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3D surface imaging

S Drijkoningen, S D Janssens, P Pobedinskas, S Koizumi, M K Van Bael, K Haenen
Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) membranes are promising candidates for use as sensitive pressure sensors. NCD membranes are able to withstand harsh conditions and are easily fabricated on glass. In this study the sensitivity of heavily boron doped NCD (B:NCD) pressure sensors is evaluated with respect to different types of supporting glass substrates, doping levels and membrane sizes. Higher pressure sensing sensitivities are obtained for membranes on Corning Eagle 2000 glass, which have a better match in thermal expansion coefficient with diamond compared to those on Schott AF45 glass...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jiang Zhu, Li Qi, Yusi Miao, Teng Ma, Cuixia Dai, Yueqiao Qu, Youmin He, Yiwei Gao, Qifa Zhou, Zhongping Chen
Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Byung Hoon Lee, Dong Ho Kum, Im Joo Rhyu, Youngjun Kim, Hyunchul Cho, Joon Ho Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical advantages of a navigation system developed with an emphasis on attaining an appropriate femoral tunnel length and posterior wall margin with no posterior wall blowout, as well as having accurate tunnel positioning, in anatomical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). METHODS: Ten freshly frozen human knees were transected at mid-femur and mid-tibia. Each knee specimen underwent arthroscopic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the outside-in technique, with two knees by manual ACLR (control group) and another eight knees by only the navigational ACLR without arthroscopic assistance (experimental group)...
October 19, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Jun Qiu, Fang-Fang Li
Mechanical properties of a single cell and its mechanical response under stimulation play an important role in regulating interactions between cell and extracellular matrix and affecting mechanotransduction. Osteocytes exhibit solid-like viscoelastic behavior in response to the interstitial fluid shear resulting from tissue matrix deformation. This study intends to quantitatively describe the mechanical behavior of osteocytes combining in vitro experiment and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element (FE) model...
October 17, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Trevor J G Robinson, Shannon L Roberts, Robert S Burnham, Eldon Loh, Anne M Agur
Image-guided sensory block and radiofrequency ablation of the nerves innervating the sacro-iliac joint require readily identifiable bony landmarks for accurate needle/electrode placement. Understanding the relative locations of the transverse sacral tubercles along the lateral sacral crest is important for ultrasound guidance, as they demarcate the position of the posterior sacral network (S1-S3 ± L5/S4) innervating the posterior sacro-iliac joint. No studies were found that investigated the spatial relationships of these bony landmarks...
2016: BioMed Research International
Xuezhi Ma, Yangzhi Zhu, Sanggon Kim, Qiushi Liu, Peter Byrley, Yang Wei, Jin Zhang, Kaili Jiang, Shoushan Fan, Ruoxue Yan, Ming Liu
Despite many efforts to fabricate high-aspect-ratio atomic force microscopy (HAR-AFM) probes for high-fidelity, high-resolution topographical imaging of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured surfaces, current HAR probes still suffer from unsatisfactory performance, low wear-resistivity, and extravagant prices. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate a novel design of a high-resolution (HR) HAR AFM probe, which is fabricated through a reliable, cost-efficient bench-top process to precisely implant a single ultra-sharp metallic nanowire on a standard AFM cantilever probe...
October 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Johannes Burge, Brian C McCann, Wilson S Geisler
Estimating three-dimensional (3D) surface orientation (slant and tilt) is an important first step toward estimating 3D shape. Here, we examine how three local image cues from the same location (disparity gradient, luminance gradient, and dominant texture orientation) should be combined to estimate 3D tilt in natural scenes. We collected a database of natural stereoscopic images with precisely co-registered range images that provide the ground-truth distance at each pixel location. We then analyzed the relationship between ground-truth tilt and image cue values...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Kailiang Wang, Tinghong Liu, Xiaobin Zhao, XiaoTong Xia, Kai Zhang, Hui Qiao, Jianguo Zhang, Fangang Meng
INTRODUCTION: Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) is widely used to help localize the hypometabolic epileptogenic focus for presurgical evaluation of drug-refractory epilepsy patients. Two voxel-based brain mapping methods to interpret (18)F-FDG-PET, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP), improve the detection rate of seizure foci. This study aimed to compare the consistency of epileptic focus detection between SPM and 3D-SSP for (18)F-FDG-PET brain mapping analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Bert Nitzsche, Elzbieta Dudek, Lukasz Hajdo, Andrzej A Kasprzak, Andrej Vilfan, Stefan Diez
Single-molecule experiments have been used with great success to explore the mechanochemical cycles of processive motor proteins such as kinesin-1, but it has proven difficult to apply these approaches to nonprocessive motors. Therefore, the mechanochemical cycle of kinesin-14 (ncd) is still under debate. Here, we use the readout from the collective activity of multiple motors to derive information about the mechanochemical cycle of individual ncd motors. In gliding motility assays we performed 3D imaging based on fluorescence interference contrast microscopy combined with nanometer tracking to simultaneously study the translation and rotation of microtubules...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sindhu Ghanta, Michael I Jordan, Kivanc Kose, Dana H Brooks, Milind Rajadhyaksha, Jennifer G Dy
Segmenting objects of interest from 3D datasets is a common problem encountered in biological data. Small field of view and intrinsic biological variability combined with optically subtle changes of intensity, resolution and low contrast in images make the task of segmentation difficult, especially for microscopy of unstained living or freshly excised thick tissues. Incorporating shape information in addition to the appearance of the object of interest can often help improve segmentation performance. However, shapes of objects in tissue can be highly variable and design of a flexible shape model that encompasses these variations is challenging...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Da-Chuan Cheng, Jhu-Fong Wu, Yi-Hsuan Kao, Chun-Hung Su, Shing-Hong Liu
In clinics an accurate vessel segmentation method is important to quantize the vessel volume change with respect to time for artery elasticity measurement. This study proposes a modified version on 3D-expanded dynamic programming to find an optimal surface in a 3D matrix. The aim of this study is to discover the robustness against noises in measuring the cross-sectional area of the femoral artery on MRI datasets of ultra-endurance runners as accurately as possible. To do this, we use phantom images with different added noises and different image contrasts to find out the optimal parameters using grid search...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Masahiro Toda, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE Transcranial motor evoked potential (tMEP) monitoring is popular in neurosurgery; however, the accuracy of tMEP can be impaired by craniotomy. Each craniotomy procedure and changes in the CSF levels affects the current spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of several craniotomies on tMEP monitoring by using C3-4 transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). METHODS The authors used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by TES, using realistic 3D head models developed from T1-weighted MR images...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Frédéric Monge, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Florence Lejeune, Xavier Morandi, Nassir Navab, Pierre Jannin
PURPOSE: Intraoperative imaging aims at identifying residual tumor during surgery. Positron Surface Imaging (PSI) is one of the solutions to help surgeons in a better detection of resection margins of brain tumor, leading to an improved patient outcome. This system relies on a tracked freehand beta probe, using [Formula: see text]F-based radiotracer. Some acquisition models have been proposed in the literature in order to enhance image quality, but no comparative validation study has been performed for PSI...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Stacy Jones, Sudarson Sekhar Sinha, Avijit Pramanik, Paresh Chandra Ray
Drug resistant superbug infection is one of the foremost threats to human health. Plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for ultrasensitive bio-imaging and photothermal killing by amplification of electromagnetic fields at nanoscale "hot spots". One of the main challenges to plasmonic imaging and photothermal killing is design of a plasmonic substrate with a large number of "hot spots". Driven by this need, this article reports design of a three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic "hot spot"-based substrate using gold nanoparticle attached hybrid graphene oxide (GO), free from the traditional 2D limitations...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
Hang Feng, Xiangyi Fang, Dageng Huang, Chengcheng Yu, Songchuan Zhao, Dingjun Hao
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical disc arthroplasty has been gradually adopted as an alternative for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. However, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical end plates. PURPOSE: This study aimed to accurately and comprehensively quantify the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the cervical vertebral end plate and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses...
October 3, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Clara L Essmann, Muna Elmi, Mike Shaw, Giridhar M Anand, Vijay M Pawar, Mandayam A Srinivasan
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful method for topographic imaging of surfaces with nanometer resolution. AFM offers significant advantages over scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including the acquisition of quantitative 3D-images and biomechanical information. More importantly, for in-vivo biological imaging, AFM does not require sample dehydration/labeling. We show for the first time high-resolution topographical images of the cuticle of the model organism C. elegans under physiological conditions using AFM...
October 1, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Prasenjit Kabi, Swetaprovo Chaudhuri, Saptarshi Basu
Surface patterning with functional colloids is an important research area due to its widespread applicability in domains ranging from nano-electronics, pharmaceutics, semi-conductors, photovoltaics among others. To this endeavour, we propose a low-cost patterning technique that aspires to eliminate the more expensive methodologies presently in practise. Using a simple document stamp on which patterns of any geometry can be embossed, we are able to print two-dimensional mm-scale "wall-less confinement" using ink based hydrophobic fence on any plasma treated superhydrophilic surface...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Juno Kim, Kairen Tan, Nahian S Chowdhury
We experience vivid percepts of objects and materials despite complexities in the way images are structured by the interaction of light with surface properties (3D shape, albedo, and gloss or specularity). Although the perception of gloss (and lightness) has been argued to depend on image statistics (e.g., sub-band skew), studies have shown that perceived gloss depends critically on the structure of luminance variations in images. Here, we found that separately adapting observers to either positive or negative skew generated declines in perceived gloss, contrary to the predictions of theories involving image statistics...
July 2016: I-Perception
E Bocaege, S Hillson
OBJECTIVES: The investigation of the record of growth locked in dental enamel provides a unique opportunity to build a comprehensive picture of growth disruption episodes during childhood. This study presents a new methodological basis for the analysis of enamel growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia) using incremental microstructures of enamel. METHODS: A three-dimensional technique based upon use of an Alicona 3D Infinite Focus imaging microscope and software is used to record developmental features in the enamel of human permanent mandibular lateral incisors of one individual from the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük (Turkey)...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Netta Vidavsky, Anat Akiva, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Katya Rechav, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner, Andreas Schertel
Many important biological questions can be addressed by studying in 3D large volumes of intact, cryo fixed hydrated tissues (⩾10,000μm(3)) at high resolution (5-20nm). This can be achieved using serial FIB milling and block face surface imaging under cryo conditions. Here we demonstrate the unique potential of the cryo-FIB-SEM approach using two extensively studied model systems; sea urchin embryos and the tail fin of zebrafish larvae. We focus in particular on the environment of mineral deposition sites...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
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