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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029131/plasma-amino-acids-stimulate-uncoupled-respiration-of-muscle-subsarcolemmal-mitochondria-in-lean-but-not-obese-humans
#1
Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Lori R Roust, Shivam H Patel, Chad C Carroll, Christos S Katsanos
Context: Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial ATP production in lean individuals. Objective: To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Design: Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondria function during saline (i...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024598/effects-of-long-term-exposures-to-low-iron-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-containing-diets-on-aging-skeletal-muscle-of-fisher-344-brown-norway-rats
#2
Yuho Kim, Sok Sambo Men, Chen Liang, Candace N Receno, Tom D Brutsaert, Donna L Korol, Kevin S Heffernan, Keith C DeRuisseau
Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A low iron (LI) containing diet could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male F344BN rats consumed the following control-base diets: Control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); Control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021970/quantification-of-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-suspected-cancer-patients-by-a-well-optimized-ddpcr-method
#3
Ashfaque A Memon, Bengt Zöller, Anna Hedelius, Xiao Wang, Emelie Stenman, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is a useful clinical biomarker for various diseases, however results are controversial as several analytical factors can affect measurement of mtDNA. MtDNA is often quantified by taking ratio between a target mitochondrial gene and a reference nuclear gene (mtDNA/nDNA) using quantitative real time PCR often on two separate experiments. It measures relative levels by using external calibrator which may not be comparable across laboratories. We have developed and optimized a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) based method for quantification of absolute copy number of both mtDNA and nDNA gene in whole blood...
September 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020391/association-between-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-sudden-cardiac-death-findings-from-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-aric
#4
Yiyi Zhang, Eliseo Guallar, Foram N Ashar, Ryan J Longchamps, Christina A Castellani, John Lane, Megan L Grove, Josef Coresh, Nona Sotoodehnia, Leonard Ilkhanoff, Eric Boerwinkle, Nathan Pankratz, Dan E Arking
Aims: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health burden. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases including cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and arrhythmias, but it is unknown if it also contributes to SCD risk. We sought to examine the prospective association between mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), a surrogate marker of mitochondrial function, and SCD risk. Methods and results: We measured baseline mtDNA-CN in 11 093 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study...
June 30, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018626/cryptic-biodiversity-and-phylogeographic-patterns-of-seychellois-ligia-isopods
#5
Carlos A Santamaria, Joanna K Bluemel, Nancy Bunbury, Melinda Curran
Ligia isopods are conspicuous inhabitants of rocky intertidal habitats exhibiting several biological traits that severely limit their dispersal potential. Their presence in patchy habitats and low vagility may lead to long term isolation, allopatric isolation and possible cryptic speciation. Indeed, various species of Ligia have been suggested to represent instead cryptic species complexes. Past studies; however, have largely focused in Eastern Pacific and Atlantic species of Ligia, leaving in doubt whether cryptic diversity occurs in other highly biodiverse areas...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018163/mtdna-copy-number-associated-with-age-of-onset-in-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy
#6
Diana Santos, Maria João Santos, Miguel Alves-Ferreira, Teresa Coelho, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Pedro Oliveira, Alda Sousa, Carolina Lemos, Manuela Grazina
BACKGROUND: Transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP Val30Met) shows a wide variation in age-at-onset (AO) between generations and genders, as in Portuguese families, where women display a later onset and a larger anticipation (>10 years). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was assessed to clarify whether it has a modifier effect on AO variability in Portuguese patients. METHODS: The mtDNA copy number of 262 samples (175 Val30Met TTR carriers and 87 controls (proven Val30Val)) was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016679/perimenopause-and-emergence-of-an-alzheimer-s-bioenergetic-phenotype-in-brain-and-periphery
#7
Lisa Mosconi, Valentina Berti, Crystal Guyara-Quinn, Pauline McHugh, Gabriella Petrongolo, Ricardo S Osorio, Christopher Connaughty, Alberto Pupi, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Richard S Isaacson, Mony J de Leon, Russell H Swerdlow, Roberta Diaz Brinton
After advanced age, female sex is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological mechanisms underlying the increased AD risk in women remain largely undetermined. Preclinical studies identified the perimenopause to menopause transition, a neuroendocrine transition state unique to the female, as a sex-specific risk factor for AD. In animals, estrogenic regulation of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) falters during perimenopause. This is evident in glucose hypometabolism and decline in mitochondrial efficiency which is sustained thereafter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016348/parp-1-and-parp-2-activity-in-cancer-induced-cachexia-potential-therapeutic-implications
#8
Esther Barreiro, Joaquim Gea
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and mass loss is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic diseases including cancer and acute conditions such as critical illness. Maintenance of an adequate muscle mass is crucial for the patients' prognosis irrespective of the underlying condition. Moreover, aging-related sarcopenia may further aggravate the muscle wasting process associated with chronic diseases and cancer. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been demonstrated to contribute to the pathophysiology of muscle mass loss and dysfunction in animal models of cancer-induced cachexia...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994349/the-therapeutic-potential-of-a-calorie-restricted-ketogenic-diet-for-the-management-of-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#9
Mithu Storoni, Matthieu P Robert, Gordon T Plant
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited, bilateral, sequential optic neuropathy that usually affects young males. LHON arises from a defect in complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation chain that generates increased reactive oxygen species and causes a decline in cellular ATP production. There exists no cure at present for LHON. Asymptomatic LHON mutation carriers show signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis that may compensate for the compromise in complex I activity. Partial recovery in LHON is associated with a wider optic disc diameter and a younger age at disease onset, which may allow for greater mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity...
October 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994181/age-associated-dysregulation-of-protein-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-oocyte
#10
Francesca E Duncan, Susmita Jasti, Ariel Paulson, John M Kelsh, Barbara Fegley, Jennifer L Gerton
Reproductive aging is characterized by a marked decline in oocyte quality that contributes to infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects. This decline is multifactorial, and the underlying mechanisms are under active investigation. Here, we performed RNA-Seq on individual growing follicles from reproductively young and old mice to identify age-dependent functions in oocytes. This unbiased approach revealed genes involved in cellular processes known to change with age, including mitochondrial function and meiotic chromosome segregation, but also uncovered previously unappreciated categories of genes related to proteostasis and organelles required for protein metabolism...
October 10, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992589/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-promotes-healthy-lifespan-through-mitohormesis-during-early-to-mid-adulthood-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Li-Gui Xiong, Yi-Jun Chen, Jie-Wen Tong, Yu-Shun Gong, Jian-An Huang, Zhong-Hua Liu
The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is widely consumed as a dietary supplement. Its potential properties include slowing aging and extending lifespan, although how exactly this is achieved remains unclear. Here, we report that EGCG promoted healthy lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans when administered throughout or only at early-to-mid adulthood. Specifically, EGCG extended lifespan in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. The life-extending mechanism was stimulated by EGCG-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
September 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990081/leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-is-potentially-associated-with-a-novel-m-5587t-c-mutation-in-two-pedigrees
#12
Yanchun Ji, Lihua Qiao, Xiaoyang Liang, Ling Zhu, Yinglong Gao, Juanjuan Zhang, Zidong Jia, Qi-Ping Wei, Xiaoling Liu, Pingping Jiang, Min-Xin Guan
Mitochondrial (mt)DNA mutations have been revealed to be associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present study conducted clinical, genetic and molecular evaluations of two Han Chinese families. A total of 4 (3 men and 1 female) out of 14 matrilineal relatives in the families exhibited visual impairment with variable severity and age of onset. The average age of onset of visual loss was 20.5 years old. Molecular analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in these pedigrees demonstrated that the three primary mutations associated with LHON were not detected; however, the homoplasmic m...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989830/combining-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-diagnosing-focal-brain-lesions-in-children
#13
Farah Naz, Waseem A Mirza, Nauman Hashmani
Introduction We attempted to find the sensitivity and specificity of various pediatric brain masses in the Pakistani population while keeping histopathology or clinical diagnosis as the gold standard.   Methods This was a retrospective study that was conducted from January 2007 to January 2016. We reviewed the records of 204 patients that presented to the radiology department of Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). Out of the 204, 135 pediatric patients in the 0-18 age group with focal brain lesions who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and a biopsy or clinical diagnosis were included...
August 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988886/the-ceramide-activated-protein-phosphatase-sit4-impairs-sphingolipid-dynamics-mitochondrial-function-and-lifespan-in-a-yeast-model-of-niemann-pick-type-c1
#14
Rita Vilaça, Ivo Barros, Nabil Matmati, Elísio Silva, Telma Martins, Vítor Teixeira, Yusuf A Hannun, Vítor Costa
The Niemann-Pick type C is a rare neurodegenerative disease that results from loss-of-function point mutations in NPC1 or NPC2, which affect the homeostasis of sphingolipids and sterols in human cells. We have previously shown that yeast lacking Ncr1, the orthologue of human NPC1 protein, display a premature ageing phenotype and higher sensitivity to oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions and accumulation of long chain bases. In this study, a lipidomic analysis revealed specific changes in the levels of ceramide species in ncr1Δ cells, including decreases in dihydroceramides and increases in phytoceramides...
October 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987946/tetrahydroxy-stilbene-glycoside-tsg-antagonizes-a%C3%AE-induced-hippocampal-neuron-injury-by-suppressing-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-nrf2-dependent-ho-1-pathway
#15
Chenli Jiao, Feng Gao, Li Ou, Jinhua Yu, Min Li, Peifeng Wei, Feng Miao
Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) ranks as a pivotal cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common devastating dementia form in elderly. Recent research corroborated the beneficial roles of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) in alleviating the learning and memory of AD model and aged mice. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Here, treatment with non-toxic TSG dose-dependently antagonized Aβ-induced cytotoxic death in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis...
October 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987319/mitochondria-telomeres-and-cell-senescence-implications-for-lung-ageing-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jodie Birch, Peter J Barnes, Joao F Passos
Cellular senescence, the irreversible loss of replicative capacity in somatic cells, plays a causal role in the development of age-related pathology and in a number of age-related chronic inflammatory diseases. The ageing lung is marked by an increasing number of senescent cells, and evidence is mounting that senescence may directly contribute to a number of age-related respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Telomere dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis frequently occur in cellular senescence and are important to the development of the often detrimental senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986697/targeting-mitochondrial-function-and-proteostasis-to-mitigate-dynapenia
#17
REVIEW
Robert V Musci, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
Traditionally, interventions to treat skeletal muscle aging have largely targeted sarcopenia-the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. Dynapenia refers to the age-related loss in skeletal muscle function due to factors outside of muscle mass, which helps to inform treatment strategies for aging skeletal muscle. There is evidence that mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis and proteostasis, deteriorate with age. One key mechanism to maintain proteostasis is protein turnover, which is an energetically costly process...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986305/high-throughput-biosorter-quantification-of-relative-mitochondrial-content-and-membrane-potential-in-living-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Young Joon Kwon, Sujay Guha, Florin Tuluc, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain disease is caused by a wide range of individually rare genetic disorders that impair cellular energy metabolism. While fluorescence microscopy analysis of nematodes fed MitoTracker Green (MTG) and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) can reliably quantify relative mitochondrial density and membrane potential, respectively, in C. elegans, it is a tedious process with limitations in the number and age of animals that can be studied. A novel, large particle, flow cytometry-based method reported here accelerates and automates the relative quantitation of mitochondrial physiology in nematode populations...
October 3, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986235/alpha-synuclein-epigenetics-mitochondria-metabolism-calcium-traffic-circadian-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-strategy-for-management
#19
REVIEW
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
October 3, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985318/nonhuman-primates-a-vital-model-for-basic-and-applied-research-on-female-reproduction-prenatal-development-and-women-s-health
#20
Richard L Stouffer, Teresa K Woodruff
The comparative biology of reproduction and development in mammalian species is remarkable. Hence, because of similarities in environmental and neuroendocrine control of the reproductive axis, the cyclic function of the ovary and reproductive tract, establishment and control of the maternal-fetal-placental unit during pregnancy, and reproductive aging from puberty through menopause, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are valuable models for research related to women's reproductive health and its disorders. This chapter provides examples of research over the past 10+ years using Old World monkeys (notably macaque species), baboons, and to a lesser extent New World monkeys (especially marmosets) that contributed to our understanding of the etiology and therapies or prevention of: (1) ovarian disorders, e...
August 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
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