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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709304/shear-induced-laning-transition-in-a-confined-colloidal-film
#1
Sascha Gerloff, Tarlan A Vezirov, Sabine H L Klapp
Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we investigate a dense system of charged colloids exposed to shear flow in a confined (slit-pore) geometry. The equilibrium system at zero flow consists of three well-pronounced layers with a squarelike crystalline in-plane structure. We demonstrate that, for sufficiently large shear rates, the middle layer separates into two sublayers where the particles organize into moving lanes with opposite velocities. The formation of this "microlaned" state results in a destruction of the applied shear profile; it also has a strong impact on the structure of the system, and on its rheology as measured by the elements of the stress tensor...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708841/nlpd-links-cell-wall-remodeling-and-outer-membrane-invagination-during-cytokinesis-in-escherichia-coli
#2
Mary-Jane Tsang, Anastasiya A Yakhnina, Thomas G Bernhardt
Cytokinesis in gram-negative bacteria requires the constriction of all three cell envelope layers: the inner membrane (IM), the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall and the outer membrane (OM). In order to avoid potentially lethal breaches in cell integrity, this dramatic reshaping of the cell surface requires tight coordination of the different envelope remodeling activities of the cytokinetic ring. However, the mechanisms responsible for this coordination remain poorly defined. One of the few characterized regulatory points in the envelope remodeling process is the activation of cell wall hydrolytic enzymes called amidases...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700641/serial-dna-relay-in-dna-logic-gates-by-electrical-fusion-and-mechanical-splitting-of-droplets
#3
Hiroki Yasuga, Kosuke Inoue, Ryuji Kawano, Masahiro Takinoue, Toshihisa Osaki, Koki Kamiya, Norihisa Miki, Shoji Takeuchi
DNA logic circuits utilizing DNA hybridization and/or enzymatic reactions have drawn increasing attention for their potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of cellular diseases. The compartmentalization of such a system into a microdroplet considerably helps to precisely regulate local interactions and reactions between molecules. In this study, we introduced a relay approach for enabling the transfer of DNA from one droplet to another to implement multi-step sequential logic operations. We proposed electrical fusion and mechanical splitting of droplets to facilitate the DNA flow at the inputs, logic operation, output, and serial connection between two logic gates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693724/direct-coupling-of-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-amino-acids-and-related-compounds-comparing-electrospray-ionization-and-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization
#4
Denise Wolrab, Peter Frühauf, Christopher Gerner
For acceptance of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as a routine analysis method, the hyphenation to mass spectrometry (MS), which is typically achieved either by a splitting device or by the employment of an additional make up flow, has to be improved. Direct coupling of SFC to MS (/MS) would simplify the handling of this method. Consequently, this work focused on the direct coupling of SFC to mass spectrometry and the influence of the employed ion source on signal intensities of polar and ionic compounds in biological samples...
August 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692595/the-quantitative-measurements-of-vascular-density-and-flow-area-of-optic-nerve-head-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#5
Fatemeh Bazvand, Reza Mirshahi, Kaveh Fadakar, Houshangh Faghihi, Siamak Sabour, Fariba Ghassemi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular density (VD) and the flow area on optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area, and the impact of age and sex using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy human subjects. METHODS: Both eyes of each volunteer were scanned by an RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue with OCTA using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm technique. Masked graders evaluated enface angiodisc OCTA data...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692526/preoperative-nutritional-assessment-with-the-prognostic-nutrition-index-in-patients-undergoing-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#6
Gardner Yost, Antone Tatooles, Geetha Bhat
The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is a simple metric that uses serum albumin and total lymphocyte count to provide a basic indicator for nutritional status. It has recently garnered attention as a prognosticator of outcomes in many types of cancer. We investigated the utility of the PNI as a marker for poor outcomes following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients implanted with continuous-flow LVADs were included. Prognostic nutritional index was calculated for all patients (PNI = [10 × serum albumin {g/dl}] + [0...
July 7, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690865/delaying-pigs-from-the-normal-production-flow-is-associated-with-health-problems-and-poorer-performance
#7
Julia Adriana Calderón Díaz, Alessia Diana, Laura Ann Boyle, Finola C Leonard, Máire McElroy, Shane McGettrick, John Moriarty, Edgar García Manzanilla
BACKGROUND: Delaying pigs from advancing through the production stages could have a negative impact on their health and performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible implications of delaying pigs from the normal production flow on pig health and performance in a farrow-to-finish commercial farm with a self-declared All-In/All-Out (AIAO) management. RESULTS: Three flows of pigs were defined, flow 1 (i.e. pigs that followed the normal production flow; 8 weeks in the nursery stage, 4 weeks in the growing stage and 8 weeks in the finisher stage), flow 2 (i...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688582/net-k-secretion-in-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-mice-on-a-low-na-high-k-diet
#8
Bangchen Wang, Donghai Wen, Huaqing Li, Jun Wang-France, Steven C Sansom
Because of its cardio-protective effects, a low-Na, high-K diet (LNaHK) is often warranted in conjunction with diuretics to treat hypertensive patients. However, it is necessary to understand the renal handling of such diets in order to choose the best diuretic. Wild-type (WT) or Renal Outer Medullary K channel (ROMK) knockout mice (KO) were given a regular (CTRL), LNaHK, or high-K diet (HK) for 4-7 days. On LNaHK, mice treated with either IP furosemide for 12 hrs, or given furosemide in drinking water for 7 days, exhibited decreased K clearance...
July 6, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676279/projection-resolved-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-macular-retinal-circulation-in-glaucoma
#9
Hana L Takusagawa, Liang Liu, Kelly N Ma, Yali Jia, Simon S Gao, Miao Zhang, Beth Edmunds, Mansi Parikh, Shandiz Tehrani, John C Morrison, David Huang
PURPOSE: To detect macular perfusion defects in glaucoma using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. DESIGN: Prospective observation study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 30 perimetric glaucoma and 30 age-matched normal participants were included. METHODS: One eye of each participant was imaged using 6 × 6-mm macular OCT angiography (OCTA) scan pattern by 70-kHz 840-nm spectral-domain OCT. Flow signal was calculated by the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm...
July 1, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675384/deeply-divergent-archaic-mitochondrial-genome-provides-lower-time-boundary-for-african-gene-flow-into-neanderthals
#10
Cosimo Posth, Christoph Wißing, Keiko Kitagawa, Luca Pagani, Laura van Holstein, Fernando Racimo, Kurt Wehrberger, Nicholas J Conard, Claus Joachim Kind, Hervé Bocherens, Johannes Krause
Ancient DNA is revealing new insights into the genetic relationship between Pleistocene hominins and modern humans. Nuclear DNA indicated Neanderthals as a sister group of Denisovans after diverging from modern humans. However, the closer affinity of the Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to modern humans than Denisovans has recently been suggested as the result of gene flow from an African source into Neanderthals before 100,000 years ago. Here we report the complete mtDNA of an archaic femur from the Hohlenstein-Stadel (HST) cave in southwestern Germany...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640581/molecular-insight-into-water-desalination-across-multilayer-graphene-oxide-membranes
#11
Bo Chen, Haifeng Jiang, Xiang Liu, Xuejiao Hu
Transport of ionic solutions through graphene oxide (GO) membranes is a complicated issue because the complex and tortuous structure inside makes it very hard to clarify. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigated the mechanism of water transport and ion movement across multilayer GO. The significant flow rate is considerably influenced by the structural parameters of GO membranes. Because of the size effect on a shrunken real flow area, there is disagreement between the classical continuum model and nanoscaled flow...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635557/cellular-immune-responses-of-older-adults-to-four-influenza-vaccines-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-comparison
#12
Arun Kumar, Janet E McElhaney, Lisa Walrond, Terry D Cyr, Shahzma Merani, Tobias R Kollmann, Scott A Halperin, David W Scheifele
Cellular immunity is important for protection against the serious complications of influenza in older adults. As it is unclear if newer influenza vaccines elicit greater cellular responses than standard vaccines, we compared responses to two standard and two newer licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized trial in older adults. Non-frail adults ≥65 years old were randomly assigned to receive standard subunit, MF59-adjuvanted subunit, standard split-virus or intradermal split-virus TIV...
June 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628333/coupling-targeted-and-untargeted-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolome-microbiome-wide-association-studies-of-human-fecal-samples
#13
Alexey V Melnik, Ricardo R da Silva, Embriette R Hyde, Alexander A Aksenov, Fernando Vargas, Amina Bouslimani, Ivan Protsyuk, Alan K Jarmusch, Anupriya Tripathi, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein
Increasing appreciation of the gut microbiome's role in health motivates understanding the molecular composition of human feces. To analyze such complex samples, we developed a platform coupling targeted and untargeted metabolomics. The approach is facilitated through split flow from one UPLC, joint timing triggered by contact closure relays, and a script to retrieve the data. It is designed to detect specific metabolites of interest with high sensitivity, allows for correction of targeted information, enables better quantitation thus providing an advanced analytical tool for exploratory studies...
July 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626741/isolation-and-identification-of-two-phenolic-compounds-from-a-moderately-cytotoxic-fraction-of-cousinia-verbascifolia-bunge
#14
Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Mustafa Ghanadian, Mehrangiz Haghighi
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about chemical components of the Cousinia genus. A primary cytotoxicity screening on Cousinia verbascifolia showed moderate cytotoxic activity against OVCAR-3 ovarian and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Therefore, the aim of this study is a phytochemical investigation to identify the compounds responsible for this bioactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extraction was done through percolation and fractionations by reverse phase column chromatography and normal column chromatography...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619592/hyphenation-of-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-with-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionisation-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-part-1-study-of-the-coupling-parameters-for-the-analysis-of-natural-non-polar-compounds
#15
Johanna Duval, Cyril Colas, Virginie Pecher, Marion Poujol, Jean-François Tranchant, Eric Lesellier
An analytical method based on Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (UHPSFC) coupled with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization - High-resolution mass spectrometry (APCI-Q-TOF-HRMS) was developed for compounds screening from oily samples. The hyphenation was made using a commercial UHPLC device coupled to a CO2 pump in order to perform the chromatographic analysis. An adaptation of the injection system for compressible fluids was accomplished for this coupling: this modification of the injection sequence was achieved to prevent unusual variations of the injected volume related to the use of a compressible fluid...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611871/efficient-extraction-of-oil-from-droplet-microfluidic-emulsions
#16
J R Haliburton, S C Kim, I C Clark, R A Sperling, D A Weitz, A R Abate
Droplet microfluidic techniques can perform large numbers of single molecule and cell reactions but often require controlled, periodic flow to merge, split, and sort droplets. Here, we describe a simple method to convert aperiodic flows into periodic ones. Using an oil extraction module, we efficiently remove oil from emulsions to readjust the droplet volume fraction, velocity, and packing, producing periodic flows. The extractor acts as a universal adaptor to connect microfluidic modules that do not operate under identical flow conditions, such as droplet generators, incubators, and merger devices...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611119/turbulent-kinetic-energy-assessed-by-multipoint-4-dimensional-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging-provides-additional-information-relative-to-echocardiography-for-the-determination-of-aortic-stenosis-severity
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christian Binter, Alexander Gotschy, Simon H Sündermann, Michelle Frank, Felix C Tanner, Thomas F Lüscher, Robert Manka, Sebastian Kozerke
BACKGROUND: Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), assessed by 4-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging, is a measure of energy loss in disturbed flow as it occurs, for instance, in aortic stenosis (AS). This work investigates the additional information provided by quantifying TKE for the assessment of AS severity in comparison to clinical echocardiographic measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with AS (67±15 years, 20 female) and 10 healthy age-matched controls (69±5 years, 5 female) were prospectively enrolled to undergo multipoint 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591459/simulating-head-recovery-and-intermittent-discharge-in-free-flowing-wells
#18
Ferenc Székely
Modeling of the head recovery (buildup) in and intermittent operation of flowing wells lacks rigorous analytical tools. Presently different methods are applied in discharging and recovery phases. The presented reliable approximate solution considers a continuous free flow process and time variant screen loss parameters. The latter are temporarily set to large value to prevent inflow into the well bore during the single recovery or in repeated shut down periods. This method is called as screen loss control or SLC technique and is verified by means of comparative analysis with the constant rate pumping-recovery test simulated in leaky aquifer...
June 7, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584884/population-splitting-of-rodlike-swimmers-in-couette-flow
#19
Hossein Nili, Masoud Kheyri, Javad Abazari, Ali Fahimniya, Ali Naji
We present a quantitative analysis on the response of a dilute active suspension of self-propelled rods (swimmers) in a planar channel subjected to an imposed shear flow. To best capture the salient features of the shear-induced effects, we consider the case of an imposed Couette flow, providing a constant shear rate across the channel. We argue that the steady-state behavior of swimmers can be understood in the light of a population splitting phenomenon, occurring as the shear rate exceeds a certain threshold, initiating the reversal of the swimming direction for a finite fraction of swimmers from down- to upstream or vice versa, depending on the swimmer position within the channel...
June 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579358/the-impact-of-t1-renal-tumor-characteristics-on-baseline-renal-function-in-patients-undergoing-partial-nephrectomy-a-renal-scan-based-objective-assessment
#20
F Porpiglia, R Autorino, C Fiori, H Zargar, D Amparore, R Bertolo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To objectively assess the impact of renal tumors characteristics and other measurable factors on baseline renal function in patient undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN). METHODS: Patients who underwent laparoscopic PN for a T1 renal mass between 2012 and 2016 and who also had a mercapto-acetyltriglycine renal scan prior to surgery were retrieved from a single institution prospectively-collected database. Split renal function (SRF) and Effective Renal Plasma Flow (ERPF) for both the operated kidney and the unaffected contralateral were calculated...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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