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Phytosterol and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111079/phytosterol-enriched-milk-lowers-ldl-cholesterol-levels-in-brazilian-children-and-adolescents-double-blind-cross-over-trial
#1
S A Ribas, R Sichieri, A S B Moreira, D O Souza, C T F Cabral, D T Gianinni, D B Cunha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite evidence of the lipid-lowering effect of plant sterols among adults with hypercholesterolemia, data regarding phytosterol use in children are limited. In this paper, we examined the effects of daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched milk compound on the lipid profiles of Brazilian children and adolescents with dyslipidemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial. Twenty eight dyslipidemics outpatients (aged 6-9 years) from an University Hospital were randomly allocated to control or intervention group...
October 2, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107136/maternal-hypercholesterolemia-enhances-oxysterol-concentration-in-mothers-and-newly-weaned-offspring-but-is-attenuated-by-maternal-phytosterol-supplementation
#2
Jerad H Dumolt, Sandhya K Radhakrishnan, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Khuong Le, Mulchand S Patel, Richard W Browne, Todd C Rideout
In hypercholesterolemic pregnancies, the maternal environment is characterized by excessive levels of atherogenic lipids that may increase cardiovascular disease risk in mothers and their offspring. We examined the influence of maternal hypercholesterolemia and phytosterol (PS) intervention on the concentration and metabolism of oxysterols, bioactive oxygenated cholesterol derivatives that regulate arterial health and lesion progression, in mothers and their newly weaned offspring. Twenty-one female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to three different diets throughout gestation and lactation: (1) chow, (2) high cholesterol (CH; 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107013/changes-in-fenugreek-transcriptome-induced-by-methyl-jasmonate-and-steroid-precursors-revealed-by-rna-seq
#3
Joanna Ciura, Magdalena Szeliga, Michalina Grzesik, Mirosław Tyrka
Changes in fenugreek transcriptome related to enhanced production of steroids were induced by methyl jasmonate, cholesterol and squalene, and recorded using RNA-seq. A total of 112,850 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembling of next generation sequencing data, and used for functional annotations. In steroidal saponins pathway, transcripts involved in mevalonate, terpenoid backbone and plant sterol synthesis were annotated. Overexpression of several transcripts from phytosterol biosynthesis pathway was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR...
October 26, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102321/the-maternal-fetal-gradient-of-free-and-esterified-phytosterols-at-the-time-of-delivery-in-humans
#4
Alessio Correani, Silvia Visentin, Erich Cosmi, Eleonora Ponchia, Sara D'Aronco, Manuela Simonato, Luca Vedovelli, Paola Cogo, Virgilio P Carnielli
BACKGROUND: High dietary intakes of phytosterols (Phyto), such as those consumed by vegans and vegetarians, are not recommended for cholesterol-lowering in pregnant women (PW) because the safety of their use during pregnancy has not been fully established [1]. Information on Phyto in pregnancy is very limited. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the maternal-fetal gradient of free and esterified Phyto at the time of delivery in humans. DESIGN: PW who had a term delivery at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University Hospital of Padua (Padua, Italy), between November 2016 and March 2017, participated in the study...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065513/argan-oil-mediated-attenuation-of-organelle-dysfunction-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-induced-by-7-ketocholesterol-in-murine-oligodendrocytes-158n
#5
Asmaa Badreddine, Amira Zarrouk, El Mostafa Karym, Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Wiem Meddeb, Randa Sghaier, Maryem Bezine, Anne Vejux, Lucy Martine, Stéphane Grégoire, Lionel Bretillon, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Philippe Durand, Michel Prost, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Boubker Nasser, Gérard Lizard
Argan oil is widely used in Morocco in traditional medicine. Its ability to treat cardiovascular diseases is well-established. However, nothing is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with increased oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) resulting from cholesterol auto-oxidation. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, it is important to identify compounds able to impair its harmful effects...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058915/mass-spectrometric-approaches-for-the-analysis-of-phytosterols-in-biological-samples
#6
George Gachumi, Anas El-Aneed
Plant sterols (phytosterols) are important structural components of plant cellular membranes, and they play a major role during development and metabolism. They have health-associated benefits, especially in lowering blood cholesterol levels. Because of their many health claims, there is a growing interest in their analysis. Although various analytical strategies have been employed in analyzing phytosterols, chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (MS) is superior due to its sensitivity. Furthermore, specificity and selectivity are enhanced by utilizing tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034917/%C3%AE-sitosterol-and-stigmasterol-ameliorate-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-western-style-diet
#7
Simin Feng, Zhuqing Dai, Anna Liu, Hong Wang, Jayson Chen, Zisheng Luo, Chung S Yang
Phytosterols, the plant analogues of cholesterol, widely occur in the human diet. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol (both with purities ≥95%) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high fat Western-style diet. Mice treated with DSS developed severe mucosal colitis, with a marked distortion and crypt loss of colonic surface epithelium. Both β-sitosterol and stigmasterol significantly inhibited colon shortening, lowered fecal hemoglobin content, and reduced the severity of colitis in the middle and distal colon (p < 0...
October 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021813/effect-of-a-short-term-dietary-supplementation-with-phytosterols-red-yeast-rice-or-both-on-lipid-pattern-in-moderately-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-a-three-arm-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Martina Rosticci, Angelo Parini, Marina Giovannini, Maddalena Veronesi, Sergio D'Addato, Claudio Borghi
BACKGROUND: Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect on lipid profile of phytosterols, red yeast rice and their association. METHODS: We performed a three parallel arms, double blind, clinical trial randomizing 90 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects to treatment with phytosterols 800 mg (group 1), red yeast rice standardized to contain 5 mg monacolins from Monascus purpureus (group 2), or both combined nutraceuticals (group 3)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993213/consumer-purchase-behaviour-of-foods-with-added-phytosterols-in-six-european-countries-data-from-a-post-launch-monitoring-survey
#9
Rouyanne T Ras, Elke A Trautwein
A variety of foods with added phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols, PS) known to lower elevated blood cholesterol is available on the European market. This paper reports findings from a 2015 post-launch monitoring survey on consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added PS in UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium and Greece. Data from 80,825 households were included. Households were divided into categories depending on number of purchases, household size, age of primary shopper and presence of children <5 years...
October 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982667/endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-is-negatively-associated-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-humans
#10
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Victor G Dávila-Román, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis...
October 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970778/anti-diabetic-activity-of-stigmasterol-from-soybean-oil-by-targeting-the-glut4-glucose-transporter
#11
Jialin Wang, Mi Huang, Jie Yang, Xinhua Ma, Sijian Zheng, Shihao Deng, Yun Huang, Xinzhou Yang, Ping Zhao
The present study investigated the anti-diabetic activity and potential mechanism of stigmasterol (SMR), which is a kind of phytosterols derived from the edible soybean oil in vitro and in vivo. SMR displayed a mild GLUT4 translocation activity by 1.44-fold in L6 cells. L6 cells were treated with different concentration of SMR, showing significant effects on the enhancing glucose uptake. SMR administrated orally to the KK-Ay mice significantly alleviated their insulin resistance and oral glucose tolerance with reducing fasting blood-glucose levels and blood lipid indexes such as triglyceride and cholesterol...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954389/diosgenin-a-phytosterol-substitute-for-cholesterol-prolongs-the-lifespan-and-mitigates-glucose-toxicity-via-daf-16-foxo-and-gst-4-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Govindan Shanmugam, Amirthalingam Mohankumar, Duraisamy Kalaiselvi, Sundararaj Nivitha, Easwaran Murugesh, Piramanayagam Shanmughavel, Palanisamy Sundararaj
Caenorhabditis elegans is a sterol auxotroph requires minute amount of exogenous sterol for their growth and development. To culture the C. elegans, cholesterol was given as sterol molecule to maintain the optimum survival of worms. Diosgenin (DG), a plant derived steroidal saponin, structurally similar to cholesterol has been used as a precursor for the synthesis of steroidal hormones. In this study, worms were cultured with cholesterol (Cho(+)) and cholesterol-free (Cho(-)) medium with DG (5, 10 and 50μg/mL) at 20°C...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930139/critical-analysis-on-characterization-systemic-effect-and-therapeutic-potential-of-beta-sitosterol-a-plant-derived-orphan-phytosterol
#13
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Selim Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasnuva Sharmin, Mohammed Monzur Morshed
Beta-sitosterol (BS) is a phytosterol, widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and known to be involved in the stabilization of cell membranes. To compile the sources, physical and chemical properties, spectral and chromatographic analytical methods, synthesis, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potentials, toxicity, drug delivery and finally, to suggest future research with BS, classical as well as on-line literature were studied. Classical literature includes classical books on ethnomedicine and phytochemistry, and the electronic search included Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others...
November 15, 2016: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911532/bioactive-phytochemicals-in-barley
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuel Idehen, Yao Tang, Shengmin Sang
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888461/a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-enriched-in-blue-mussels-protects-against-systemic-inflammation-metabolic-dysregulation-and-weight-gain-in-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Hitesh B Vaidya, Surendiran Gangadaran, Sukhinder K Cheema
High fat-high sucrose (HF-HS) diet, known as the western diet, has been shown to induce the onset of obesity via increasing metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction. Hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are also the primary observations of obesogenic diet induced obesity. We have previously reported anti-adipogenic and insulin sensitizing effects of blue mussels (BM) using 3T3-L1 cells. BM is a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols and other micronutrients that has been shown to elicit benefits under obese conditions using in-vitro cell culture models...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881416/improved-fruit-%C3%AE-tocopherol-carotenoid-squalene-and-phytosterol-content-through-manipulation-of-brassica-juncea-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase1-in-transgenic-tomato
#16
Pan Liao, Xinjian Chen, Mingfu Wang, Thomas J Bach, Mee-Len Chye
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS) in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway generates isoprenoids including phytosterols. Dietary phytosterols are important because they can lower blood cholesterol levels. Previously, the overexpression of Brassica juncea wild-type (wt) and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis and increased sterol content. Recombinant S359A had earlier displayed a 10-fold higher in vitro enzyme activity. Furthermore, tobacco HMGS-overexpressors (OEs) exhibited improved sterol content, plant growth and seed yield...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857206/development-and-validation-of-a-simple-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-analytical-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-phytosterols-cholesterol-and-squalene-in-parenteral-lipid-emulsions
#17
Ana Novak, Mercè Gutiérrez-Zamora, Lluís Domenech, Josep M Suñé-Negre, Montserrat Miñarro, Encarna García-Montoya, Josep M Llop, Josep R Ticó, Pilar Pérez-Lozano
A simple analytical method for simultaneous determination of phytosterols, cholesterol, and squalene in lipid emulsions was developed due to increased interest in their clinical effects. Method development was based on commonly used stationary (C18 , C8 and phenyl) and mobile phases (mixtures of acetonitrile, methanol, and water) under isocratic conditions. Differences in stationary phases resulted in peak overlapping or coelution of different peaks. The best separation of all analyzed compounds was achieved on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (150 x 4...
August 30, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842702/stigmasterol-prevents-glucolipotoxicity-induced-defects-in-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#18
Meliza G Ward, Ge Li, Valéria C Barbosa-Lorenzi, Mingming Hao
Type 2 diabetes results from defects in both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Elevated cholesterol content within pancreatic β-cells has been shown to reduce β-cell function and increase β-cell apoptosis. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia contribute to glucolipotoxicity that leads to type 2 diabetes. Here we examined the capacity of glucolipotoxicity to induce free cholesterol accumulation in human pancreatic islets and the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. Glucolipotoxicity treatment increased free cholesterol in β-cells, which was accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased insulin secretion...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829376/the-potential-of-%C3%AE-spinasterol-to-mimic-the-membrane-properties-of-natural-cholesterol
#19
Ivan Haralampiev, Holger A Scheidt, Daniel Huster, Peter Müller
Sterols play a unique role for the structural and dynamical organization of membranes. The current study reports data on the membrane properties of the phytosterol (3β,5α,22E)-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-β-ol (α-spinasterol), which represents an important component of argan oil and have not been investigated so far in molecular detail. In particular, the impact of α-spinasterol on the structure and organization of lipid membranes was investigated and compared with those of cholesterol. Various membrane parameters such as the molecular packing of the phospholipid fatty acyl chains, the membrane permeability toward polar molecules, and the formation of lateral membrane domains were studied...
August 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828630/lanosterol-synthase-like-is-involved-with-differential-accumulation-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-in-potato
#20
Akhilesh Kumar, Edna Fogelman, Mira Weissberg, Zachariah Tanami, Richard E Veilleux, Idit Ginzberg
Phytosterol homeostasis may be maintained in leaves through diversion of intermediates into glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, whereas in tuber flesh, excess intermediates are catalyzed by tuber-specific StLAS - like , resulting in low tuber glycoalkaloids. Lanosterol synthase (LAS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are phylogenetically related enzymes. Cycloartenol is the accepted precursor leading to cholesterol and phytosterols, and in potato, to steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) biosynthesis. LAS was also shown to synthesize some plant sterols, albeit at trace amounts, questioning its role in sterol homeostasis...
December 2017: Planta
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