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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666899/altered-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-ultrastructure-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
Cynthia M F Monaco, Meghan C Hughes, Sofhia V Ramos, Nina E Varah, Christian Lamberz, Fasih A Rahman, Chris McGlory, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Matthew P Krause, Robert Laham, Thomas J Hawke, Christopher G R Perry
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A comprehensive assessment of skeletal muscle ultrastructure and mitochondrial bioenergetics has not been undertaken in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to systematically assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial phenotype in young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Physically active, young adults (men and women) with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 63.0 ± 16.0 mmol/mol [7.9% ± 1.5%]) and without type 1 diabetes (control), matched for sex, age, BMI and level of physical activity, were recruited (n = 12/group) to undergo vastus lateralis muscle microbiopsies...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666533/purple-head-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-l-var-italica-plenck-a-functional-food-crop-for-antioxidant-and-anticancer-potential
#2
Ashun Chaudhary, Sonika Choudhary, Upendra Sharma, Adarsh Pal Vig, Bikram Singh, Saroj Arora
Natural foods are used in many folks and household treatments and have immense potential to treat a serious complication and health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional values. These food products improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and possibly prevent chronic diseases. Purple head Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck is one of such foods and in current studies was explored for chemical compounds at different development stages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666464/an-adolescence-onset-male-leukoencephalopathy-with-remarkable-cerebellar-atrophy-and-novel-compound-heterozygous-aars2-gene-mutations-a-case-report
#3
Qing Dong, Ling Long, Yan-Yu Chang, Yan-Jun Lin, Mei Liu, Zheng-Qi Lu
Mutations in the mitochondrial alanyl-transfer (t)RNA synthetase 2 (AARS2; OMIM 612035) have been linked to leukoencephalopathy recently. Until now, there have been only 13 cases reported in the literature. Hence, the clinical and genetic characteristics of this disease are not fully understood. Here, we reported an adolescence-onset male leukoencephalopathy patient characterized by progressive limb tremor at the age of 17 years. He had no signs of a cardiomyopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning demonstrated severe cerebellar atrophy and white matter abnormalities involving descending tracts...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#4
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662634/caloric-restriction-delays-yeast-chronological-aging-by-remodeling-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-altering-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-functionalities-and-postponing-the-onsets-of-apoptotic-and-liponecrotic-modes-of-regulated-cell-death
#5
Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Anna Leonov, Adam Beach, Vincent R Richard, Simon D Bourque, Michelle T Burstein, Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Olivia Koupaki, Rachel Feldman, Vladimir I Titorenko
A dietary regimen of caloric restriction delays aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences morphological, biochemical and cell biological properties of chronologically aging yeast advancing through different stages of the aging process. Our findings revealed that this low-calorie diet slows yeast chronological aging by mechanisms that coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics of various cellular processes before entry into a non-proliferative state and after such entry...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661838/chronic-supplementation-with-a-mitochondrial-antioxidant-mitoq-improves-vascular-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#6
Matthew J Rossman, Jessica R Santos-Parker, Chelsea A C Steward, Nina Z Bispham, Lauren M Cuevas, Hannah L Rosenberg, Kayla A Woodward, Michel Chonchol, Rachel A Gioscia-Ryan, Michael P Murphy, Douglas R Seals
Excess reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria is a key mechanism of age-related vascular dysfunction. Our laboratory has shown that supplementation with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ improves vascular endothelial function by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and ameliorates arterial stiffening in old mice, but the effects in humans are unknown. Here, we sought to translate our preclinical findings to humans and determine the safety and efficacy of MitoQ. Twenty healthy older adults (60-79 years) with impaired endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation <6%) underwent 6 weeks of oral supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg/d) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design study...
April 16, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660243/autophagy-a-key-pathway-for-cardiac-health-and-longevity
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin P Woodall, Åsa B Gustafsson
As average life expectancy continues to rise in the developed world, age associated pathologies are increasing in prevalence. The hallmarks of cardiac aging include cardiomyocyte loss, fibrosis and hypertrophy, all of which contribute to an increased incidence of cardiac disease. At the molecular level, cellular aging is characterized by increased ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles. Cardiomyocytes and other senescent cell types rely upon autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation pathway, to remove potentially toxic protein aggregates and damaged organelles from the cellular milieu...
April 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660116/a-novel-histochemistry-assay-to-assess-and-quantify-focal-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency
#8
Marie-Lune Simard, Arnaud Mourier, Laura C Greaves, Robert W Taylor, James B Stewart
Defects in the respiratory chain, interfering with energy production in the cell, are major underlying causes of mitochondrial diseases. In spite of this, the surprising variety of clinical symptoms, disparity between ages of onset as well as the involvement of mitochondrial impairment in ageing and age-related diseases, continues to challenge our understanding of the pathogenic processes. This complexity can be in part attributed to the unique metabolic needs of organs or of various cell types. In this view, it remains essential to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659123/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-induce-pre-osteoblast-apoptosis-through-a-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-oxidase-dependent-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-mediated-intrinsic-apoptosis-pathway
#9
Si-Yuan Zhu, Jing-Shen Zhuang, Qian Wu, Zhong-Yuan Liu, Cong-Rui Liao, Shi-Gan Luo, Jian-Ting Chen, Zhao-Ming Zhong
Osteoblast apoptosis contributes to age-related bone loss. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are recognized as the markers of oxidative stress and potent inducers of apoptosis. We have demonstrated that AOPP accumulation was correlated with age-related bone loss. However, the effect of AOPPs on the osteoblast apoptosis still remains unknown. Exposure of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells to AOPPs caused the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases...
April 16, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659022/transcription-factor-rd26-is-a-key-regulator-of-metabolic-reprogramming-during-dark-induced-senescence
#10
Iman Kamranfar, Gang-Ping Xue, Takayuki Tohge, Mastoureh Sedaghatmehr, Alisdair R Fernie, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber
Leaf senescence is a key process in plants that culminates in the degradation of cellular constituents and massive reprogramming of metabolism for the recovery of nutrients from aged leaves for their reuse in newly developing sinks. We used molecular-biological and metabolomics approaches to identify NAC transcription factor (TF) RD26 as an important regulator of metabolic reprogramming in Arabidopsis thaliana. RD26 directly activates CHLOROPLAST VESICULATION (CV), encoding a protein crucial for chloroplast protein degradation, concomitant with an enhanced protein loss in RD26 overexpressors during senescence, but a reduced decline of protein in rd26 knockout mutants...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656500/mitochondria-glycogen-and-lipid-droplets-in-skeletal-muscle-during-testosterone-treatment-and-strength-training-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
R C Jensen, L L Christensen, J Nielsen, H D Schrøder, T Kvorning, K Gejl, K Højlund, D Glintborg, M Andersen
Low testosterone levels in aging men are associated with insulin resistance. Mitochondrial dysfunction, changes in glycogen metabolism, and lipid accumulation are linked to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of six-month testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and strength training (ST) on mitochondrial, glycogen, and lipid droplet (LD) content in skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone (BioT) levels...
April 15, 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656010/age-related-defects-in-short-term-plasticity-are-reversed-by-acetyl-l-carnitine-at-the-mouse-calyx-of-held
#12
Mahendra Singh, Pedro Miura, Robert Renden
Hearing acuity and sound localization are affected by aging and may contribute to cognitive dementias. Although loss of sensorineural conduction is well documented to occur with age, little is known regarding short-term synaptic plasticity in central auditory nuclei. Age-related changes in synaptic transmission properties were evaluated at the mouse calyx of Held, a sign-inverting relay synapse in the circuit for sound localization, in juvenile adults (1 month old) and late middle-aged (18-21 months old) mice...
March 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655929/aging-impairs-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-in-classical-monocytes
#13
Brandt D Pence, Johnathan R Yarbro
Aging is a critical healthcare concern, with age-related inflammation disposing individuals to a variety of diseases. Monocytes are affected by the aging process, with increased inflammation and impaired cellular functions such as phagocytosis. Mechanisms by which aging alters monocyte function are unknown, but recent research suggests that the balance of metabolic processes determine immune cell phenotype and function. Given the known association between aging and mitochondrial dysfunction in other tissues, we hypothesized that aging would impair mitochondrial function in monocytes...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652618/transcriptome-network-analysis-reveals-aging-related-mitochondrial-and-proteasomal-dysfunction-and-immune-activation-in-human-thyroid
#14
Byuri Angela Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, Young Shin Song, Su-Jin Kim, Kyu Eun Lee, Minho Shong, Young Joo Park, Jeong-Sun Seo
BACKGROUND: Elucidating aging-related transcriptomic changes in human organs is necessary to understand the aging physiology and mechanisms, but little is known regarding the thyroid gland. We investigated aging-related transcriptomic alterations in the human thyroid gland and characterized the related molecular functions. METHODS: Publicly available RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data of 322 thyroid tissue samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project were analyzed...
March 20, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651255/sex-specific-skeletal-muscle-fatigability-and-decreased-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-postnatal-hyperoxia
#15
Laura H Tetri, Gary M Diffee, Gregory P Barton, Rudolf K Braun, Hannah E Yoder, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Marlowe W Eldridge, Kara N Goss
Premature birth affects more than 10% of live births, and is characterized by relative hyperoxia exposure in an immature host. Long-term consequences of preterm birth include decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscular strength and endurance, and increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rodents is a well-established model of chronic lung disease of prematurity, and also recapitulates the pulmonary vascular, cardiovascular, and renal phenotype of premature birth...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651211/study-of-the-effect-of-bisphenol-a-on-oxidative-stress-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Fateheya M Metwally, Hend Rashad, Hala M Zeidan, Ayman Kilany, Ehab R Abdol Raouf
The role of bisphenol A (BPA) in autism was investigated in 49 children (mean age = 5.950 ± 1.911 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 40 comparable age and sex matched children used as controls (mean age = 5.333 ± 2.279 years). In addition, 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) was also studied as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the same set of two selected groups. The results showed that both BPA and 8-oxodG were significantly higher in children with autism than those of control children ( p values = 0...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649571/spermidine-ameliorates-the-neuronal-aging-by-improving-the-mitochondrial-function-in-vitro
#17
Yu-Hong Jing, Ji-Long Yan, Qing-Jun Wang, Hai-Chao Chen, Xue-Zhu Ma, Jie Yin, Li-Ping Gao
Changes in mitochondrial structure and function are the initial factors of cell aging. Spermidine has an antiaging effect, but its effect on neuronal aging and mitochondrial mechanisms is unclear. In this study, mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells were treated with d‑galactose (d‑Gal) to establish cell aging to investigate the antiaging effect and mechanisms of spermidine. Changes in the cell cycle and β-galactosidase activity were analyzed to evaluate the extent of cell aging. Stabilities of mitochondrial mRNA and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated in the process of cell aging under different treatments...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649104/coordination-of-gpr40-and-ketogenesis-signaling-by-medium-chain-fatty-acids-regulates-beta-cell-function
#18
Julien Benjamin Pujol, Nicolas Christinat, Yann Ratinaud, Claudia Savoia, Siobhan E Mitchell, El Hadji M Dioum
Diabetes prevalence increases with age, and β-cell dysfunction contributes to the incidence of the disease. Dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and progression of the disease. Unlike long chain triglycerides, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) increase fat burning in animal and human subjects as well as serum C-peptide in type 2 diabetes patients. We evaluated the beneficial effects of MCT on β-cells in vivo and in vitro. MCT improved glycemia in aged rats via β-cell function assessed by measuring insulin secretion and content...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642684/monitoring-conservation-effects-on-a-chinese-indigenous-chicken-breed-using-mhc-b-g-gene-and-dna-barcodes
#19
Jianmin Zou, Yun-Jie Tu, JIngting Shu, Gaige Ji, Ming Zhang
Objective: We report monitoring conservation effect for a Chinese indigenous chicken (Langshan) breed using MHC and DNA barcords. Methods: The full length of MHC B-G gene and mitochondrial COⅠ gene in generations 0, 5 , 10, 15 , 16 and 17 was measured using re-sequencing and sequencing procedures,respectively. Results: There were 292 SNPs of MHC B-G gene identified in six generations. He and PIC of MHC B-G gene in generations 10, 15, 16, and 17 remained stable...
April 11, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630031/elevated-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-filtered-plasma-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-and-inflammation
#20
Omair Arshad, Izabella Gadawska, Beheroze Sattha, Hélène C F Côté, Anthony Y Y Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Increased cell-free DNA levels are associated with poor health outcomes, and cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) has proinflammatory properties. Given that HIV infection is associated with chronic inflammation, we investigated the relationship between cf-mtDNA and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the context of HIV infection. We also optimized separation of cell-free plasma from blood. SETTING: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected blood, demographic information, and clinical data from 99 HIV-infected and 103 HIV-uninfected adults and children enrolled in the Children and Women: AntiRetrovirals and Markers of Aging pan-Canadian (CARMA) cohort...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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