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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777801/computer-simulation-of-neutral-drift-among-limbal-epithelial-stem-cells-of-mosaic-mice
#1
John D West, Richard L Mort, Robert E Hill, Steven D Morley, J Martin Collinson
The use of mice that are mosaic for reporter gene expression underlies many lineage-tracing studies in stem cell biology. For example, using mosaic LacZ reporter mice, it was shown that limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) around the periphery of the cornea maintain radial sectors of the corneal epithelium and that radial stripe numbers declined with age. Originally, the corneal results were interpreted as progressive, age-related loss or irreversible inactivation of some LESC clones. In this study we used computer simulations to show that these results could also be explained by stochastic replacement of LESCs by neighbouring LESCs, leading to neutral drift of LESC populations...
May 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777503/anti-tmv-effects-of-amaryllidaceae-alkaloids-isolated-from-the-bulbs-of-lycoris-radiata-and-lycoricidine-derivatives
#2
Dong-Qiong Yang, Zhao-Rong Chen, Duo-Zhi Chen, Xiao-Jiang Hao, Shun-Lin Li
Fifteen known amaryllidaceae alkaloids were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. Some of the compounds and lycoricidine derivatives had been screened for the activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by the conventional half-leaf method. Lycoricidine derivatives were also carried out the assay of effect on systemic infection of TMV by western-blot and RT-PCR analysis. The tested compounds showed moderate inactivation effect, whereas the lycoricidine derivatives showed good protective effect. The protective inhibitory activity of compounds L1 (N-methyl-2,3,4-trimethoxylycoricidine) (60...
May 18, 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777224/progression-of-whole-blood-transcriptional-signatures-from-interferon-induced-to-neutrophil-associated-patterns-in-severe-influenza
#3
Jake Dunning, Simon Blankley, Long T Hoang, Mike Cox, Christine M Graham, Philip L James, Chloe I Bloom, Damien Chaussabel, Jacques Banchereau, Stephen J Brett, Miriam F Moffatt, Anne O'Garra, Peter J M Openshaw
Transcriptional profiles and host-response biomarkers are used increasingly to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole-blood mRNA signatures and concentrations of local and systemic immunological mediators in 131 adults hospitalized with influenza, from whom extensive clinical and investigational data were obtained by MOSAIC investigators. Signatures reflective of interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in patients who did not require mechanical ventilator support; in those who needed mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated-neutrophil and cell-stress or death ('bacterial') pattern was seen, even early in disease...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774296/integrated-risk-mapping-and-landscape-characterisation-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-loiasis-in-south-west-nigeria
#4
Tara A Brant, Patricia N Okorie, Olushola Ogunmola, Nureni Bolaji Ojeyode, S B Fatunade, Emmanuel Davies, Yisa Saka, Michelle C Stanton, David H Molyneux, J Russell Stothard, Louise A Kelly-Hope
Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773658/detecting-quantifying-and-discriminating-the-mechanism-of-mosaic-chromosomal-aneuploidies-using-mad-seq
#5
Yu Kong, Esther R Berko, Anthony Marckette, Shahina B Maqbool, Claudia A Simões-Pires, David F Kronn, Qian K Ye, Masako Suzuki, Adam Auton, John Greally
Current approaches to detect and characterize mosaic chromosomal aneuploidy are limited by sensitivity, efficiency, cost or the need to culture cells. We describe the mosaic aneuploidy detection by massively-parallel sequencing (MAD-seq) capture assay and the MADSEQ analytical approach that allow low (<10%) levels of mosaicism for chromosomal aneuploidy or regional loss of heterozygosity to be detected, assigned to a meiotic or mitotic origin, and quantified as a proportion of the cells in the sample. We show results from a multi-ethnic MAD-seq (meMAD-seq) capture design that works equally well in populations of diverse racial and ethnic origins, and how the MADSEQ analytical approach can be applied to exome or whole genome sequencing data, revealing previously unrecognized aneuploidy or copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity in samples studied by the 1000 Genomes project, cell lines from public repositories, and one of the Illumina Platinum Genomes samples...
May 17, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773645/the-hippo-pathway-effector-wwtr1-regulates-cardiac-wall-maturation-in-zebrafish
#6
Jason K H Lai, Michelle M Collins, Veronica Uribe, Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Stefan Günther, Hans-Martin Maischein, Didier Y R Stainier
Cardiac trabeculation is a highly regulated process that starts with the delamination of compact layer cardiomyocytes. The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated in cardiac development but many questions remain. We have investigated the role of Wwtr1, a nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway, in zebrafish and find that its loss leads to reduced cardiac trabeculation. However, in mosaic animals, wwtr1-/- cardiomyocytes contribute more frequently than wwtr1+/- cardiomyocytes to the trabecular layer of wild-type hearts...
May 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772296/seven-new-anthranilamide-derivatives-from-aconitum-apetalum
#7
Zhan-Xing Hu, Li-Hua Zhao, Hong-Yu Tang, Haji Aker Aisa, Yu Zhang, Xiao-Jiang Hao
Seven new anthranilamide derivatives, acoapetalines A-G (1-7), including one new naturally occurring compound (7), together with six known ones (8-13) were isolated from the whole plants of Aconitum apetalum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compound 10 exhibited significant anti-TMV activity with an inhibition rate of 67...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772174/using-mosaicity-to-tune-thermal-transport-in-polycrystalline-aln-thin-films
#8
Shivkant Singh, Shahab Shervin, Haiding Sun, Milad Yarali, Jie Chen, Ronghui Lin, Kuang-Hui Li, Xiaohang Li, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Anastassios Mavrokefalos
The effect of controlling the c-axis alignment (mosaicity) to the cross-plane thermal transport in textured polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films is experimentally and theoretically investigated. We show that by controlling the sputtering conditions we are able to deposit AlN thin films with varying c-axis grain tilt (mosaicity) from 10° to 0°. Microstructural characterization shows that the films are nearly identical in thickness and grain size, and the difference in mosaicity alters the grain interface quality...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771534/nitroxyl-modified-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-a-metal-free-high-relaxivity-mri-and-epr-active-superoxide-sensor
#9
Madushani Dharmarwardana, Andre F Martins, Zhuo Chen, Philip Palacios, Chance M Nowak, Raymond P Welch, Shaobo Li, Michael Andrew Luzuriaga, Leonidas Bleris, Brad S Pierce, A Dean Sherry, Jeremiah J Gassensmith
Superoxide overproduction is known to occur in multiple disease states requiring critical care yet non-invasive detection of superoxide in deep tissue remains a challenge. Herein, we report a metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) active contrast agent prepared by "click conjugating" paramagnetic organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) to the surface of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). While ORCAs are known to be reduced in vivo to an MRI/EPR silent state, their oxidation is facilitated specifically by reactive oxygen species-in particular superoxide-and are largely unaffected by peroxides and molecular oxygen...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771170/cgh-array-and-karyotype-as-complementary-tools-in-prenatal-diagnosis-prenatal-diagnosis-of-a-4q-derivative-chromosome-from-maternal-4q-11q-translocation
#10
Cristina Gonzalez, Miriam Gutierrez Serrano, Carmen Barbancho Lopez, Taida Garcia-Riaño, Vanesa Barea Calero, Rebeca Moreno Perea, Begoña Rodriguez Mogollón, Amelia Queipo Rojas, Ana Garcia Climent, Fernando Cava Valenciano
BACKGROUND: There is controversy whether chromosomal microarray (CMA) can replace karyotyping in prenatal diagnosis. Chromosomal microarray may detect more clinically significant chromosomal imbalances than karyotyping in a shorter time but does not detect inversions, triploidies or low mosaicisms. CASE REPORT: Amniocentesis was performed in the late second trimester based on ultrasound abnormalities. A CMA, obtained at 10 days, demonstrated a terminal deletion in 4q34...
May 17, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769332/identification-of-plant-virus-receptor-candidates-in-the-stylets-of-their-aphid-vectors
#11
Craig G Webster, Elodie Pichon, Manuella van Munster, Baptiste Monsion, Maëlle Deshoux, Daniel Gargani, Federica Calevro, Jaime Jimenez, Aranzazu Moreno, Björn Krenz, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
Plant viruses transmitted by insects cause tremendous losses in most important crops around the world. The identification of receptors of plant viruses within their insect vectors is a key challenge to understanding the mechanisms of transmission, and offers an avenue for future alternative control strategies to limit viral spread. We here report the identification of two cuticular proteins within aphid mouthparts, and we provide experimental support for the role of one of them in the transmission of a non-circulative virus...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769081/n-6-methyl-adenosine-level-in-nicotiana-tabacum-is-associated-with-tobacco-mosaic-virus
#12
Zhurui Li, Jing Shi, Lu Yu, Xiaozhen Zhao, Longlu Ran, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
BACKGROUND: N 6 -methyl-adenosine (m6 A) is a prevalent RNA modification in many species. Abnormal m6 A methylation levels can lead to RNA dysfunction and can cause diseases. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is one of the most devastating viruses for agricultural plants. It has many hosts, particularly including tobacco and other members the family Solanaceae. However, it remains unclear whether the abnormal growth induced by TMV is associated with the m6 A level. METHODS: A rapid and accurate analytical method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR - MS/MS) was developed to analyse the adenosine (A), cytidine (C), guanosine (G), uridine (U), and m6 A contents in the tobacco leaf, and the m6 A/G ratio was used to evaluate the m6 A level...
May 16, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768136/the-genome-biology-of-effector-gene-evolution-in-filamentous-plant-pathogens
#13
Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Simone Fouché, Isabelle Fudal, Fanny E Hartmann, Jessica L Soyer, Aurélien Tellier, Daniel Croll
Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766551/lower-lip-capillary-malformation-associated-with-lymphatic-malformation-without-overgrowth-part-of-the-spectrum-of-clapo-syndrome
#14
Camila Downey, Juan Carlos López-Gutiérrez, Esther Roé-Crespo, Luis Puig, Eulalia Baselga
Characteristic lower lip capillary malformation of CLAPO syndrome (Capillary malformation of the lower lip, Lymphatic malformations of the face and neck, Asymmetry, and Partial or generalized Overgrowth) may also occur as an isolated lesion or with only minor anomalies, supporting the concept that there is a spectrum of abnormalities in CLAPO syndrome. Preliminary studies have demonstrated mosaic activating mutations in PIK3CA.
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765661/testing-the-assumptions-of-the-pyrodiversity-begets-biodiversity-hypothesis-for-termites-in-semi-arid-australia
#15
Hayley Davis, Euan G Ritchie, Sarah Avitabile, Tim Doherty, Dale G Nimmo
Fire shapes the composition and functioning of ecosystems globally. In many regions, fire is actively managed to create diverse patch mosaics of fire-ages under the assumption that a diversity of post-fire-age classes will provide a greater variety of habitats, thereby enabling species with differing habitat requirements to coexist, and enhancing species diversity (the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis). However, studies provide mixed support for this hypothesis. Here, using termite communities in a semi-arid region of southeast Australia, we test four key assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis (i) that fire shapes vegetation structure over sufficient time frames to influence species' occurrence, (ii) that animal species are linked to resources that are themselves shaped by fire and that peak at different times since fire, (iii) that species' probability of occurrence or abundance peaks at varying times since fire and (iv) that providing a diversity of fire-ages increases species diversity at the landscape scale...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763708/pcdh19-regulation-of-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-suggests-asynchrony-of-neurogenesis-as-a-mechanism-contributing-to-pcdh19-girls-clustering-epilepsy
#16
Claire C Homan, Stephen Pederson, Thu-Hien To, Chuan Tan, Sandra Piltz, Mark Corbett, Ernst Wolvetang, Paul Thomas, Lachlan A Jolly, Jozef Gecz
PCDH19-Girls Clustering Epilepsy (PCDH19-GCE) is a childhood epileptic encephalopathy characterised by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental problems. PCDH19-GCE is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-chromosome gene, Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) encoding a cell-cell adhesion molecule. Intriguingly, hemizygous males are generally unaffected. As PCDH19 is subjected to random X-inactivation, heterozygous females are comprised of a mosaic of cells expressing either the normal or mutant allele, which is thought to drive pathology...
May 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763626/profiling-of-small-rnas-derived-from-cucumber-mosaic-virus-in-infected-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-by-deep-sequencing
#17
Yanhong Qiu, Yuping Wu, Yongjiang Zhang, Wenjie Xu, Chenguang Wang, Shuifang Zhu
In plants, RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism underlying antiviral immunity. To investigate antiviral responses in Nicotiana benthamiana, we analyzed the profiles of the virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in wild-type N. benthamiana and NbRDR6 mutant plants infected with the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b-deficient mutant. We observed that NbRDR6 regulates RNA silencing by producing vsRNAs that trigger an effective antiviral response, while NbRDR1 may nonredundantly and synergistically function with NbRDR6 to mediate immune responses...
May 12, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763432/distinctive-types-of-postzygotic-single-nucleotide-mosaicisms-in-healthy-individuals-revealed-by-genome-wide-profiling-of-multiple-organs
#18
August Yue Huang, Xiaoxu Yang, Sheng Wang, Xianing Zheng, Qixi Wu, Adam Yongxin Ye, Liping Wei
Postzygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms (pSNMs) have been extensively studied in tumors and are known to play critical roles in tumorigenesis. However, the patterns and origin of pSNMs in normal organs of healthy humans remain largely unknown. Using whole-genome sequencing and ultra-deep amplicon re-sequencing, we identified and validated 164 pSNMs from 27 postmortem organ samples obtained from five healthy donors. The mutant allele fractions ranged from 1.0% to 29.7%. Inter- and intra-organ comparison revealed two distinctive types of pSNMs, with about half originating during early embryogenesis (embryonic pSNMs) and the remaining more likely to result from clonal expansion events that had occurred more recently (clonal expansion pSNMs)...
May 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762476/function-of-the-erfl1a-transcription-factor-in-wheat-responses-to-water-deficiency
#19
Tian Gao, Ge-Zi Li, Chuan-Ren Wang, Jie Dong, Sha-Sha Yuan, Yong-Hua Wang, Guo-Zhang Kang
The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily is involved in the responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the functions and mechanisms of some members of this family in plants are unclear. In our previous study, expression of TaERFL1a , a member of the AP2/ERF family, was remarkably induced in wheat seedlings suffering freezing stress. In this study, we show that its expression was rapidly upregulated in response to salt, cold, and water deficiency, suggesting roles in the responses to abiotic stresses...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761038/a-new-large-bodied-thalattosuchian-crocodyliform-from-the-lower-jurassic-toarcian-of-hungary-with-further-evidence-of-the-mosaic-acquisition-of-marine-adaptations-in-metriorhynchoidea
#20
Attila Ősi, Mark T Young, András Galácz, Márton Rabi
Based on associated and three-dimensionally preserved cranial and postcranial remains, a new thalattosuchian crocodyliform, Magyarosuchus fitosi gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Jurassic (Upper Toarcian) Kisgerecse Marl Formation, Gerecse Mountains, Hungary is described here. Phylogenetic analyses using three different datasets indicate that M. fitosi is the sister taxon of Pelagosaurus typus forming together the basal-most sub-clade of Metriorhynchoidea. With an estimated body length of 4.67-4.83 m M. fitosi is the largest known non-metriorhynchid metriorhynchoid...
2018: PeerJ
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