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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#1
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223164/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-moss-brachythecium-rivulare-hypnales-brachytheciaceae
#2
D V Goryunov, M D Logacheva, M S Ignatov, I A Milyutina, A V Fedorova, A V Troitsky
The mitochondrial genome of the pleurocarpous moss Brachythecium rivulare has been sequenced and annotated. The genome consists of 104,460 base pairs and has approximately the same gene set and organization as other bryophyte mitogenomes. Whole mitochondrial genome comparison between B. rivulare and Physcomitrella patens, Tetraphis pellucida, Anomodon rugelii, and Anomodon attenuatus was performed. The primary cause of bryophyte mitochondrial gene length variation was found to be numerous indels in the introns...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220537/milder-disease-stage-in-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-over-a-44-year-period-a-changing-natural-history
#3
Fiorella Murillo Perez, Jorn C Goet, Willem J Lammers, Aliya Gulamhusein, Henk R van Buuren, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Marco Carbone, Andrew Mason, Christophe Corpechot, Pietro Invernizzi, Marlyn J Mayo, Pier Maria Battezzati, Annarosa Floreani, Albert Pares, Frederik Nevens, Kris V Kowdley, Tony Bruns, George N Dalekos, Douglas Thorburn, Gideon Hirschfield, Nicholas F LaRusso, Keith D Lindor, Kalliopi Zachou, Raoul Poupon, Palak J Trivedi, Xavier Verhelst, Harry L A Janssen, Bettina E Hansen
Changes over time in the presenting features and clinical course of patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are poorly described. We sought to describe temporal trends in patient and disease characteristics over a 44-year period across a large international PBC cohort of 4805 patients diagnosed between 1970 and 2014, from 17 centers across Europe and North America. Patients were divided into five cohorts according to their year of diagnosis: 1970-1979 (n=143), 1980-1989 (n=858), 1990-1999 (n=1754), 2000-2009 (n=1815), ≥2010 (n=235)...
December 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220206/aerobic-training-but-no-resistance-training-increases-sirt3-in-skeletal-muscle-of-sedentary-obese-male-adolescents
#4
Katya Vargas-Ortiz, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo Figueroa, Francisco J Díaz, Paulina G Montaño-Ascencio, Maciste H Macías-Cervantes
In recent years, prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased. A strategy for prevention and management of obesity is aerobic training (AT) due to its effectiveness to decrease fat mass. AT increases the content of SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein that increases the expression of PGC-1α and NFR1, thereby enhances mitochondrial function and metabolic health. Resistance training (RT) provides metabolic benefits but its effect on SIRT3 content is unknown. To compare the effect of AT and RT on SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 protein levels in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese adolescents...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217634/anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-an-update-on-mechanisms-monitoring-and-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Peter A Henriksen
Anthracycline chemotherapy causes dose-related cardiomyocyte injury and death leading to left ventricular dysfunction. Clinical heart failure may ensue in up to 5% of high-risk patients. Improved cancer survival together with better awareness of the late effects of cardiotoxicity has led to growing recognition of the need for surveillance of anthracycline-treated cancer survivors with early intervention to treat or prevent heart failure. The main mechanism of anthracycline cardiotoxicity is now thought to be through inhibition of topoisomerase 2β resulting in activation of cell death pathways and inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis...
December 7, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216758/iron-age-italic-population-genetics-the-piceni-from-novilara-8th-7th-century-bc
#6
P Serventi, C Panicucci, R Bodega, S De Fanti, S Sarno, M Fondevila Alvarez, F Brisighelli, B Trombetta, P Anagnostou, G Ferri, A Vazzana, C Delpino, G Gruppioni, D Luiselli, E Cilli
BACKGROUND: Archaeological data provide evidence that Italy, during the Iron Age, witnessed the appearance of the first communities with well defined cultural identities. To date, only a few studies report genetic data about these populations and, in particular, the Piceni have never been analysed. AIMS: To provide new data about mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability of an Iron Age Italic population, to understand the contribution of the Piceni in shaping the modern Italian gene pool and to ascertain the kinship between some individuals buried in the same grave within the Novilara necropolis...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215072/lactation-has-persistent-effects-on-a-mother-s-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-function
#7
Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Wendy R Hood, Andreas N Kavazis
Human epidemiological data show that breastfeeding reduces the prevalence of numerous diseases compared to mothers that give birth but do not participate in lactation. The goal of this study was to determine if differences in metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress underlie the protective phenotype found in lactating women. Ten-week old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): 1) rats that did not reproduce (NR), 2) rats that were allowed to mate and become pregnant but did not suckle their pups after giving birth (NL), and 3) rats that were allowed to mate and become pregnant and suckled their pups for 21 days before weaning (L)...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214787/myocardial-layer-specific-strain-analysis-in-children-with-mitochondrial-disease
#8
Lucy Youngmin Eun, Young Mock Lee
PURPOSE: Children with mitochondrial disease (MD) have clinical phenotypes that are more severe than those found in adults. In this study, we assessed cardiac function in children with MD using conventional and advanced echocardiographic measurements, explored any unique patterns present, and investigated the development of early cardiomyopathy (CMP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 33 children with MD. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography with conventional and advanced myocardial analysis...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211978/revamping-mitochondrial-shape-to-live-longer
#9
Lena Pernas, Luca Scorrano
Whether and how mitochondria connect reduced energy intake to healthy aging are unclear. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Weir et al. (2017) find that constitutive AMPK activation and dietary restriction promote longevity in C. elegans via remodeling of the mitochondrial network and fatty acid oxidation in peripheral tissues.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211784/urinary-metabolomic-analysis-to-identify-preterm-neonates-exposed-to-histological-chorioamnionitis-a-pilot-study
#10
Claudia Fattuoni, Carlo Pietrasanta, Lorenza Pugni, Andrea Ronchi, Francesco Palmas, Luigi Barberini, Angelica Dessì, Roberta Pintus, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Noto, Fabio Mosca
OBJECTIVE: Chorioamnionitis is a leading cause of preterm birth worldwide, with higher incidence at lower gestational ages. An early and reliable diagnosis of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in preterm infants may be helpful in guiding postnatal management, especially the administration of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent early-onset sepsis. The main aim of this study was to investigate metabolomic analysis of urines collected in the first 24 hours of life as diagnostic tool of HCA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209656/ionic-signalling-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#11
Nada Abuarab, Fangfang Li, Asipu Sivaprasadarao
In age-related diseases, rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes fragmentation of mitochondrial network. Our recent study demonstrated that ROS activation of TRPM2 (transient receptor potential melastatin-2) channels triggers lysosomal Zn2+ release that, in turn, triggers mitochondrial fragmentation. The findings provide new mechanistic insights that may have therapeutic implications.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207315/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-controls-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#12
Katja Scheffler, Lyudmila Rachek, Panpan You, Alexander D Rowe, Wei Wang, Anna Kuśnierczyk, Lene Kittelsen, Magnar Bjørås, Lars Eide
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resides in close proximity to metabolic reactions, and is maintained by the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) and other members of the base excision repair pathway. Here, we tested the hypothesis that changes in liver metabolism as under fasting/feeding conditions would be sensed by liver mtDNA, and that Ogg1 deficient mice might unravel a metabolic phenotype. Wild type (WT) and ogg1-/- mice were either fed ad libitum or subjected to fasting for 24h, and the corresponding effects on liver gene expression, DNA damage, as well as serum values were analyzed...
November 28, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206761/skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-is-determined-by-burn-severity-sex-and-sepsis-and-is-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-functional-capacity-in-burned-children
#13
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Eric Rivas, Karel D Capek, Anahi D Delgadillo, Nisha Bhattarai, Armando Elizondo, Charles D Voigt, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal mitochondrial function represents a new target for strategies aimed at mitigating the stress response to severe burn trauma and hastening recovery. Our objective was to investigate the determinants of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function and its association with glucose metabolism and functional capacity in burned children. METHODS: Data from burned children enrolled in the placebo arm of an ongoing prospective clinical trial were analyzed...
December 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206239/type-1-diabetes-alters-lipid-handling-and-metabolism-in-human-fibroblasts-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#14
Albert R Jones Iv, Emily L Coleman, Nicholas R Husni, Jude T Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S Nikolajczyk, Barbara E Corkey
Triggers of the autoimmune response that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain poorly understood. A possibility is that parallel changes in both T cells and target cells provoke autoimmune attack. We previously documented greater Ca2+ transients in fibroblasts from T1D subjects than non-T1D after exposure to fatty acids (FA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). These data indicate that metabolic and signal transduction defects present in T1D can be elicited ex vivo in isolated cells. Changes that precede T1D, including inflammation, may activate atypical responses in people that are genetically predisposed to T1D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205705/retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-photobiomodulation-as-a-potential-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Jack Ao, John Pm Wood, Glyn Chidlow, Mark C Gillies, Robert J Casson
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) comprises a monolayer of cells located between the neuroretina and the choriocapillaries. The RPE serves several important functions in the eye: formation of the blood retinal barrier, protection of the retina from oxidative stress, nutrient delivery and waste disposal, ionic homeostasis, phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments, synthesis and release of growth factors, reisomerization of all-trans-retinal during the visual cycle, and establishment of ocular immune privilege...
December 5, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203401/skeletal-muscle-from-aged-american-quarter-horses-shows-impairments-in-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-expression-of-autophagy-markers
#16
Chengcheng Li, Sarah H White, Lori K Warren, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth
Aging is associated with decreased mitochondrial content and function in skeletal muscle, possibly due to compromised biogenesis and autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. The aim of this study was to compare markers of mitochondrial content and biogenesis and of autophagy between skeletal muscle from young and aged American Quarter Horses. Citrate synthase protein and mtDNA copy number were decreased in triceps brachii (TB) muscle (P<0.05) from aged horses, suggesting an age-related decline in mitochondrial content...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203383/comprehensive-chromosomal-and-mitochondrial-copy-number-profiling-in-human-ivf-embryos
#17
Wei Shang, Yunshan Zhang, Mingming Shu, Weizhou Wang, Likun Ren, Fu Chen, Lin Shao, Sijia Lu, Shiping Bo, Shujie Ma, Yumei Gao
Single cell whole genome sequencing helps to decipher the genome heterogeneity within a cell population and facilitates the analysis of trace amounts of genetic material, such as is found in human embryos. The mitochondrial genome, although an important part of the genetic composition of eukaryotic cells, is often neglected in single cell genome analysis. A recently developed single cell whole genome amplification method was used, known as multiple annealing and looping based amplification cycles (MALBAC-NGS), for simultaneous analysis of chromosomal and mitochondrial genomes at the single cell level...
November 8, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201561/phylogeographic-and-population-insights-of-the-asian-common-toad-bufo-gargarizans-in-korea-and-china-population-isolation-and-expansions-as-response-to-the-ice-ages
#18
Amaël Borzée, Joana L Santos, Santiago Sánchez-RamÍrez, Yoonhyuk Bae, Kyongman Heo, Yikweon Jang, Michael Joseph Jowers
The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201274/slower-dynamics-and-aged-mitochondria-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Patricia Martín-Maestro, Ricardo Gargini, Esther García, George Perry, Jesús Avila, Vega García-Escudero
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201272/resveratrol-ameliorates-mitochondrial-elongation-via-drp1-parkin-pink1-signaling-in-senescent-like-cardiomyocytes
#20
Xuecong Ren, Li Chen, Jing Xie, Zhifeng Zhang, Gengting Dong, Jie Liang, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou, Pei Luo
Resveratrol is widely known for its antiaging properties and exerts cardiovascular protective effects in different experimental models. The role of resveratrol in regulating mitochondrial functions and dynamics during the cardiac aging process remains poorly understood. In this study, the effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial depolarization and on expressions of Drp1, parkin, PINK1, and LC3 were investigated in H9c2 cells after D-galactose treatment that induced senescent-like cardiomyocytes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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