shuang, Xu Rui, Li Wenfang
As the aging of the world's population is becoming increasingly serious, dementia-related diseases have become a hot topic in public health research. In recent years, human epidemiological studies have focused on lipid metabolism disorders and dementia. The efficacy of phytosterol intake as a cholesterol-lowering agent has been demonstrated. Phytosterols directly serve as ligands of the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of dementia...
December 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663254/phytosterol-esterification-is-markedly-decreased-in-preterm-infants-receiving-routine-parenteral-nutrition
#15
Sara Savini, Alessio Correani, Daniele Pupillo, Rita D'Ascenzo, Chiara Biagetti, Adriana Pompilio, Manuela Simonato, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marina Taus, Albano Nicolai, Virgilio Paolo Carnielli
Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN)...
September 24, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616182/sea-buckthorn-as-a-source-of-important-bioactive-compounds-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Beata Olas
Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) offers many health benefits. It has significant cardioprotective activity and exerts many positive healing effects on the cardiovascular system, including inhibiting blood platelet activation (especially platelet aggregation), lowering cholesterol concentration and blood pressure, and providing antioxidant activity. In addition, sea buckthorn has antibacterial and antiviral properties. The leaves and fruits of the plant, and its oils, are sources of many bioactive substances including vitamins (A, C and E), unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and phytosterols, which bestow positive effects on the cardiovascular system...
November 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615454/bioactivity-of-phytosterols-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#17
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara, M A Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Phytosterols are a kind of plant metabolite belonging to the triterpene family. These compounds are essential biomolecules for human health, and so they must be taken from foods. β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol are the main phytosterols found in plants. Phytosterols have beneficial effects on human health since they are able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and have antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. However, there are many difficulties in obtaining them, since the levels of these compounds produced from plant raw materials are low and their chemical synthesis is not economically profitable for commercial exploitation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591043/simultaneous-determination-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-campesterol-and-stigmasterol-in-rat-plasma-by-using-lc-apci-ms-ms-application-in-a-pharmacokinetic-study-of-a-titrated-extract-of-the-unsaponifiable-fraction-of-zea-mays-l
#18
Doyun Kim, Jung Bae Park, Woong-Kee Choi, Seung Jun Lee, Ilho Lim, Soo Kyung Bae
A liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol in rat plasma. Cholesterol-d6 was used as an internal standard. To avoid interference of the three phytosterols in rat plasma and minimize matrix effects, a small volume (10 μL) of 4% bovine serum albumin was used as a surrogate matrix for making calibrators and quality control samples...
November 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565790/fractional-factorial-design-based-optimisation-and-application-of-an-extraction-and-uplc-ms-ms-detection-method-for-the-quantification-of-phytosterols-in-food-feed-and-beverages-low-in-phytosterols
#19
Anneleen I Decloedt, Anita Van Landschoot, Lynn Vanhaecke
Phytosterols are ubiquitous in plants, as they play an important role in cell membrane stability and as signal transducers. Over the last few decades, scientific interest in phytosterols has significantly increased. Most of the interest has focused on the cholesterol-lowering properties of phytosterols, but they may also interfere with endogenous steroid hormone synthesis. Despite this dual interest in phytosterols, accurate and fully validated methods for the quantification of phytosterols in food and feed samples are scarce...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561087/current-knowledge-about-oxysterols-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Magdalena Brzeska, Krystyna Szymczyk, Arkadiusz Szterk
For years food consumers have been warned that a cholesterol-rich diet may result in atherosclerosis. It is also well known that consumption of large amounts of phytosterols decreases concentration of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in blood (LDLs are regarded a key risk factor in development of cardiovascular diseases). However, no scientific evidence has unambiguously proved any direct connection between amount of consumed cholesterol and LDL level in blood. On the other hand, concentration of cholesterol oxidation products, oxysterols, seems to be indeed relevant; for example, they significantly impact appearance of atherosclerotic lesions (plaques)...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
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