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mitochondrial and aging

Chantal A Pileggi, Christopher P Hedges, Randall F D'Souza, Brenan R Durainayagam, James F Markworth, Anthony J R Hickey, Cameron J Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse result in muscle atrophy. Following limb immobilization, increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may contribute to atrophy through increases in skeletal muscle protein degradation. However, the effect of skeletal muscle disuse on mitochondrial ROS production remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of immobilization, followed by two subsequent periods of restored physical activity, on mitochondrial H2 O2 emissions in adult male skeletal muscle...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yusuf Olgar, Sinan Degirmenci, Aysegul Durak, Deniz Billur, Belgin Can, Gizem Kayki Mutlu, Ebru Arioglu Inan, Belma Turan
Aging in humans represents declining in cardio-protective systems, however its mechanisms are not known yet. We aimed to analyse how aging affects key mechanisms responsible for contractile dysfunction via comparing the improperly synchrony between electrical and mechanical activities in male aged-rats (24-month old) comparison to those of adult-rats (6-month old). We determined significantly increased systemic oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant capacity, clear insulin resistance and hypertrophy in aged-rats with normal fasting blood glucose...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Diangeng Li, Delong Zhao, Weiguang Zhang, Qian Ma, Dong Liu, Qi Huang, Ying Zheng, Xueyuan Bai, Xuefeng Sun, Xiangmei Chen
We established a young (Y)-old (O) rat kidney transplantation model. With this model, we detected no age-related differences in renal structure between Y→Y and Y→O kidneys or O→O and O→Y kidneys. However, we did detect differences in levels of the senescence markers β-gal and p16 as well as the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Using proteomics analysis we detected 66 proteins associated with suppression of aging and 73 proteins associated with enhancement of aging. After construction of a protein-protein interaction network, a total of 73 nodes and 99 edges were analyzed using MCODE, and three significant modules were selected...
June 14, 2018: Aging
Cristian Román-Palacios, Jose Tavera, María Del Rosario Castañeda
Whereas most of the studies that discuss the evolutionary divergence of Anolis lizards have dated the clade's crown group in between 31-64 Ma, a single study has recovered a significantly older age for the same node (87 Ma). These differences also entail notable consequences on the preferred biogeographical hypothesis for the whole clade. Here we analyze a total of seven dating strategies by combining three calibration sources in independent BEAST runs to infer the most probable divergence timing for anole lizards (a mitochondrial rate for ND2 gene, the Anolis dominicanus fossil, and a group of fossils assigned to the Priscagamines, Iguanines, and Idontosaurus clades)...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
David H Jang, Clinton J Orloski, Shawn Owiredu, Frances S Shofer, John C Greenwood, David M Eckmann
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a key cellular event leading to organ dysfunction in sepsis. Our objective is to measure changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics in subjects with early presentation of sepsis to provide insight into the incompletely understood pathophysiology of the dysregulated host response in sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study SETTING:: Single site tertiary academic emergency department SUBJECTS:: We enrolled a total of 48 subjects were enrolled in the study, 10 with sepsis or septic shock, 10 with infection without sepsis, 14 older and 14 younger healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Shock
Snehal N Chaudhari, Edward T Kipreos
Fused, elongated mitochondria are more efficient in generating ATP than fragmented mitochondria. In diverse C. elegans longevity pathways, increased levels of fused mitochondria are associated with lifespan extension. Blocking mitochondrial fusion in these animals abolishes their extended longevity. The long-lived C. elegans vhl-1 mutant is an exception that does not have increased fused mitochondria, and is not dependent on fusion for longevity. Loss of mammalian VHL upregulates alternate energy generating pathways...
June 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Maryam Gulshan, Keisuke Yaku, Keisuke Okabe, Arshad Mahmood, Tsutomu Sasaki, Masashi Yamamoto, Keisuke Hikosaka, Isao Usui, Tadahiro Kitamura, Kazuyuki Tobe, Takashi Nakagawa
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important cofactor that regulates various biological processes, including metabolism and gene expression. As a coenzyme, NAD controls mitochondrial respiration through enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, β-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation and also serves as a substrate for posttranslational protein modifications, such as deacetylation and ADP-ribosylation by sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), respectively. Many studies have demonstrated that NAD levels decrease with aging and that these declines cause various aging-associated diseases...
June 14, 2018: Aging Cell
Yexing Xian, Lifeng Liang, Shutao Qi, Yingjun Xie, Bing Song, Shuming Ouyang, Yuhuan Xie, Xiaofang Sun, Weihua Wang
The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of heavy metal coupling agents (sodium citrate and EDTA) and antioxidants (acetyl carnitine and lipoic acid) on the number of oocytes, as well as the ageing of mitochondria, chromosomes and spindles in mice. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly classified into four groups (n=12 per group): i) Heavy metal coupling agent; ii) antioxidant; iii) mixed group; and iv) the normal control group. For the treatments, heavy metal coupling agents and antioxidants were added to the drinking water provided to the mice...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Clémence Hollard, Vincent Zvénigorosky, Alexey Kovalev, Yurii Kiryushin, Alexey Tishkin, Igor Lazaretov, Eric Crubézy, Bertrand Ludes, Christine Keyser
OBJECTIVES: This work focuses on the populations of South Siberia during the Eneolithic and Bronze Age and specifically on the contribution of uniparental lineage and phenotypical data to the question of the genetic affinities and discontinuities between western and eastern populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed molecular analyses on the remains of 28 ancient humans (10 Afanasievo (3600-2500 BC) and 18 Okunevo (2500-1800 BC) individuals). For each sample, two uniparentally inherited systems (mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA) were studied, in order to trace back maternal and paternal lineages...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
María Del Mar Sáez-Freire, Adrián Blanco-Gómez, Sonia Castillo-Lluva, Aurora Gómez-Vecino, Julie Milena Galvis-Jiménez, Carmen Martín-Seisdedos, María Isidoro-García, Lourdes Hontecillas-Prieto, María Begoña García-Cenador, Francisco Javier García-Criado, María Carmen Patino-Alonso, Purificación Galindo-Villardón, Jian-Hua Mao, Carlos Prieto, Andrés Castellanos-Martín, Lars Kaderali, Jesús Pérez-Losada
The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled "The biological age linked to oxidative stress modifies breast cancer aggressiveness" (M.M. Sáez-Freire, A. Blanco-Gómez, S. Castillo-Lluva, A. Gómez-Vecino, J.M. Galvis-Jiménez, C. Martín-Seisdedos, M. Isidoro-García, L. Hontecillas-Prieto, M.B. García-Cenador, F.J. García-Criado, M.C. Patino-Alonso, P. Galindo-Villardón, J.H. Mao, C. Prieto, A. Castellanos-Martín, L. Kaderali, J. Pérez-Losada). The data shown were obtained from a population of transgenic mice, MMTV- Erbb2/Neu , with different susceptibility to breast cancer and a mixed genetic background generated by backcrossing...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Yoshio Ogura, Munehiro Kitada, Itaru Monno, Keizo Kanasaki, Ai Watanabe, Daisuke Koya
OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. The objective of our study is to identify the mechanisms of renal mitochondrial oxidative stress, focusing on Sirt3, which is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ; oxidized NAD)-dependent deacetylase in mitochondria. METHODS: Renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and Sirt3 activity, using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDFRs) and cultured proximal tubular cells under high-glucose condition were evaluated...
December 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Lee Tran, Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Jayachandran Ravichandran, Jared M Dickinson, Andrew D'Lugos, Chad C Carroll, Shivam H Patel, Lawrence J Mandarino, Lori Roust, Christos S Katsanos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity alters protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, but consistent evidence is lacking. This study compared muscle protein synthesis in adults with obesity and in lean controls in the fasted state and during an amino acid infusion. METHODS: Ten subjects with obesity (age: 36 ± 3 years; BMI: 34 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and ten controls (age: 35 ± 3 years; BMI: 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) received an infusion of L-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-2 H10 ]leucine (0.15 μmol/kg fat-free mass/min) to measure muscle protein synthesis after an overnight fast and during amino acid infusion...
June 12, 2018: Obesity
Gülşah Merve Kılınç, Natalija Kashuba, Reyhan Yaka, Arev Pelin Sümer, Eren Yüncü, Dmitrij Shergin, Grigorij Leonidovich Ivanov, Dmitrii Kichigin, Kjunnej Pestereva, Denis Volkov, Pavel Mandryka, Artur Kharinskii, Alexey Tishkin, Evgenij Ineshin, Evgeniy Kovychev, Aleksandr Stepanov, Aanatolij Alekseev, Svetlana Aleksandrovna Fedoseeva, Mehmet Somel, Mattias Jakobsson, Maja Krzewińska, Jan Storå, Anders Götherström
Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c.13,790 BP and c.1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shuai Li, Uma Gaur, Cheong-Meng Chong, Shaofen Lin, Jiankang Fang, Zhiwen Zeng, Haitao Wang, Wenhua Zheng
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in the elderly with less effective treatment, especially for dry AMD (90% of AMD). Although the etiology of this disease is not well elucidated, increasing evidences indicate that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) impairing the physiological functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells may be one of the main causes. Therefore, it could be a great strategy to find some drugs that can effectively protect RPE cells from oxidative damage which is desired to treat and slow the process of AMD...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chinthasagar Bastian, Jane Zaleski, Katharine Stahon, Brandon Parr, Andrew McCray, Jerica Day, Sylvain Brunet, Selva Baltan
White matter (WM) damage following a stroke underlies a majority of the neurological disability that is subsequently observed. Although ischemic injury mechanisms are age-dependent, conserving axonal mitochondria provides consistent post-ischemic protection to young and aging WM. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activation is a major cause of oxidative and mitochondrial injury in gray matter during ischemia; therefore, we used a pure WM tract, isolated male mouse optic nerve, to investigate whether NOS inhibition provides post-ischemic functional recovery by preserving mitochondria...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yiyang Wang, Jieliang Shen, Yanyang Chen, Huzhe Liu, Hao Zhou, Zhibiao Bai, Zhenming Hu
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is closely related with aging, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of aging in which results cell senescence. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1) is a mitochondrial-targeted serine/threonine kinase, which plays a protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction with mitochondrial quality control by activating PINK1/Parkin mediated mitophagy. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of PINK1 against mitochondrial dysfunction and human nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) senescence...
June 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mathieu Panel, Bijan Ghaleh, Didier Morin
The cellular mechanisms responsible for aging are poorly understood. Aging is considered as a degenerative process induced by the accumulation of cellular lesions leading progressively to organ dysfunction and death. The free radical theory of aging has long been considered the most relevant to explain the mechanisms of aging. As the mitochondrion is an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), this organelle is regarded as a key intracellular player in this process and a large amount of data supports the role of mitochondrial ROS production during aging...
June 11, 2018: Aging Cell
Luisa Garofalo, Alessia Mariacher, Rita Fanelli, Rosario Fico, Rita Lorenzini
In Western countries dogs and cats are the most popular pets, and people are increasingly opposed to their rearing for the fur industry. In 2007, a Regulation of the European Union (EU) banned the use and trade of dog and cat furs, but an official analytical protocol to identify them as source species was not provided, and violations of law are still frequent in all Member States. In this paper we report on the development and validation of a simple and affordable DNA method for species detection in furs to use as an effective tool to combat illegal trade in fur products...
2018: PeerJ
Wenbo Chen, Shiyu Luo, Peng Xie, Tingting Hou, Tian Yu, Xiaoyun Fu
Background: Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are transient signals from transient bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in pH that occur in certain physiological or pathological conditions. Mitoflashes are closely related to metabolism, cell differentiation, stress response, diseases, and aging. Sepsis can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardial cells, which leads to ROS overproduction, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) can reduce ROS production. This study aims to observe whether UCP2 overexpression can regulate the frequency of mitoflashes in cardiomyocytes during sepsis and thereby play a protective role...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
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