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Split flow

Hernán E Morales, Paul Sunnucks, Leo Joseph, Alexandra Pavlova
Differential introgression of mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA generates discordant patterns of geographic variation and can promote population divergence and speciation. We examined a potential case of mitochondrial introgression leading to two perpendicular axes of differentiation. The Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis, a widespread Australian bird, shows a deep mitochondrial split that is perpendicular to north-south nuclear DNA and plumage colour differentiation. We propose a scenario to explain this pattern: (1) the two nuclear and mitochondrial genomes differentiated in concert during north-south population divergence; (2) later, their histories disconnected after two mitochondrial introgression events resulting in a deep mitochondrial split perpendicular to the nuclear DNA structure...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Karen May-Newman, Juyeun Moon, Varsha Ramesh, Ricardo Montes, Josue Campos, Brian Herold, Paul Isingoma, Tadashi Motomura, Robert Benkowski
LVAD inflow cannula malposition is a significant risk for pump thrombosis. Thrombus development is influenced by altered flow dynamics, such as stasis or high shear that promote coagulation. The goal of this study was to measure the intraventricular flow field surrounding the apical inflow cannula of the Evaheart centrifugal LVAD, and assess flow stasis, vortex structures and pulsatility for a range of cannula insertion depths and support conditions. Experimental studies were performed using a mock loop with a customized silicone left ventricle (LV) and the Evaheart LVAD...
March 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Baudouin Géraud, Yves Méheust, Isabelle Cantat, Benjamin Dollet
We flow a 2D foam through a model 2D porous medium and study experimentally and numerically how the bubble size distribution evolves along the medium. The dominant mechanism of bubble creation is a fragmentation process occurring when bubbles pinched against obstacles are split in two smaller bubbles. We infer the statistics of these individual and local fragmentation events from the experimental data and propose a fragmentation equation to relate that statistics to the evolution of the global size distribution...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
E Kaliviotis, J M Sherwood, S Balabani
Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cheng Peng, Y Sungtaek Ju
Portable microfluidic devices are promising for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and bio- and environmental surveillance in resource-constrained or non-laboratory environments. Lateral-flow devices, some built off paper or strings, have been widely developed but the fixed layouts of their underlying wicking/microchannel structures limit their flexibility and present challenges in implementing multistep reactions. Digital microfluidics can circumvent these difficulties by addressing discrete droplets individually...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marc Lämmel, Kamil Dzikowski, Klaus Kroy, Luc Oger, Alexandre Valance
The collision of a spherical grain with a granular bed is commonly parametrized by the splash function, which provides the velocity of the rebounding grain and the velocity distribution and number of ejected grains. Starting from elementary geometric considerations and physical principles, like momentum conservation and energy dissipation in inelastic pair collisions, we derive a rebound parametrization for the collision of a spherical grain with a granular bed. Combined with a recently proposed energy-splitting model [Ho et al...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Niall P Macdonald, Joan M Cabot, Petr Smejkal, Rosanne M Guijt, Brett Paull, Michael C Breadmore
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a potential revolutionary technology for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. A direct experimental comparison of the three 3D printing technologies dominating microfluidics was conducted using a Y-junction microfluidic device, the design of which was optimized for each printer: fused deposition molding (FDM), Polyjet, and digital light processing stereolithography (DLP-SLA). Printer performance was evaluated in terms of feature size, accuracy, and suitability for mass manufacturing; laminar flow was studied to assess their suitability for microfluidics...
March 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Zoltan Szabo, James R Thayer, Yury Agroskin, Shanhua Lin, Yan Liu, Kannan Srinivasan, Julian Saba, Rosa Viner, Andreas Huhmer, Jeff Rohrer, Dietmar Reusch, Rania Harfouche, Shaheer H Khan, Christopher Pohl
Characterization of glycans present on glycoproteins has become of increasing importance due to their biological implications, such as protein folding, immunogenicity, cell-cell adhesion, clearance, receptor interactions, etc. In this study, the resolving power of high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) was applied to glycan separations and coupled to mass spectrometry to characterize native glycans released from different glycoproteins. A new, rapid workflow generates glycans from 200 μg of glycoprotein supporting reliable and reproducible annotation by mass spectrometry (MS)...
March 9, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Andras Budai, Andras Fulop, Oszkar Hahn, Peter Onody, Tibor Kovacs, Tibor Nemeth, Miklos Dunay, Attila Szijarto
BACKGROUND: Since 2012, Associated Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been standing in the limelight of modern liver surgery and numerous questions have been raised regarding this novel approach. On the one hand, ALPPS has proved to be a valuable method in the treatment of hepatic tumors, while on the other hand, there are many controversies, such as high mortality and morbidity rates. Further surgical research is essential for a better understanding of underlying mechanisms and for enhancing patient safety...
March 9, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Jianlong Yang, Johnny Su, Jie Wang, Silu Men, Yali Jia, David Huang, Gangjun Liu
The hematocrit dependence of flow signal (split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography-SSADA decorrelation value) was investigated in this paper. Based on the normalized field temporal correlation function and concentration dependent particle scattering properties, the relationship between hematocrit and flow signal was analytically derived. Experimental verification of the relationship was performed with custom-designed microfluidic chips and human blood with 45%, 40% and 32% hematocrit. It was found that, in large flow channels and blood vessels, the normal hematocrit is near the decorrelation saturation point and therefore a change in hematocrit has little effect on the SSADA decorrelation value (flow signal)...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
A J Whitfield, E R Johnson
This paper derives the Whitham modulation equations for the Ostrovsky equation. The equations are then used to analyse localized cnoidal wavepacket solutions of the Ostrovsky equation in the weak rotation limit. The analysis is split into two main parameter regimes: the Ostrovsky equation with normal dispersion relevant to typical oceanic parameters and the Ostrovsky equation with anomalous dispersion relevant to strongly sheared oceanic flows and other physical systems. For anomalous dispersion a new steady, symmetric cnoidal wavepacket solution is presented...
January 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
H Xu, X M Kong
Objective: To investigate the alteration of retinal microcirculation and structural damage at macular region and evaluate their associations in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Fifty-nine POAG patients (male/femal=35/24) were recruited from July 2015 to December 2015 in Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University. Twenty-eight eyes of early-stage POAG group (EG), 11 eyes of moderate-stage POAG group (MG) and 20 eyes of severe-stage POAG group (SG) were enrolled in this study...
February 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
M Wahrmann, J Mühlbacher, L Marinova, H Regele, N Huttary, F Eskandary, G Cohen, G F Fischer, Graham C Parry, J C Gilbert, S Panicker, G A Böhmig
The classical pathway (CP) of complement is believed to significantly contribute to alloantibody-mediated transplant injury, and targeted complement inhibition is currently considered to be a promising approach for preventing rejection. Here, we investigated the mode of action and efficacy of the humanized anti-C1s monoclonal antibody TNT009 and its parental mouse variant, TNT003, in preclinical in vitro models of HLA antibody-triggered CP activation. In flow cytometric assays, we measured the attachment of C1 subcomponents and C4/C3 split products (C4b/d, C3b/d) to HLA antigen-coated flow beads or HLA-mismatched aortic endothelial cells and splenic lymphocytes...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Luis Anel-López, Olga Garcia-Álvarez, Alejandro Maroto-Morales, Tatiana Tarantini, David Del Olmo, Jose Antonio Ortiz, Emilio Arsenio Martinez, Jordi Roca, Juan Maria Vazquez, Jose Julian Garde, Inmaculada Parrilla
Currently, sperm reproductive biotechnologies such as sex sorting and cryopreservation are undoubtedly valuable tools for improving the economic and biological efficiency of red deer production systems. In this context, and because of the particular characteristics of this species (extensive exploitation typically far from laboratory facilities), a key goal is to optimize the design of an adequate handling protocol of sperm samples before samples are subjected to sex sorting and cryopreservation procedures to obtain better outputs from the application of these technologies...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
Zhongming Chen, Peter Schubert, Sonia Bakkour, Brankica Culibrk, Michael P Busch, Dana V Devine
BACKGROUND: Biochemical analyses of mechanisms triggered in platelets (PLTs) upon pathogen inactivation (PI) are crucial to further understand the impact of PI on PLT functionality and, subsequently, quality. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PLT concentrates (PCs) were split into four small illumination bags: 1) untreated control, 2) treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light (RF/UV), and spiked with 3) solvent control dimethyl sulfoxide and 4) p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580 before RF/UV treatment...
February 24, 2017: Transfusion
Mark-Robert Kalus, Niko Bärsch, René Streubel, Emine Gökce, Stephan Barcikowski, Bilal Gökce
During laser synthesis of colloids, cavitation bubbles with lifetimes in the microsecond-scale form and shield the laser pulse leading to a decrease in nanoparticle output. A second type of productivity-limiting bubble that severely affects the productivity of the process is often neglected. With lifetimes from milliseconds to seconds, these persistent bubbles are systematically studied in this work by quantifying their composition, amount, size and dwell time in liquids with different viscosities and by relating the results to the nanoparticle productivities...
February 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Steven R Doonan, Ryan C Bailey
By rapidly creating libraries of thousands of unique, miniaturized reactors, droplet microfluidics provides a powerful method for automating high-throughput chemical analysis. In order to engineer in-droplet assays, microfluidic devices must add reagents into droplets, remove fluid from droplets, and perform other necessary operations, each typically provided by a unique, specialized geometry. Unfortunately, modifying device performance or changing operations usually requires re-engineering the device among these specialized geometries, a time-consuming and costly process when optimizing in-droplet assays...
March 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Mehrdad Bokharaei, Katayoun Saatchi, Urs O Häfeli
Principles of double emulsion generation were incorporated in a glass microfluidic chip fabricated with two different surface properties in order to produce protein loaded polymer microspheres. The microspheres were produced by integrating two microfluidic flow focusing systems and a multi-step droplet splitting and mixing system into one chip. The chip consists of a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic section with two different heights, 12μm and 45μm, respectively. As a result, the protein is homogenously distributed throughout the polymer microsphere matrix, not just in its center (which has been studied before)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Xu Jiang, Keda Wang, Junqing Li, Hui Zhan, Zhenan Song, Guohang Che, Guohui Lyu
This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit...
February 15, 2017: Sensors
V I Klyatskin, K V Koshel
Buoyant material clustering in a stochastic flow, which is homogeneous and isotropic in space and stationary in time, is addressed. The dynamics of buoyant material in three-dimensional hydrodynamic flows can be considered as the motion of passive tracers in a compressible two-dimensional velocity field. The latter is of interest in the present study. It is well known that the clustering of the density of passive tracers occurs in this case. We evaluate the impact of diffusion on the clustering process by using a numerical model...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
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