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mitochondrial and aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647451/association-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-peripheral-blood-with-depression-anxiety-and-stress-and-adjustment-disorders-in-primary-health-care-patients
#1
Xiao Wang, Kristina Sundquist, Hamideh Rastkhani, Karolina Palmér, Ashfaque A Memon, Jan Sundquist
Mitochondrial dysfunction may result in a variety of diseases. The objectives here were to examine possible differences in mtDNA copy number between healthy controls and patients with depression, anxiety or stress- and adjustment disorders; the association between mtDNA copy number and disease severity at baseline; and the association between mtDNA copy number and response after an 8-week treatment (mindfulness, cognitive based therapy). A total of 179 patients in primary health care (age 20-64 years) with depression, anxiety and stress- and adjustment disorders, and 320 healthy controls (aged 19-70 years) were included in the study...
June 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645153/defective-mitochondrial-rna-processing-due-to-pnpt1-variants-causes-leigh-syndrome
#2
Sanna Matilainen, Christopher J Carroll, Uwe Richter, Liliya Euro, Max Pohjanpelto, Anders Paetau, Pirjo Isohanni, Anu Suomalainen
Leigh syndrome is a severe infantile encephalopathy with an exceptionally variable genetic background. We studied the exome of a child manifesting with Leigh syndrome at one month of age and progressing to death by the age of 2.4 years, and identified novel compound heterozygous variants in PNPT1, encoding the polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). Expression of the wild type PNPT1 in the subject's myoblasts functionally complemented the defects, and the pathogenicity was further supported by structural predictions and protein and RNA analyses...
June 22, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644888/fragmentation-of-the-mitochondrial-network-in-skin-in-vivo
#3
Daniel Mellem, Martin Sattler, Sonja Pagel-Wolff, Sören Jaspers, Horst Wenck, Michael Alexander Rübhausen, Frank Fischer
Mitochondria form dynamic networks which adapt to the environmental requirements of the cell. We investigated the aging process of these networks in human skin cells in vivo by multiphoton microscopy. A study on the age-dependency of the mitochondrial network in young and old volunteers revealed that keratinocytes in old skin establish a significantly more fragmented network with smaller and more compact mitochondrial clusters than keratinocytes in young skin. Furthermore, we investigated the mitochondrial network during differentiation processes of keratinocytes within the epidermis of volunteers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644434/ageing-and-hypoxia-cause-protein-aggregation-in-mitochondria
#4
Daniel M Kaufman, Xia Wu, Barbara A Scott, Omar A Itani, Marc R Van Gilst, James E Bruce, C Michael Crowder
Aggregation of cytosolic proteins is a pathological finding in disease states, including ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously reported that hypoxia induces protein misfolding in Caenorhabditis elegans mitochondria, and electron micrographs suggested protein aggregates. Here, we seek to determine whether mitochondrial proteins actually aggregate after hypoxia and other cellular stresses. To enrich for mitochondrial proteins that might aggregate, we performed a proteomics analysis on purified C...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641368/glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-obese-african-american-hypertensive-patients-is-associated-with-elevated-urinary-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number
#5
Alfonso Eirin, Ahmed Saad, John R Woollard, Luis A Juncos, David A Calhoun, Hui Tang, Amir Lerman, Stephen C Textor, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration may contribute to the high incidence of renal disease in Obese African Americans essential hypertensive (ObAAEH) patients, but the precise mechanisms responsible for renal injury have not been elucidated. Mitochondria are important determinants of renal injury in hypertension, and increased levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the urine may indicate renal mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that urine mtDNA copy numbers would be higher in ObAAEH compared to Caucasian essential hypertensive (CEH) patients...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640253/a-role-for-tspo-in-mitochondrial-ca-2-homeostasis-and-redox-stress-signaling
#6
Jemma Gatliff, Daniel A East, Aarti Singh, Maria Soledad Alvarez, Michele Frison, Ivana Matic, Caterina Ferraina, Natalie Sampson, Federico Turkheimer, Michelangelo Campanella
The 18 kDa translocator protein TSPO localizes on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Systematically overexpressed at sites of neuroinflammation it is adopted as a biomarker of brain conditions. TSPO inhibits the autophagic removal of mitochondria by limiting PARK2-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination via a peri-organelle accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we describe that TSPO deregulates mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling leading to a parallel increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) pools that activate the Ca(2+)-dependent NADPH oxidase (NOX) thereby increasing ROS...
June 22, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639297/autophagy-activation-not-pgc-1%C3%AE-may-mediate-exercise-induced-improvements-in-glucose-handling-during-diet-induced-obesity
#7
Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Kyle W Turner, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Prevalence of glucose intolerance is at alarming levels. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. PURPOSE: To determine combined effects of muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α and physical activity on glucose handling during diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT, ∼20) and PGC-1α muscle transgenic (MCK-PGC-1α, ∼20) mice were given Western diet (WD) at 8 wks age and allowed to consume food ab libitum throughout the study...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639102/the-clinical-and-genetic-characteristics-in-children-with-mitochondrial-disease-in-china
#8
Fang Fang, Zhimei Liu, Hezhi Fang, Jian Wu, Danmin Shen, Suzhen Sun, Changhong Ding, Tongli Han, Yun Wu, Junlan Lv, Lei Yang, Shufang Li, Jianxin Lv, Ying Shen
Mitochondrial disease was a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases, thus the diagnosis was very difficult to clinicians. Our objective was to analyze clinical and genetic characteristics of children with mitochondrial disease in China. We tested 141 candidate patients who have been suspected of mitochondrial disorders by using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), and summarized the clinical and genetic data of gene confirmed cases from Neurology Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from October 2012 to January 2015...
June 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638596/environmental-insults-critical-triggers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Bing Yu, Roger Pamphlett
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by a rapid loss of lower and upper motor neurons. As a complex disease, the ageing process and complicated gene-environment interactions are involved in the majority of cases. MAIN BODY: Significant advances have been made in unravelling the genetic susceptibility to ALS with massively parallel sequencing technologies, while environmental insults remain a suspected but largely unexplored source of risk...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638409/differential-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-ketone-body-levels-in-ghrko-versus-3xtg-ad-mice-a-potential-contributor-to-aging-related-cognitive-status
#10
Chelsea M Griffith, Lauren N Macklin, Andrzej Bartke, Peter R Patrylo
Cognitive function declines with age and appears to correlate with decreased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR). Caloric restriction, an antiaging manipulation that extends life-span and can preserve cognitive function, is associated with decreased glucose uptake, decreased lactate levels, and increased ketone body (KB) levels in the brain. Since the majority of brain nutrients come from the periphery, this study examined whether the capacity to regulate peripheral glucose levels and KB production differs in animals with successful cognitive aging (growth hormone receptor knockouts, GHRKOs) versus unsuccessful cognitive aging (the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#11
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637402/antioxidant-skq1-alleviates-signs-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-old-oxys-rats-by-reversing-mitochondrial-deterioration
#12
Nataliya G Kolosova, Mikhail A Tyumentsev, Natalia A Muraleva, Elena Kiseleva, Anton O Vitovtov, Natalia A Stefanova
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is called the missing link between brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of age-related dementia worldwide. Among the most advanced and promising of approaches to prevention or slowing of AD are therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondria. OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 can suppress the development of AD signs, but its therapeutic potential in AD at clinical stages is currently unknown...
June 21, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636816/impacts-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-on-the-relationship-of-long-term-ambient-fine-particle-exposure-with-blood-dna-methylation-age
#13
Jamaji Nwanaji-Enwerem, Elena Colicino, Lingzhen Dai, Akin Cayir, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Hannah E Laue, Vy T Nguyen, Qian Di, Allan Just, Lifang Hou, Pantel Vokonas, Brent A Coull, Marc Weisskopf, Andrea Baccarelli, Joel Schwartz
The mitochondrial genome has long been implicated in age-related disease, but no studies have examined its role in the relationship of long-term fine particle (PM2.5) exposure and DNA methylation age (DNAm-age) - a novel measure of biological age. In this analysis based on 940 observations between 2000 and 2011 from 552 Normative Aging Study participants, we determined the roles of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation and mitochondrial genome abundance in the relationship of PM2.5 with DNAm-age. We used the GEOS-chem transport model to estimate address-specific, one-year PM2...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635582/protective-effects-of-ethanol-extracts-of-artemisia-asiatica-nakai-ex-pamp-on-ageing-induced-deterioration-in-mouse-oocyte-quality
#14
Hyuk-Joon Jeon, Seung Yeop You, Dong Hyun Kim, Hong Bae Jeon, Jeong Su Oh
Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634450/leonurine-improves-age-dependent-impaired-angiogenesis-possible-involvement-of-mitochondrial-function-and-hif-1%C3%AE-dependent-vegf-activation
#15
Jia Qi, Jing J Wang, Jun L Duan, Zhao Y Lu, Yang G Yuan
Objective: Advanced age is associated with impaired angiogenesis in part because of mitochondrial dysfunction. We have recently reported that leonurine exerts protective effects in neuron via regulation of mitochondrial function. The aim of this study was to explore whether leonurine is able to attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and to enhance angiogenesis in old rats with hindlimb ischemia. Methods and Results: At day 14 after surgery, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was decreased in the ischemic muscle of aged animals, which was accompanied by enhanced oxidative stress, increased mitochondrial damage, decreased capillary density, and reduced limb perfusion compared with young mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634362/reconstructing-the-phylogeny-of-blattodea-robust-support-for-interfamilial-relationships-and-major-clades
#16
Zongqing Wang, Yan Shi, Zhiwei Qiu, Yanli Che, Nathan Lo
Cockroaches are among the most recognizable of all insects. In addition to their role as pests, they play a key ecological role as decomposers. Despite numerous studies of cockroach phylogeny in recent decades, relationships among most major lineages are yet to be resolved. Here we examine phylogenetic relationships among cockroaches based on five genes (mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COII; nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3), and infer divergence times on the basis of 8 fossils. We included in our analyses sequences from 52 new species collected in China, representing 7 families...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634345/sirtuin-3-deficiency-does-not-alter-host-defenses-against-bacterial-and-fungal-infections
#17
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Jérôme Lugrin, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is the main mitochondrial deacetylase. SIRT3 regulates cell metabolism and redox homeostasis, and protects from aging and age-associated pathologies. SIRT3 may drive both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive effects. SIRT3 deficiency has been reported to promote chronic inflammation-related disorders, but whether SIRT3 impacts on innate immune responses and host defenses against infections remains essentially unknown. This aspect is of primary importance considering the great interest in developing SIRT3-targeted therapies...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634176/impact-of-glycemic-variability-on-chromatin-remodeling-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-target-hba1c-levels
#18
Sarah Costantino, Francesco Paneni, Rodolfo Battista, Lorenzo Castello, Giuliana Capretti, Sergio Chiandotto, Luigi Tanese, Giulio Russo, Dario Pitocco, Gaetano A Lanza, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Cosentino
Intensive glycemic control (IGC) targeting HbA1c fails to show an unequivocal reduction of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), however the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic changes are emerging as important mediators of cardiovascular damage and may play a role in this setting. This study investigates whether epigenetic regulation of the adaptor protein p66(Shc), a key driver of mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributes to persistent vascular dysfunction in T2D patients despite IGC...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634151/speech-and-swallowing-abnormalities-in-adults-with-polg-associated-ataxia-polg-a
#19
Adam P Vogel, Natalie Rommel, Andreas Oettinger, Marius Horger, Patrick Krumm, Eva-Maria Kraus, Ludger Schöls, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) can result in a wide spectrum of neurological deficits. A common presentation is progressive ataxia (POLG-A) which includes impaired speech and swallowing. The nature, severity and impact of these deficits in POLG-A is not known. A comprehensive quantitative and qualitative characterization of dysarthria and dysphagia in this recurrent ataxia disorder will assist in diagnostics, provide insights into the underlying pathology, and establish the foundation for future therapy trials...
June 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633487/high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-improves-physical-performance-and-frailty-in-aged-mice
#20
Kenneth Ladd Seldeen, Ginger Lasky, Merced Maria Leiker, Manhui Pang, Kirkwood Ely Personius, Bruce Robert Troen
Sarcopenia and frailty are highly prevalent in older individuals, increasing the risk of disability and loss of independence. High intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide a robust intervention for both sarcopenia and frailty by achieving both strength and endurance benefits with lower time commitments than other exercise regimens. To better understand the impacts of HIIT during aging, we compared 24-month-old C57BL/6J sedentary mice with those that were administered 10-minute uphill treadmill HIIT sessions three times per week over 16 weeks...
June 17, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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