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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213275/a-single-microfluidic-chip-with-dual-surface-properties-for-protein-drug-delivery
#1
Mehrdad Bokharaei, Katayoun Saatchi, Urs O Häfeli
Principles of double emulsion generation were incorporated in a glass microfluidic chip fabricated with two different surface properties in order to produce protein loaded polymer microspheres. The microspheres were produced by integrating two microfluidic flow focusing systems and a multi-step droplet splitting and mixing system into one chip. The chip consists a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic section with two different heights, 12μm and 45μm, respectively. As a result, the protein is homogenously distributed throughout the polymer microsphere matrix, not just in its center (which has been studied before)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212268/optical-sensor-of-thermal-gas-flow-based-on-fiber-bragg-grating
#2
Xu Jiang, Keda Wang, Junqing Li, Hui Zhan, Zhenan Song, Guohang Che, Guohui Lyu
This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit...
February 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208478/impact-of-diffusion-on-surface-clustering-in-random-hydrodynamic-flows
#3
V I Klyatskin, K V Koshel
Buoyant material clustering in a stochastic flow, which is homogeneous and isotropic in space and stationary in time, is addressed. The dynamics of buoyant material in three-dimensional hydrodynamic flows can be considered as the motion of passive tracers in a compressible two-dimensional velocity field. The latter is of interest in the present study. It is well known that the clustering of the density of passive tracers occurs in this case. We evaluate the impact of diffusion on the clustering process by using a numerical model...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198974/effect-of-two-desensitizing-agents-on-dentin-permeability-in-vitro
#4
Hiroshi Ishihata, Masafumi Kanehira, Werner J Finger, Hidekazu Takahashi, Makoto Tomita, Keiichi Sasaki
Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of two desensitizing agents and water on hydraulic conductance in human dentin. Material and Methods: GLUMA Desensitizer PowerGel (GLU) contains glutaraldehyde (GA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and Teethmate Desensitizer (TD) is a powder comprising tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) that is mixed with water. Deionized water was used as a negative control (CTR)...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190358/submerged-cultivation-of-pleurotus-sapidus-with-molasses-aroma-dilution-analyses-by-means-of-solid-phase-microextraction-and-stir-bar-sorptive-extraction
#5
Tobias Trapp, Martina Zajul, Jenny Ahlborn, Alexander Stephan, Holger Zorn, Marco Alexander Fraatz
The basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus (PSA) was grown in submerged cultures with molasses as substrate for the production of mycelium as a protein source for food applications. The volatilomes of the substrate, the submerged culture, and the mycelia were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-olfactometry. For compound identification, aroma dilution analyses by means of headspace solid phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction were performed via variation of the split vent flow rate...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187982/the-renal-trpv4-channel-is-essential-for-adaptation-to-increased-dietary-potassium
#6
Mykola V Mamenko, Nabila Boukelmoune, Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg L Zaika, V Behrana Jensen, Roger G O'Neil, Oleh M Pochynyuk
To maintain potassium homeostasis, kidneys exert flow-dependent potassium secretion to facilitate kaliuresis in response to elevated dietary potassium intake. This process involves stimulation of calcium-activated large conductance maxi-K (BK) channels in the distal nephron, namely the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that the TRPV4 channel is a critical determinant of flow-dependent intracellular calcium elevations in these segments of the renal tubule. Here, we demonstrate that elevated dietary potassium intake (five percent potassium) increases renal TRPV4 mRNA and protein levels in an aldosterone-dependent manner and causes redistribution of the channel to the apical plasma membrane in native collecting duct cells...
February 7, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187883/enhancement-of-lung-sounds-based-on-empirical-mode-decomposition-and-fourier-transform-algorithm
#7
Ashok Mondal, Poulami Banerjee, Ajay Somkuwar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering during the recording of lung sound (LS) signals. This obscures the features of LS signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. In this work, a new method is proposed for reduction of heart sound interference which is based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique and prediction algorithm. METHOD: In this approach, first the mixed signal is split into several components in terms of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs)...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171871/effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-eyes-with-chronic-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#8
Yishuang Xu, Yu Su, Lu Li, Hang Qi, Hongmei Zheng, Changzheng Chen
PURPOSE: To analyze the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in order to observe the changes in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CCSC) after half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating an imaging technique in a cohort of patients. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) (Heidelberg Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany), OCT, and OCTA with the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm (XR Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA) were performed prior to half-dose PDT...
February 8, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170232/contaminant-removal-from-source-waters-using-cathodic-electrochemical-membrane-filtration-mechanisms-and-implications
#9
Junjian Zheng, Jinxing Ma, Zhiwei Wang, Shaoping Xu, T David Waite, Zhichao Wu
Removal of recalcitrant anthropogenic contaminants from water calls for the development of cost-effective treatment technologies. In this work, a novel electrochemical membrane filtration (EMF) process using a conducting microfiltration membrane as the cathode has been developed and the degradation of sulphanilic acid (SA) examined. The electrochemical degradation of SA in flow-by mode followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with the degradation rate enhanced with increase in charging voltage. Hydrogen peroxide as well as oxidants such as HO• and Fe(IV)O2+ were generated electrochemically with HO• found to be the dominant oxidant responsible for SA degradation...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161171/technical-note-effects-of-attachment-of-hind-teats-before-cleaning-and-attachment-of-front-teats-on-milking-characteristics-in-automatic-milking-systems
#10
J Besier, G Schüpbach-Regula, O Wellnitz, R M Bruckmaier
Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129077/contributing-causes-of-injury-or-death-in-grain-entrapment-engulfment-and-extrication
#11
Salah Fuad Issa, William E Field, Charles V Schwab, Fadi S Issa, Eric Nauman
OBJECTIVES: Grain entrapments and engulfments are one of most common hazards associated with grain storage facilities with over 1,140 such entrapments/engulfments documented since the 1970's. The objective of the study was to determine the factors that contribute to injury or death in grain entrapment, engulfment and extrication cases. METHODS: A literature review, including data contained in the Purdue Agricultural Confined Spaces Incident Database was conducted to determine the conditions that the body experiences during an entrapment or engulfment in grains and during extrication efforts...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128659/remifentanil-reduces-blood-loss-during-orthognathic-surgery
#12
Nobuyuki Matsuura, Taiki Okamura, Satoko Ide, Tatsuya Ichinohe
Remifentanil is reported to reduce oral tissue blood flow. We performed a retrospective investigation using logistic regression analysis of anesthesia records to investigate whether the use of remifentanil infusion in a balanced anesthesia technique was useful as a primary technique to reduce blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Subjects were 80 patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. The variables included gender, age, weight, type of maintenance anesthetic, type and dose or infusion rate of opioid, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP-mean), coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure (CVSBP) during surgery, mean heart rate (HR-mean), duration of surgery, total blood loss, volume of infusion used, amount of local anesthetic used, body temperature, and urine output...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122497/phylogeography-of-red-muntjacs-reveals-three-distinct-mitochondrial-lineages
#13
Renata F Martins, Jörns Fickel, Minh Le, Thanh van Nguyen, Ha M Nguyen, Robert Timmins, Han Ming Gan, Jeffrine J Rovie-Ryan, Dorina Lenz, Daniel W Förster, Andreas Wilting
BACKGROUND: The members of the genus Muntiacus are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their extreme chromosomal rearrangements and the ongoing discussions about the number of living species. Red muntjacs have the largest distribution of all muntjacs and were formerly considered as one species. Karyotype differences led to the provisional split between the Southern Red Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) and the Northern Red Muntjac (M. vaginalis), but uncertainties remain as, so far, no phylogenetic study has been conducted...
January 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114815/changes-in-cd4-cd25-tregs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#14
Li Xue-Mei, Chen Jie, Dai Xuan, Liao Xiao-Xing, Hu Chun-Lin, Li Yu-Jie
The goal of this study was to observe the pathological characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic walls of ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice and the changes of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in atherosclerotic mice. Twenty ApoE(-/-) mice were split into high-fat diet (AH) and normal diet (AN) groups and 10 C57BL/6J male mice were designated as the control group (BN). The serum concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; paraffin sections of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin & eosin, and morphometric parameters were measured using the Image Pro Plus 6...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110496/heterogenic-response-of-prokaryotes-toward-silver-nanoparticles-and-ions-is-facilitated-by-phenotypes-and-attachment-of-silver-aggregates-to-cell-surfaces
#15
Yuting Guo, Hans J Stärk, Gerd Hause, Matthias Schmidt, Hauke Harms, Lukas Y Wick, Susann Müller
Tons of anthropogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are assumed to be released into the environment due to their use in many consumer products. AgNPs are known to be toxic toward microorganisms and thus may harm their specific functions in ecosystems. Here we explore the impact of AgNPs on functioning of single cells in microbial populations at doses typically found in anthropogenic environments. The response of single cells to AgNPs was analyzed by flow cytometry and using the fluorescent dyes propidium iodide and DiBAC4 (3) as markers for cell membrane disintegration and depolarization, respectively...
January 22, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100636/centriole-splitting-caused-by-loss-of-the-centrosomal-linker-protein-c-nap1-reduces-centriolar-satellite-density-and-impedes-centrosome-amplification
#16
Anne-Marie Flanagan, Elena Stavenschi, Shivakumar Basavaraju, David Gaboriau, David A Hoey, Ciaran G Morrison
Duplication of the centrosomes is a tightly regulated process. Abnormal centrosome numbers can impair cell division and cause changes in how cells migrate. Duplicated centrosomes are held together by a proteinaceous linker made up of rootletin filaments anchored to the centrioles by C-NAP1. This linker is removed in a NEK2A kinase-dependent manner as mitosis begins. To explore C-NAP1 activities in regulating centrosome activities, we used genome editing to ablate it. C-NAP1 null cells were viable and had an increased frequency of premature centriole separation, accompanied by reduced density of the centriolar satellites, with re-expression of C-NAP1 rescuing both these phenotypes...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097007/safety-assessment-in-rats-and-dogs-of-acoustic-cluster-therapy-a-novel-concept-for-ultrasound-mediated-targeted-drug-delivery
#17
Oddvar Myhre, Marie Bjørgan, Derek Grant, Svein-Olaf Hustvedt, Per C Sontum, Hubert Dirven
Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT) represents a novel concept for targeted drug delivery. Ultrasound is applied to activate intravenously administered free-flowing clusters of microbubbles and microdroplets within the target pathology, depositing 20-30 μm large bubbles in the microvasculature for 5-10 min. Further application of ultrasound induces biomechanical effects which increase vascular permeability and enhance localized extravasation of coadministered drugs. Herein we report investigations done to assess the preclinical safety of ACT, using doses up to 1 mL/kg (3 μL perfluoromethyl-cyclopentane/kg)...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087768/the-rice-paradox-multiple-origins-but-single-domestication-in-asian-rice
#18
Jae Young Choi, Adrian E Platts, Dorian Q Fuller, Yue-Ie Hsing, Rod A Wing, Michael D Purugganan
The origin of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been a contentious topic, with conflicting evidence for either single or multiple domestication of this key crop species. We examined the evolutionary history of domesticated rice by analyzing de novo assembled genomes from domesticated rice and its wild progenitors. Our results indicate multiple origins, where each domesticated rice subpopulation (japonica, indica, and aus) arose separately from progenitor O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara Coalescence-based modeling of demographic parameters estimate that the first domesticated rice population to split off from O...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072530/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-on-the-multistate-species-distribution-of-3-methoxy-4-7-dihydroxyflavylium-discrimination-of-the-two-hemiketal-enantiomers
#19
Sandra Gago, Nuno Basílio, Alexandre Quintas, Fernando Pina
The effect of the β-cyclodextrin on the mole fraction distribution of the multistate species of the anthocyanins model compound, 3-methoxy-4',7-dihydroxyflavylium, was studied by NMR, stopped flow, circular dichroism and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The formation of inclusion complexes with hemiketal and trans-chalcone, possessing transition dipole moments in a parallel orientation to the cyclodextrin n-fold axis, was unequivocally proved by means of the positive induced circular dichroism signal. The discrimination of the two hemiketal enantiomers was achieved by the splitting of 1H NMR peaks in the presence β-cyclodextrin...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065549/an-experimental-investigation-of-underwater-spread-of-oil-spill-in-a-shear-flow
#20
Hongjun Zhu, Jiahui You, Honglei Zhao
The time taken for spilt oil to appear firstly at the sea surface and its location are two key issues for emergency response. The underwater spread of oil spill in a shear flow was studied experimentally in a re-circulating water channel. The high speed imaging technology was employed to record the whole transport process of oil spilt from a leak of a submarine pipe to the surface. Based on the experimental results, three underwater transport types are identified, which are single droplet pattern (model A), linear chain pattern (model B) and oil plume pattern (model C), respectively...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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