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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101339/pre-treatment-with-simvastatin-prevents-the-induction-of-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-a-rabbit-model
#1
Nikolaos Oikonomidis, Nikolaos Kavantzas, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Evangelos Misiakos, Ioannis Rizos, Christos Verikokos, Despina N Perrea
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antiatherosclerotic activities of simvastatin in rabbits. Twenty-two, male, New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups: Control group (group C); cholesterol group (group A), in which the rabbits were fed a commercial rabbit chow supplemented with 0.5% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks and then fed with normal chow for an additional 8 weeks; and a treatment group (group B), in which the rabbits initially received standard commercial rabbit chow along with being administered simvastatin for 8 weeks, following which they consumed a high-cholesterol diet for a further 8 weeks...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100822/conditional-fetal-and-infant-killing-by-male-baboons
#2
Matthew N Zipple, Jackson H Grady, Jacob B Gordon, Lydia D Chow, Elizabeth A Archie, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C Alberts
Sexually selected feticide-the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour-has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide and/or infanticide. We found a dramatic increase in fetal and infant death rates, but no increase in death rates of 1- to 2-year-old individuals, following the immigration of males who stood to benefit from feticide and infanticide...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098136/exome-and-genome-sequencing-of-nasopharynx-cancer-identifies-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activating-mutations
#3
Yvonne Y Li, Grace T Y Chung, Vivian W Y Lui, Ka-Fai To, Brigette B Y Ma, Chit Chow, John K S Woo, Kevin Y Yip, Jeongsun Seo, Edwin P Hui, Michael K F Mak, Maria Rusan, Nicole G Chau, Yvonne Y Y Or, Marcus H N Law, Peggy P Y Law, Zoey W Y Liu, Hoi-Lam Ngan, Pok-Man Hau, Krista R Verhoeft, Peony H Y Poon, Seong-Keun Yoo, Jong-Yeon Shin, Sau-Dan Lee, Samantha W M Lun, Lin Jia, Anthony W H Chan, Jason Y K Chan, Paul B S Lai, Choi-Yi Fung, Suet-Ting Hung, Lin Wang, Ann Margaret V Chang, Simion I Chiosea, Matthew L Hedberg, Sai-Wah Tsao, Andrew C van Hasselt, Anthony T C Chan, Jennifer R Grandis, Peter S Hammerman, Kwok-Wai Lo
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive head and neck cancer characterized by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and dense lymphocyte infiltration. The scarcity of NPC genomic data hinders the understanding of NPC biology, disease progression and rational therapy design. Here we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 111 micro-dissected EBV-positive NPCs, with 15 cases subjected to further whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to determine its mutational landscape. We identified enrichment for genomic aberrations of multiple negative regulators of the NF-κB pathway, including CYLD, TRAF3, NFKBIA and NLRC5, in a total of 41% of cases...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092990/in-hospital-statin-underutilization-among-high-risk-patients-delayed-uptake-of-the-2013-cholesterol-guidelines-in-a-u-s-cohort
#4
Subeer K Wadia, Mark Belkin, Kelsey Chow, Jonathan Nattiv, Andrew Appis, Steven B Feinstein, Kim Allan Williams
OBJECTIVES: Clinician utilization of the 2013 cholesterol lowering guidelines remains variable and unknown. We sought to examine statin prescribing patterns and compare rates among specialists who treat high-risk cardiovascular patients admitted to the hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively (via chart review) examined four specialty groups: (i) Cardiology, (ii) Cardiovascular or Vascular (CV) Surgery, (iii) Neurology, and (iv) Internal Medicine. Adult patients were included based on a discharge diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, carotid endarterectomy, acute ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or high-risk chest pain...
January 17, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086928/resolvin-rvd2-reduces-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-rescues-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#5
Livia B Pascoal, Bruna Bombassaro, Albina F Ramalho, Andressa Coope, Rodrigo F Moura, Felipe Correa-da-Silva, Leticia Ignacio-Souza, Daniela Razolli, Diogo de Oliveira, Rodrigo Catharino, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation is an important mechanism leading to dysfunction of neurons involved in controlling body mass. Studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats can reduce hypothalamic inflammation. Here, we evaluated the presence and function of RvD2, a resolvin produced from docosahexaenoic acid, in the hypothalamus of mice. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were fed either chow or a high-fat diet. RvD2 receptor and synthetic enzymes were evaluated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059916/does-hospital-transfer-impact-outcomes-after-colorectal-surgery
#6
Christopher J Chow, Wolfgang B Gaertner, Christine C Jensen, Bradford Sklow, Robert D Madoff, Mary R Kwaan
BACKGROUND: With increasing public reporting of outcomes and bundled payments, hospitals and providers are scrutinized for morbidity and mortality. The impact of patient transfer before colorectal surgery has not been well characterized in a risk-adjusted fashion. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that hospital-to-hospital transfer would independently predict morbidity and mortality beyond traditional predictor variables. DESIGN: We constructed a retrospective cohort of 158,446 patients who underwent colorectal surgery using the 2009-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database...
February 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056552/soy-protein-isolate-inhibits-hepatic-tumor-promotion-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-liquid-diet
#7
Kelly E Mercer, Casey F Pulliam, Kim B Pedersen, Leah Hennings, Martin Jj Ronis
Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054648/niclosamide-reduces-glucagon-sensitivity-via-hepatic-pka-inhibition-in-obese-mice-implications-for-glucose-metabolism-improvements-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Md Kamrul Hasan Chowdhury, Nigel Turner, Nicholas L Bentley, Abhirup Das, Lindsay E Wu, Dulama Richani, Sonia Bustamante, Robert B Gilchrist, Margaret J Morris, Peter R Shepherd, Greg C Smith
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global pandemic. Currently, the drugs used to treat T2D improve hyperglycemic symptom of the disease but the underlying mechanism causing the high blood glucose levels have not been fully resolved. Recently published data showed that salt form of niclosamide improved glucose metabolism in high fat fed mice via mitochondrial uncoupling. However, based on our previous work we hypothesised that niclosamide might also improve glucose metabolism via inhibition of the glucagon signalling in liver in vivo...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052442/serum-alkylresorcinols-as-biomarkers-of-dietary-gluten-exposure-in-coeliac-disease
#9
R S Choung, J A Murray, E V Marietta, C T Van Dyke, A B Ross
BACKGROUND: Therapy for coeliac disease (CD) mainly relies on following a gluten-free diet (GFD); however, a serum marker for gluten intake has yet to be established. AIMS: To evaluate the utility of alkylresorcinol concentrations for detecting gluten intake in studies of human and mouse. METHODS: Alkylresorcinol concentrations were compared among treated patients with coeliac disease (n = 34), untreated coeliac disease patients (n = 36) and controls (n = 33)...
January 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049044/lymphocytes-contribute-to-biliary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-xenobiotic-induced-cholestasis
#10
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Holly Cline-Fedewa, James P Luyendyk
The etiology of chronic bile duct injury and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases is complex, and likely involves immune cells such as lymphocytes. However, most models of biliary fibrosis are not autoimmune in nature. Biliary fibrosis can be induced experimentally by prolonged exposure of mice to the bile duct toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). We determined whether lymphocytes contributed to ANIT-mediated biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis in mice. Hepatic accumulation of T-lymphocytes and increased serum levels of anti-nuclear-autoantibodies were evident in wild-type mice exposed to ANIT (0...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047423/su-f-i-63-relaxation-times-of-lipid-resonances-in-nafld-animal-model-using-enhanced-curve-fitting
#11
K-H Song, C-H Yoo, S-I Lim, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relaxation time of methylene resonance in comparison with other lipid resonances. METHODS: The examinations were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a four-channel animal coil. Eight more Sprague-Dawley rats in the same baseline weight range were housed with ad libitum access to water and a high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrate). In order to avoid large blood vessels, a voxel (0.8×0...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036205/experimental-demonstration-of-a-resonator-induced-phase-gate-in-a-multiqubit-circuit-qed-system
#12
Hanhee Paik, A Mezzacapo, Martin Sandberg, D T McClure, B Abdo, A D Córcoles, O Dial, D F Bogorin, B L T Plourde, M Steffen, A W Cross, J M Gambetta, Jerry M Chow
The resonator-induced phase (RIP) gate is an all-microwave multiqubit entangling gate that allows a high degree of flexibility in qubit frequencies, making it attractive for quantum operations in large-scale architectures. We experimentally realize the RIP gate with four superconducting qubits in a three-dimensional circuit-QED architecture, demonstrating high-fidelity controlled-z (cz) gates between all possible pairs of qubits from two different 4-qubit devices in pair subspaces. These qubits are arranged within a wide range of frequency detunings, up to as large as 1...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029734/investigation-of-the-first-seven-reported-cases-of-candida-auris-a-globally-emerging-invasive-multidrug-resistant-fungus-united-states-may-2013-august-2016
#13
EDITORIAL
S Vallabhaneni, A Kallen, S Tsay, N Chow, R Welsh, J Kerins, S K Kemble, M Pacilli, S R Black, E Landon, J Ridgway, T N Palmore, A Zelzany, E H Adams, M Quinn, S Chaturvedi, J Greenko, R Fernandez, K Southwick, E Y Furuya, D P Calfee, C Hamula, G Patel, P Barrett, P Lafaro, E L Berkow, H Moulton-Meissner, J Noble-Wang, R P Fagan, B R Jackson, S R Lockhart, A P Litvintseva, T M Chiller
November 11, 2016/65(44);1234-1237. What is already known about this topic? Candida auris is an emerging pathogenic fungus that has been reported from at least a dozen countries on four continents during 2009-2015. The organism is difficult to identify using traditional biochemical methods, some isolates have been found to be resistant to all three major classes of antifungal medications, and C. auris has caused health care-associated outbreaks. What is added by this report? This is the first description of C...
January 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027592/outcomes-of-liver-retransplantation-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#14
Jacqueline B Henson, Yuval A Patel, Lindsay Y King, Jiayin Zheng, Shein-Chung Chow, Andrew J Muir
: Liver retransplantation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has not been well studied. The aims of this study were to characterize patients with PSC listed for and undergoing retransplantation and to describe the outcomes in these patients. The United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was used to identify all primary liver transplantations and subsequent relistings and first retransplantations in adults with PSC between 1987 and 2015...
December 27, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012941/age-related-arterial-immune-cell-infiltration-in-mice-is-attenuated-by-caloric-restriction-or-voluntary-exercise
#15
Daniel W Trott, Grant D Henson, Mi H T Ho, Sheilah A Allison, Lisa A Lesniewski, Anthony J Donato
Age-related arterial inflammation is associated with dysfunction of the arteries and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine if aging increases arterial immune cell infiltration as well as the populations of immune cells principally involved, we tested the hypothesis that large elastic and resistance arteries in old mice would exhibit increased immune cell infiltration compared to young controls. Additionally, we hypothesized that vasoprotective lifestyle interventions such as lifelong caloric restriction or 8weeks of voluntary wheel running would attenuate age-related arterial immune cell infiltration...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009489/effects-of-orchidectomy-and-testosterone-replacement-on-numbers-of-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-obese-and-diabetic-rats
#16
M Dudek, P A Kołodziejski, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, K Ziarniak, J H Sliwowska
Neurons expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A, located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions depend on metabolic and hormonal status. We hypothesized that male rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and/or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) will have: 1) alterations in numbers of immunoreactive (ir) cells: kisspeptin-ir and/or neurokinin B-ir, and dynorphin A-ir neurons in the ARC in the sham condition; 2) orchidectomy alone (ORX) and with testosterone treatment (ORX+T) will unmask possible deficits in the response of these neurons in DIO, and/or DM1 and DM2 rats...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998825/hematopoietic-arginase-1-deficiency-results-in-decreased-leukocytosis-and-increased-foam-cell-formation-but-does-not-affect-atherosclerosis
#17
Baoyan Ren, Erik Van Kampen, Theo J C Van Berkel, Sheena M Cruickshank, Miranda Van Eck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arginase1 (Arg1), an M2 macrophage marker, plays a critical role in a number of immunological functions in macrophages, which are the main cell type facilitating atherosclerotic lesion development. Arg1 uses the substrate l-arginine to create l-ornithine, a precursor molecule required for collagen formation and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. By reducing l-arginine availability, Arg1 limits the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-atherogenic factor in macrophages...
November 16, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988248/does-eating-good-tasting-food-influence-body-weight
#18
Michael G Tordoff, Jordan A Pearson, Hillary T Ellis, Rachel L Poole
Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight? To investigate, we first established some concentrations of sucralose and mineral oil in chow that mice strongly preferred. Then, in Experiment 1, we compared groups of 16 mice fed plain chow (i.e., chow with no additives) to groups fed chow with added (a) sucralose, (b) mineral oil, (c) sucralose and mineral oil, or (d) sucralose on odd days and mineral oil on even days. During a 6-week test, the body weights and body compositions of the five groups never differed...
December 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965205/postnatal-treatment-with-metyrapone-attenuates-the-effects-of-diet-induced-obesity-in-female-rats-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#19
Margaret O Murphy, Joseph B Herald, Caleb T Wills, Stanley G Unfried, Dianne M Cohn, Analia S Loria
This study tested the hypothesis that female rats pups exposed to maternal separation (MatSep), a model of early life stress, display an exacerbated response to diet-induced obesity compared to male rats. Also, we tested whether postnatal treatment with metyrapone (MTP), a corticosterone synthase inhibitor, would attenuate this phenotype. MatSep was performed in WKY offspring by separation from the dam (3 hr/day, postnatal day 2-14). Upon weaning, male and female rats were placed on regular chow (ND, 18% kcal fat) or HFD (60% kcal fat)...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957584/evolution-of-laparoscopic-liver-resection-at-singapore-general-hospital-a-nine-year-experience-of-195-consecutive-resections
#20
Brian Kp Goh, Jin-Yao Teo, Chung-Yip Chan, Ser-Yee Lee, Peng-Chung Cheow, Pierce Kh Chow, London Lpj Ooi, Alexander Yf Chung
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to analyse the changing trends, safety and outcomes associated with the adoption of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) at a single centre. METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out of 195 patients who underwent LLR from 2006 to 2014 at our institution. To explore the evolution of LLR, the study was divided into three equal consecutive time periods (period 1: 2006-2008; period 2: 2009-2011; and period 3: 2012-2014). RESULTS: Among 195 patients who underwent LLR, 24 (12...
December 13, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
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