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Split flow

Kazuki Akamatsu, Koki Minezaki, Masumi Yamada, Minoru Seki, Shin-Ichi Nakao
Direct observation of double emulsion droplet permeation through a microchannel that mimicked 100-μm membrane pores with a porosity of 66.7% provided insights regarding splitting mechanisms in porous membranes. The microchannel was fabricated by standard soft lithography, and the oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsion droplets were prepared with a glass capillary device. By changing the flow rate from 0.5 to 5.0×10(-2) m s(-1), three characteristic behaviors were observed: (a) passage into one channel without splitting; (b) division into two smaller components; and (c) stripping of the middle water phase of the double emulsion droplets into a smaller double emulsion droplet and a smaller water-in-oil single emulsion droplet...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sujin Bahk, GyeongHyeon Doh, Ki Yong Hong, SooA Lim, SuRak Eo
Reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the foot remains a challenge due to its specialized tissue for weightbearing and ambulation. Considering the principle of replacing "like with like," adjacent soft tissues would be a best option for a donor site. Although several kinds of reverse-flow island flaps for the lower leg have been well described, intrinsic foot reverse flow flaps have been rarely reported. We describe 3 kinds of reverse-flow intrinsic fasciocutaneous flaps (RIFFs) for foot reconstruction. From September 2012 to August 2015, a retrospective study was done on case notes of all patients who had a RIFF for coverage of soft tissue defects within the foot following trauma or tumor ablation...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Mona Mozafari, Sami El Deeb, Friederike Krull, Robert Wildgruber, Gerhard Weber, Christian G Reiter, Hermann Wätzig
A fast and precise affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method has been applied to investigate the interactions between two serum albumins (HSA and BSA) and heparinoids. Furthermore, different free flow electrophoresis methods were developed to separate the species which appears owing to interaction of albumins with pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) under different experimental conditions. For ACE experiments, the normalized mobility ratios (∆R/Rf ), which provided information about the binding strength and the overall charge of the protein-ligand complex, were used to evaluate the binding affinities...
November 13, 2017: Electrophoresis
Aniek J G Even, Bart Reymen, Matthew D La Fontaine, Marco Das, Felix M Mottaghy, José S A Belderbos, Dirk De Ruysscher, Philippe Lambin, Wouter van Elmpt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to identify tumour subregions with characteristic phenotypes based on pre-treatment multi-parametric functional imaging and correlate these subregions to treatment outcome. The subregions were created using imaging of metabolic activity (FDG-PET/CT), hypoxia (HX4-PET/CT) and tumour vasculature (DCE-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients underwent functional imaging prior to radical radiotherapy...
November 6, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Beatriz Goulão, Graeme MacLennan, Craig Ramsay
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sample size calculation, analysis and reporting of split-plot randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthcare (trials that use two units of randomisation: one at a cluster-level and one at a level lower than the cluster). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We carried out a comprehensive search in the EMBASE database from 1946 to 2016. Healthcare trials with a split-plot design in human subjects were included. Three authors screened and assessed the studies and data were extracted on methodology and reporting standards based upon CONSORT...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
I Crespo-Félez, A Castañeda-Sampedro, D I Sánchez, E Fernández-Alegre, M Álvarez-Rodríguez, J C Domínguez, J M Morrell, F Martínez-Pastor
Selecting the optimal sperm population is essential for success with reproductive techniques. Porcicoll (formerly Androcoll-P) is a colloid formulation for selection of high-quality boar spermatozoa by single layer centrifugation (SLC). To date, most studies have been carried out with fresh semen and large volumes. We carried out 2 experiments to test the use of Porcicoll for thawed boar semen in small volumes. In Experiment 1, cryopreserved semen doses were thawed, split in 200-μL aliquots and layered on 1mL of Porcicoll 70%, 80% or 90%, or buffer without colloid...
November 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Minmin Chen, Michael C Fontaine, Yacine Ben Chehida, Jinsong Zheng, Frédéric Labbé, Zhigang Mei, Yujiang Hao, Kexiong Wang, Min Wu, Qingzhong Zhao, Ding Wang
Understanding demographic trends and patterns of gene flow in an endangered species is crucial for devising conservation strategies. Here, we examined the extent of population structure and recent evolution of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis). By analysing genetic variation at the mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite loci for 148 individuals, we identified three populations along the Yangtze River, each one connected to a group of admixed ancestry...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
H Li, C Zhang, C L Deng, X J Tang, K Y Nie, Z R Wei
Objective: To investigate clinical effects of middle and low peroneal artery perforator flap with pedicle on repairing skin and soft tissue defects of ankle. Methods: Twenty patients with skin and soft tissue defects of ankle and exposure of tendon and bone were admitted in our burn wards from April 2012 to December 2015. The size of skin and soft tissue defects ranged from 5 cm×4 cm to 23 cm×10 cm. Patients were treated with debridement and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) after admission. After VSD treatment for 1 week, flap transplantation operation was performed...
October 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Xiao Shu, Wenzhong Liu, Lian Duan, Hao F Zhang
Retinal oxygen metabolic rate can be effectively measured by visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), which simultaneously quantifies oxygen saturation and blood flow rate in retinal vessels through spectroscopic analysis and Doppler measurement, respectively. Doppler OCT relates phase variation between sequential A-lines to the axial flow velocity of the scattering medium. The detectable phase shift is between -π and π due to its periodicity, which limits the maximum measurable unambiguous velocity without phase unwrapping...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Xianwei Huang, Xiaohui Shi, Zhixiang Deng, Yanfeng Bai, Xiquan Fu
The evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a modulated vortex in free space is numerically investigated. Compared with the unmodulated vortex, the unique property is that the beam spots first break up, and then gather. The evolution of the beams is influenced by the parameters of the vortex modulation, and the splitting phenomenon gets enhanced with multiple rings becoming light spots if the modulation depth increases. The symmetric branch pattern of the beam spots gets changed when the number of phase folds increases, and the initial modulation phase only impacts the angle of the beam spots...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Minghui Ji, Yudong Zhang, Na Li, Chao Wang, Rong Xia, Zhan Zhang, Shou-Lin Wang
Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O)...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
C Chnafa, P Bouillot, O Brina, B M A Delattre, M I Vargas, K O Lovblad, V M Pereira, D A Steinman
OBJECTIVE: Vessel lumen calibres and flow rates are thought to be related by mathematical power laws, reflecting the optimization of cardiac versus metabolic work. While these laws have been confirmed indirectly via measurement of branch calibres, there is little data confirming power law relationships of flow distribution to branch calibres at individual bifurcations. APPROACH: Flow rates and diameters of parent and daughter vessels of the internal carotid artery terminal bifurcation were determined, via robust and automated methods, from 4D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and 3D rotational angiography of 31 patients...
November 1, 2017: Physiological Measurement
DanDan Yan, Laura Tedone, Anthony Koutoulis, Simon P Whittock, Robert A Shellie
We introduce an information rich analytical approach called parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC). This parallel chromatography approach splits injected samples into two independent two-dimensional column ensembles and provides two GC×GC separations by using contra-directional thermal modulation. The first-dimension ((1)D) and second-dimension ((2)D) columns are connected using planar three-port microchannel devices, which are supplied with supplementary flow via two pressure controller modules...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jingying Shi, Dou Dou Zhang, Wei Zi, Peng Peng Wang, Sheng Zhong Liu
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) technology for the conversion of solar energy to chemicals requires cost-effective photoelectrodes to efficiently and stably drive anodic and/or cathodic half-reactions to complete the overall reactions for storing solar energy in chemical bonds. The shared properties among semiconducting photoelectrodes and photovoltaic (PV) materials are light absorption and charge separation and charge transfer. Earth-abundant silicon materials have been widely applied in the PV industry, demonstrating their efficiency as alternative photoabsorbers for photoelectrodes...
October 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Greg Mellers, Beatriz Vigalondo, Llorenç Sáez, Pablo Vargas, Beverley J Glover
Disentangling species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within recent evolutionary radiations is a challenge due to the poor morphological differentiation and low genetic divergence between species, frequently accompanied by phenotypic convergence, interspecific gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. Here we employed a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach, in combination with morphometric analyses, to investigate a small western Mediterranean clade in the flowering plant genus Linaria that radiated in the Quaternary...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Biology
Qing-Bo Liu, Dan-Dan Wu, Hua-Hua Fu
By using the first-principle calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we have studied spin caloritronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different edge defects. The theoretical results show that the edge-defected GNRs with sawtooth shapes can exhibit spin-dependent currents with opposite flowing directions by applying temperature gradients, indicating the occurrence of the spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE). The edge defects bring about two opposite effects on the thermal spin currents: the enhancement of the symmetry of thermal spin-dependent currents, which contributes to the realization of pure thermal spin currents, and the decreasing of the spin thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the devices...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Félix Gendre, Denis Ricot, Guillaume Fritz, Pierre Sagaut
This study focuses on grid refinement techniques for the direct simulation of aeroacoustics, when using weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann models, such as the D3Q19 athermal velocity set. When it comes to direct noise computation, very small errors on the density or pressure field may have great negative consequences. Even strong acoustic density fluctuations have indeed a clearly lower amplitude than the hydrodynamic ones. This work deals with such very weak spurious fluctuations that emerge when a vortical structure crosses a refinement interface, which may contaminate the resulting aeroacoustic field...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Sonia Escolástico, Cecilia Solı S, Christian Kjølseth, Jose Manuel Serra
(LWO/LSC) composite is one of the most promising mixed ionic-electronic conducting materials for hydrogen separation at high temperature. However, these materials present limited catalytic surface activity toward H2 activation and water splitting, which determines the overall H2 separation rate. For the implementation of these materials as catalytic membrane reactors, effective catalytic layers have to be developed that are compatible and stable under the reaction conditions. This contribution presents the development of catalytic layers based on sputtered metals (Cu and Pd), electrochemical characterization by impendace spectroscopy, and the study of the H2 flow obtained by coating them on 60/40-LWO/LSC membranes...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Valerio Paolini, Ettore Guerriero, Mattia Perilli, Paola Romagnoli, Carmela Tortorella, Renato Michele Nacci, Aldo Giove, Antonio Febo
The artifacts induced by oxidative degradation and volatilization were assessed with regards to determination of particulate atmospheric PAHs collected at low volume conditions (2.3 m(3) h(-1)) according to the EU Reference Method EN 12341:2014. In order to evaluate the oxidative degradation, PAH measures carried out through collecting airborne particulate with and without ozone denuders were examined. Simultaneously, the influence of volatilization was investigated by comparing concentrations of PAHs in particulate samples collected over 24-h and 12-h using conventional instruments...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
Xuequan Feng, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Ivan H El-Sayed, Michael T Lawton, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: Extracranial-to-intracranial high-flow bypass often requires cranial, cervical, and graft site incisions. The internal maxillary artery (IMA) has been proposed as a donor to decrease invasiveness, but its length is insufficient for direct intracranial bypass. We report interposition of a superficial temporal artery (STA) graft for high-flow IMA to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass using a middle fossa approach. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of an IMA-STA graft-MCA bypass using a new middle fossa approach...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
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