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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437636/chimeric-flock-house-virus-protein-a-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-targeting-domain-enhances-viral-replication-and-virus-like-particle-trans-encapsidation-in-plants
#1
Yiyang Zhou, Christopher M Kearney
Flock House virus (FHV) RNA can be trans-encapsidated, entirely in planta, by tobacco mosaic virus coat protein to form virus-like particles (VLPs). Vaccination with these VLPs leads to strong antigen expression in mice and immune-activation. We hypothesize that creating an additional cellular site for replication and/or trans-encapsidation might significantly improve the final output of trans-encapsidated product. FHV protein A was engineered to target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a heterologous tobacco etch virus ER-targeting domain, and was expressed in cis or in trans relative to the replicating FHV RNA1...
April 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437579/mosaic-trisomy-1q-a-recurring-chromosome-anomaly-that-is-a-diagnostic-challenge-and-is-associated-with-a-fryns-like-phenotype
#2
Kathleen M Bone, Judy E Chernos, Renee Perrier, A Micheil Innes, Francois P Bernier, Ross McLeod, Mary Ann Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 1 is a very rare cytogenetic anomaly that is difficult to diagnose due to tissue-limited mosaicism. This study aimed to further characterize the prenatal and postnatal findings associated with this anomaly, including the first reported chromosomal microarray finding. METHOD: This is a retrospective study of 6 cases of mos 46,X,der(Y)t(Y;1)(q12;q21)/46,XY diagnosed both pre- and postnatally. Detailed clinical features and pregnancy outcome were documented...
April 24, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437137/differential-requirement-of-the-ribosomal-protein-s6-and-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-for-plant-virus-accumulation-and-interaction-of-s6-kinase-with-potyviral-vpg
#3
Minna-Liisa Rajamäki, Dehui Xi, Sidona Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Jari P T Valkonen, Steven A Whitham
Ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is an indispensable plant protein regulated, in part, by ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) which, in turn, is a key regulator of plant responses to stresses and developmental cues. Increased expression of RPS6 was detected in Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by diverse plant viruses. Silencing of the RPS6 and S6K genes in N. benthamiana affected accumulation of Cucumber mosaic virus, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), and Potato virus A (PVA) in contrast to Turnip crinkle virus and Tobacco mosaic virus...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436748/disruption-of-tetr-type-regulator-aden-by-mobile-genetic-element-confers-elevated-virulence-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#4
Rajagopalan Saranathan, Sudhakar Pagal, Ajit R Sawant, Archana Tomar, M Madhangi, Suresh Sah, Annapurna Satti, K P Arunkumar, K Prashanth
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen and considered as a major threat due to its extreme drug resistance. In this study, the genome of a hyper-virulent MDR strain PKAB07 of A. baumannii isolated from an Indian patient was sequenced and analysed to understand its mechanisms of virulence, resistance and evolution. Comparative genomics analysis of PKAB07 revealed virulence and resistance related genes scattered throughout the genome, instead of being organized as an island, indicating the highly mosaic nature of the genome...
April 24, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436588/reduced-erg-dosage-impairs-survival-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#5
Ying Xie, Mia Lee Koch, Xin Zhang, Melanie J Hamblen, Frank J Godinho, Yuko Fujiwara, Huafeng Xie, Jan-Henning Klusmann, Stuart H Orkin, Zhe Li
ERG, an ETS family transcription factor frequently overexpressed in human leukemia, has been implicated as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells. However, how ERG controls normal hematopoiesis, particularly at the stem and progenitor cell level, and how it contributes to leukemogenesis remain incompletely understood. Using homologous recombination, we generated an Erg knockdown allele (Erg(kd) ) in which Erg expression can be conditionally restored by Cre recombinase. Erg(kd/kd) animals die at E10.5-E11...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434888/melorheostosis-exome-sequencing-of-an-associated-dermatosis-implicates-postzygotic-mosaicism-of-mutated-kras
#6
Michael P Whyte, Malachi Griffith, Lee Trani, Steven Mumm, Gary S Gottesman, William H McAlister, Kilannin Krysiak, Robert Lesurf, Zachary L Skidmore, Katie M Campbell, Ilana S Rosman, Susan Bayliss, Vinieth N Bijanki, Angela Nenninger, Brian A Van Tine, Obi L Griffith, Elaine R Mardis
Melorheostosis (MEL) is the rare sporadic dysostosis characterized by monostotic or polyostotic osteosclerosis and hyperostosis often distributed in a sclerotomal pattern. The prevailing hypothesis for MEL invokes postzygotic mosaicism. Sometimes scleroderma-like skin changes, considered a representation of the pathogenetic process of MEL, overlie the bony changes, and sometimes MEL becomes malignant. Osteopoikilosis (OPK) is the autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that features symmetrically distributed punctate osteosclerosis due to heterozygous loss-of-function mutation within LEMD3...
April 20, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434637/clinical-heterogeneity-in-children-with-gonadal-dysgenesis-associated-with-non-mosaic-46-xy-karyotype
#7
Y S Wong, Y H Tam, K K Y Pang, K F To, S S C Chan, K W Chan, K H Lee
INTRODUCTION: Gonadal dysgenesis is unique in disorders of sex development (DSD), in that it can be associated with 46,XX, 46,XY or mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotypes. Gonadal dysgenesis can be partial or complete. Gonadal dysgenesis associated with the Y-chromosome has increased risk of gonadal germ cell neoplasms. Most of the literature focus on 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, while there are scanty data on the condition when the karyotype is non-mosaic 46,XY. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diversity of clinical pictures of children presenting with 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434541/phytoliths-indicate-significant-arboreal-cover-at-sahelanthropus-type-locality-tm266-in-northern-chad-and-a-decrease-in-later-sites
#8
Alice Novello, Doris Barboni, Florence Sylvestre, Anne-Elisabeth Lebatard, Christine Paillès, Didier L Bourlès, Andossa Likius, Hassane Taisso Mackaye, Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet
We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434539/evolutionary-anatomy-of-the-neandertal-ulna-and-radius-in-the-light-of-the-new-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-sample
#9
Laura Pérez-Criado, Antonio Rosas
This paper aims to improve our understanding of the phylogenetic trait polarity related to hominin forearm evolution, in particular those traits traditionally defined as "Neandertal features." To this aim, twelve adult and adolescent fragmented forelimb elements (including ulnae and radii) of Homo neanderthalensis recovered from the site of El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) were examined comparatively using three-dimensional geometric and traditional morphometrics. Mean centroid size and shape comparisons, principal components analysis, and phylogenetic signal analysis were undertaken...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434534/comparative-analysis-of-trabecular-bone-structure-and-orientation-in-south-african-hominin-tali
#10
Anne Su, Kristian J Carlson
Tali of several hominin taxa are preserved in the fossil record and studies of the external morphology of these often show a mosaic of human-like and ape-like features. This has contributed to a growing recognition of variability characterizing locomotor kinematics of Australopithecus. In contrast, locomotor kinematics of another Plio-Pleistocene hominin, Paranthropus, are substantially less well-documented, in part, because of the paucity of postcranial fossils securely attributed to the genus. Since the talus transmits locomotor-based loads through the ankle and its internal structure is hypothesized to reflect accommodation to such loads, it is a cornerstone structure for reconstructing locomotor kinematics...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434099/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-virus-bellflower-veinal-mottle-virus-suggests-the-existence-of-a-new-genus-within-the-family-potyviridae
#11
Jang-Kyun Seo, Hae-Ryun Kwak, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Jeong-Soo Kim, Hong-Soo Choi
A new virus was isolated from a bellflower (Campanula takesimana) plant showing veinal mottle symptoms, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The viral genome consists of a positive-sense single-stranded RNA of 8,259 ribonucleotides. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the viral genome is packaged as a filamentous particle with an average length of approximately 760 nm. BLAST searches of protein databases showed that the encoded polyprotein has a maximum amino acid sequence identity of 34...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433375/mosaicism-between-trophectoderm-and-inner-cell-mass
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Capalbo, Laura Rienzi
Defining the actual incidence and prevalence of mosaicism in human blastocysts still remains a difficult task. The small amount of evidence generated by animal and human studies does not support the existence of mechanisms involved in developmental arrest, clonal depletion, or aneuploidy rescue for abnormal cells in euploid/aneuploid embryos during preimplantation development. However, studies in humans are mainly descriptive and lack functional evidence. Understanding the biological mechanisms that beset preimplantation differentiation holds the potential to reveal the role of aneuploidies and gene dosage imbalances in cell fate decision, providing important clues on the origin and evolution of embryonic mosaicism...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433370/assessing-the-true-incidence-of-mosaicism-in-preimplantation-embryos
#13
REVIEW
Maria Vera-Rodriguez, Carmen Rubio
Modern technologies applied to the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening (PGD-A) have improved the ability to identify the presence of mosaicism. Consequently, new questions can now be addressed regarding the potential impact of embryo mosaicism on diagnosis accuracy and the feasibility of considering mosaic embryos for transfer. The frequency of chromosomal mosaicism in products of conception (POCs) of early miscarriages has been reported to be low. Mosaic embryos with an aneuploid inner cell mass are typically lost during the first trimester owing to spontaneous miscarriages...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433368/chromosomal-mosaicism-detected-during-preimplantation-genetic-screening-results-of-a-worldwide-web-based-survey
#14
REVIEW
Ariel Weissman, Gon Shoham, Zeev Shoham, Simon Fishel, Milton Leong, Yuval Yaron
Embryonic mosaicism, the presence of more than one distinct cell line within an embryo, has recently become the focus of growing attention and controversy in the context of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). To evaluate the extent of mosaic aneuploidy in clinical practice and to gain insight on the practices and views regarding this issue, we conducted a survey using a prospective, 20-item Web-based questionnaire with questions related to practices and views regarding mosaicism in PGS. A total of 102 in vitro fertilization (IVF) units from 32 countries that performed 108,900 IVF cycles annually responded to the survey...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433365/introduction-to-transfer-or-not-transfer%C3%A2-a-mosaic-embryo-that-is-the-question
#15
Carlos Simon
This issue's Views and Reviews section aims to offer readers a 360° view of the knowledge accumulated regarding the transfer of mosaic embryos by experts from around the world, as well as an in vitro fertilization worldwide survey on the topic.
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431229/functional-enhancer-screening-in-single-cells
#16
Joris van Arensbergen, Bas van Steensel
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Xie et al. (2017) introduce Mosaic-seq, a powerful technology that combines CRISPRi and single-cell RNA-seq. This method enables the high-throughput assessment of contributions of enhancers to gene regulation.
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431093/interactions-between-cassava-mosaic-geminiviruses-and-their-vector-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#17
Simon B Boni, Costancia P Rugumamu, Dan Gerling, K Sagary Nokoe, James P Legg
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is the vector of the cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) that cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Synergistic interactions between B. tabaci and CMGs have been hypothesized as a cause of whitefly "super-abundance," which has been a key factor behind the spread of the severe CMD pandemic through East and Central Africa. The current study investigated this hypothesis by conducting experiments with CMD-susceptible cassava varieties infected with different CMGs in both the north-western Lake Zone region (pandemic affected) and the eastern Coast Zone where CMD is less severe...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430395/flower-colour-polymorphism%C3%A2-in-the-mediterranean-basin-occurrence-maintenance-and-implications-for-speciation
#18
REVIEW
E Narbona, H Wang, P L Ortiz, M Arista, E Imbert
Flower colour polymorphism (FCP) is the occurrence of at least two discrete flower colour variants in the same population. Despite a vast body of research concerning the maintenance and evolutionary consequences of FCP, only recently has the spatial variation in morph frequencies among populations been explored. Here we have summarized the biochemical and genetic basis of FCP, the factors that have been proposed to explain their maintenance, and the importance of FCP and its geographic variation in the speciation process...
April 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430149/synthesis-and-antiviral-activity-of-novel-1-4-pentadien-3-one-derivatives-containing-a-1-3-4-thiadiazole-moiety
#19
Lu Yu, Xiuhai Gan, Dagui Zhou, Fangcheng He, Song Zeng, Deyu Hu
1,4-Pentadien-3-one derivatives derived from curcumin possess excellent inhibitory activity against plant viruses. On the basis of this finding, a series of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized, and their structures confirmed by IR, ¹H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The antiviral activities of the title compounds were evaluated against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in vivo. The assay results showed that most of compounds had remarkable antiviral activities against TMV and CMV, among which compounds 4b, 4h, 4i, 4k, 4o, and 4q exhibited good curative, protection, and inactivation activity against TMV...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429379/retrospective-evaluation-of-thoracic-computed-tomography-findings-in-dogs-naturally-infected-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#20
Mark E Coia, Gawain Hammond, Daniel Chan, Randi Drees, David Walker, Kevin Murtagh, Janine Stone, Nicholas Bexfield, Lizzie Reeve, Jenny Helm
Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum) is an important emerging disease of canidae. Cardiorespiratory signs are common in affected dogs, therefore thoracic imaging is critical for diagnosing and monitoring disease. Descriptions of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings in dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum are currently lacking. Aims of this multicenter, retrospective study were to describe thoracic CT findings in a group of dogs with confirmed disease, determine whether any changes were consistent among dogs, and propose standardized terms for describing thoracic CT findings...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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