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3D surface imaging

Zepeng Kang, Kailong Jiao, Jin Cheng, Ruiyun Peng, Shuqiang Jiao, Zongqian Hu
A novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon composite of PANI1600@CNTs with rhizobium-like structure is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers around and along the functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and then carbonized at 1600°C for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). The SEM and TEM images clearly show that the carbonized PANI grew seamlessly on the surface of CNTs and presented the rhizobium-like structure. The carbonized PANI acts like conductive "glue" and connects the adjacent tubes together, which can assemble the CNTs into a 3D network...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jose M Sotoca, Pedro Latorre-Carmona, Filiberto Pla, Xin Shen, Satoru Komatsu, Bahram Javidi
In this work, a 3D reconstruction approach for flexible sensing inspired by integral imaging techniques is proposed. This method allows the application of different integral imaging techniques, such as generating a depth map or the reconstruction of images on a certain 3D plane of the scene that were taken with a set of cameras located at unknown and arbitrary positions and orientations. By means of a photo-consistency measure proposed in this work, all-in-focus images can also be generated by projecting the points of the 3D plane into the sensor planes of the cameras and thereby capturing the associated RGB values...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Allison Yau, Ross J Harder, Matthew W Kanan, Andrew Ulvestad
Defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries often control the properties of polycrystalline materials. In nanocrystalline materials, investigating this structure-function relationship while preserving the sample remains challenging because of the short length scales and buried interfaces involved. Here we use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the role of structural inhomogeneity on the hydriding phase transformation dynamics of individual Pd grains in polycrystalline films in three-dimensional detail...
October 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Thamer Alkhadra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if there is any difference in alveolar bone surface area in patients with high vertical facial dimension (long face), average vertical facial dimension (average face), and low vertical facial dimension (square short face). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients who had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as part of their orthodontic records were chosen according to their facial vertical dimension. Each group consisted of fifteen patients...
October 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
Marcus C Hovens, Kevin Lo, Michael Kerger, John Pedersen, Timothy Nottle, Natalie Kurganovs, Andrew Ryan, Justin S Peters, Daniel Moon, Anthony J Costello, Niall M Corcoran, Matthew K H Hong
Prostate cancer displays a wide spectrum of clinical behaviour from biological indolence to rapidly lethal disease, but we remain unable to accurately predict an individual tumor's future clinical course at an early curable stage. Beyond basic dimensions and volume calculations, tumor morphometry is an area that has received little attention, as it requires the analysis of the prostate gland and tumor foci in three-dimensions. Previous efforts to generate three-dimensional prostate models have required specialised graphics units and focused on the spatial distribution of tumors for optimisation of biopsy strategies rather than to generate novel morphometric variables such as tumor surface area...
September 27, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
Erick A Perez-Alday, Jason A Thomas, Muammar Kabir, Golriz Sedaghat, Nichole Rogovoy, Eelco van Dam, Peter van Dam, William Woodward, Cristina Fuss, Maros Ferencik, Larisa G Tereshchenko
We conducted a prospective clinical study (n=14; 29% female) to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) photography-based method of torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrodes localization. The position of 74 body surface electrocardiographic (ECG) electrodes (diameter 5mm) was defined by two methods: 3D photography, and CT (marker diameter 2mm) or MRI (marker size 10×20mm) imaging. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement in X (bias -2.5 [95% limits of agreement (LoA) -19.5 to 14...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
Ellen Wen-Ching Ko, Cheng-Hui Lin, Ying-An Chen, Yu-Ray Chen
PURPOSE: With the advance of image fusion techniques, the creation of 3-dimensional (3D) virtual head and 3D surgical simulations has provided previews of surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes in patients receiving orthognathic surgery (OGS) with the guidance of 3D computer-assisted surgical simulation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 34 consecutive patients (15 men and 19 women; age, 18.1 to 33.0 yr) with skeletal Class III facial asymmetry who underwent bimaxillary OGS...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Ali Zifan, Dushyant Kumar, Leo K Cheng, Ravinder K Mittal
Studies to date have failed to reveal the anatomical counterpart of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). We assessed the LES and esophageal hiatus morphology using a block containing the human LES and crural diaphragm, serially sectioned at 50 μm intervals and imaged at 8.2 μm/pixel resolution. A 3D reconstruction of the tissue block was reconstructed in which each of the 652 cross sectional images were also segmented to identify the boundaries of longitudinal (LM) and circular muscle (CM) layers. The CM fascicles on the ventral surface of LES are arranged in a helical/spiral fashion...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shunsuke Asakura, Saki Nishikawa, Kazumasa Orihashi, Yoshio Inoue
PURPOSE: Three-dimensional (3D) echo is a useful modality to guide off-pump intracardiac surgery, and this study aimed to determine the optimal surface property for minimizing echo dropout and grating lobes. METHODS: A total of 13 specimens were examined. The specimens were scanned while they were rotated from 0° to 90°, and en face views were recorded in the 3D zoom mode. Changes in brightness were compared with the surface profile, which was traced from microscopic images...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Michelle E Pizzo, Daniel J Wolak, Niyanta N Kumar, Eric Brunette, Christina L Brunnquell, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, N Joan Abbott, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Lydia Sorokin, Danica B Stanimirovic, Robert G Thorne
The precise mechanisms governing the central distribution of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the brain and spinal cord remain poorly understood, despite their importance for physiological processes such as antibody trafficking for central immune surveillance as well as several ongoing intrathecal clinical trials. Here, we clarify how immunoglobulin G (IgG) and smaller single-domain antibodies (sdAb) distribute throughout the whole brain in a size-dependent manner after intrathecal infusion in rats using ex vivo fluorescence and in vivo 3D magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Geelsu Hwang, Bernard Koltisko, Xiaoming Jin, Hyun Koo
Surface-grown bacteria and production of an extracellular polymeric matrix modulate the assembly of highly cohesive and firmly attached biofilms, making them difficult to remove from solid surfaces. Inhibition of cell growth and inactivation of matrix-producing bacteria can impair biofilm formation and facilitate removal. Here, we developed a novel non-leachable antibacterial composite with potent antibiofilm activity by directly incorporating polymerizable imidazolium-containing resin (Anti Bacterial Resin with Carbonate linkage; ABR-C) into a methacrylate-based scaffold (ABR Modified Composite; ABR-MC) using an efficient yet simplified chemistry...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lijun Deng, Yi Deng, Kenan Xie
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is an ideal substitute material for bone tissue engineering, which can avoid the stress shielding phenomenon due to its similar mechanical properties to natural human bone. Complex bone defect and postoperative infection are still two enormous challenges in orthopedic clinics. It's well-known that additive manufacturing possesses the merits of high-precision and rapid prototyping, thus it easily meets the needs of mold processing. In the present study, we developed a novel Ag-decorated 3D printed PEEK via catecholamine chemistry...
October 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Shaifali Parashar, Daniel Pizarro, Adrien Bartoli
We study Isometric Non-Rigid Shape-from-Motion (Iso-NRSfM): given multiple intrinsically calibrated monocular images, we want to reconstruct the time-varying 3D shape of a thin-shell object undergoing isometric deformations. We show that Iso-NRSfM is solvable from local warps, the inter-image geometric transformations. We propose a new theoretical framework based on the Riemmanian manifold to represent the unknown 3D surfaces as embeddings of the camera's retinal plane. This allows us to use the manifold's metric tensor and Christoffel Symbol (CS) fields...
October 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Gustaaf J C van Baar, Muhammad Ruslin, Maureen van Eijnatten, George K Sándor, Tymour Forouzanfar, Jan Wolff
OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, cyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The wearing of bicycle helmets is not mandatory in the Netherlands even though research has shown that wearing bicycle helmets can reduce head and brain injuries by up to 88%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using 3D technology to evaluate bicycle-related head injuries and helmet protection. METHODS: Three patients who had been involved in a bicycle accident while wearing a helmet were subjected to multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging after trauma...
September 29, 2017: Injury
Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Shunsuke Takenaka, Yasuko Tatewaki, Manabu Nakagawa, Jose Ignacio Suarez, Yasuyuki Taki, Tatsuya Ishikawa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral blood flow (CBF) recovery obtained from brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images on postoperative outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-nine patients who had undergone surgical clipping for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms were analyzed prospectively. Routine measurements of CBF were performed using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxine SPECT on days 4 and 14 after SAH. Regional voxel data analyzed by three dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) were compared between patients and age-matched normal database (NDB)...
October 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Anouck M Champsaur, Jaeeun Yu, Xavier Roy, Daniel W Paley, Michael L Steigerwald, Colin Nuckolls, Christopher M Bejger
We describe a new approach to synthesize two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets from the bottom-up. We functionalize redox-active superatoms with groups that can direct their assembly into multidimensional solids. We synthesized Co6Se8[PEt2(4-C6H4COOH)]6 and found that it forms a crystalline assembly. The solid-state structure is a three-dimensional (3D) network in which the carboxylic acids form intercluster hydrogen bonds. We modify the self-assembly by replacing the reversible hydrogen bonds that hold the superatoms together with zinc carboxylate bonds via the solvothermal reaction of Co6Se8[PEt2(4-C6H4COOH)]6 with Zn(NO3)2...
September 27, 2017: ACS Central Science
Long Yu, Qi Jin, Zhaoye Zhou, Liqun Wu, Bin He
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electrical activity promises to provide important information regarding the underlying arrhythmic substrates for successful ablation intervention and further understanding of the mechanism of such lethal disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a novel three-dimensional (3D) cardiac activation imaging technique to noninvasively localize and image origins of focal ventricular arrhythmias in patients undergoing radio frequency ablation...
October 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Carlos A Madrigal, John W Branch, Alejandro Restrepo, Domingo Mery
Automatic visual inspection allows for the identification of surface defects in manufactured parts. Nevertheless, when defects are on a sub-millimeter scale, detection and recognition are a challenge. This is particularly true when the defect generates topological deformations that are not shown with strong contrast in the 2D image. In this paper, we present a method for recognizing surface defects in 3D point clouds. Firstly, we propose a novel 3D local descriptor called the Model Point Feature Histogram (MPFH) for defect detection...
October 2, 2017: Sensors
Chen Zhang, Yu Hu
Given a stream of depth images with a known cuboid reference object present in the scene, we propose a novel approach for accurate camera tracking and volumetric surface reconstruction in real-time. Our contribution in this paper is threefold: (a) utilizing a priori knowledge of the precisely manufactured cuboid reference object, we keep drift-free camera tracking without explicit global optimization; (b) we improve the fineness of the volumetric surface representation by proposing a prediction-corrected data fusion strategy rather than a simple moving average, which enables accurate reconstruction of high-frequency details such as the sharp edges of objects and geometries of high curvature; (c) we introduce a benchmark dataset CU3D that contains both synthetic and real-world scanning sequences with ground-truth camera trajectories and surface models for the quantitative evaluation of 3D reconstruction algorithms...
October 1, 2017: Sensors
Freddy Odille, Aurélien Bustin, Shufang Liu, Bailiang Chen, Pierre-André Vuissoz, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Bonnemains
PURPOSE: Segmentation of cardiac cine MRI data is routinely used for the volumetric analysis of cardiac function. Conventionally, 2D contours are drawn on short-axis (SAX) image stacks with relatively thick slices (typically 8 mm). Here, an acquisition/reconstruction strategy is used for obtaining isotropic 3D cine datasets; reformatted slices are then used to optimize the manual segmentation workflow. METHODS: Isotropic 3D cine datasets were obtained from multiple 2D cine stacks (acquired during free-breathing in SAX and long-axis (LAX) orientations) using nonrigid motion correction (cine-GRICS method) and super-resolution...
October 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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