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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222236/differential-sharing-and-distinct-co-occurrence-networks-among-spatially-close-bacterial-microbiota-of-bark-mosses-and-lichens%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#1
Ines Aline Aschenbrenner, Tomislav Cernava, Armin Erlacher, Gabriele Berg, Martin Grube
Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the inter-microbiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220595/guanosine-tetraphosphate-modulates-salicylic-acid-signaling-and-the-resistance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-turnip-mosaic-virus
#2
Hela Abdelkefi, Matteo Sugliani, Ke Hang, Seddik Harchouni, Ludivine Soubigou-Taconnat, Sylvie Citerne, Gregory Mouille, Hatem Fakhfakh, Christophe Robaglia, Ben Field
Chloroplasts can act as key players in the perception and acclimation of plants to incoming environmental signals. A growing body of evidence indicates that chloroplasts play a critical role in plant immunity. Chloroplast function can be regulated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp). In plants (p)ppGpp levels increase in response to abiotic stress and to plant hormones that are involved in abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Here we analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants that over accumulate (p)ppGpp and unexpectedly found a decrease in the levels of a broad range of transcripts for plant defense and immunity...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220356/overexpression-of-line-1-retrotransposons-in-autism-brain
#3
Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Igor Pogribny, S Jill James
Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are mobile DNA sequences that are capable of duplication and insertion (retrotransposition) within the genome. Recently, retrotransposition of L1 was shown to occur within human brain leading to somatic mosaicism in hippocampus and cerebellum. Because unregulated L1 activity can promote genomic instability and mutagenesis, multiple mechanisms including epigenetic chromatin condensation have evolved to effectively repress L1 expression. Nonetheless, L1 expression has been shown to be increased in patients with Rett syndrome and schizophrenia...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220324/virus-surveys-of-capsicum-spp-in-the-republic-of-benin-reveal-the-prevalence-of-pepper-vein-yellows-virus-and-the-identification-of-a-previously-uncharacterised-polerovirus-species
#4
Leonard Afouda, Daouda Kone, Valerien Zinsou, Laurence Dossou, Lawrence Kenyon, Stephan Winter, Dennis Knierim
Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin...
February 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219768/copper-therapy-reduces-intravascular-hemolysis-and-derepresses-ferroportin-in-mice-with-mosaic-mutation-atp7a-mo-ms-an-implication-for-copper-mediated-regulation-of-the-slc40a1-gene-expression
#5
Małgorzata Lenartowicz, Rafał R Starzyński, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Justyna Antoniuk, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Paweł Grzmil, Aleksandra Bednarz, Olga Pierzchała, Mateusz Ogórek, Zenon Rajfur, Zbigniew Baster, Paweł Lipiński
Mosaic mutant mice displaying functional dysfunction of Atp7a copper transporter (the Menkes ATPase) are an established animal model of Menkes disease and constitute a convenient tool for investigating connections between copper and iron metabolisms. This model allows to explore changes in iron metabolism in suckling mutant mice suffering from systemic copper deficiency as well as in young and adult ones undergone copper therapy, which reduces lethal effect of the Atp7a gene mutation. Our recent study demonstrated that 14-day-old mosaic mutant males display blood cell abnormalities associated with intravascular hemolysis, and show disturbances in the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis, which controls systemic iron homeostasis...
February 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216424/an-atypical-thioredoxin-imparts-early-resistance-to-sugarcane-mosaic-virus-in-maize
#6
Qingqing Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Yangqing Gong, Yongfu Tao, Lu Jiang, Weiliang Zuo, Qin Yang, Jianrong Ye, Jinsheng Lai, Jianyu Wu, Thomas Lübberstedt, Mingliang Xu
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) disease causes substantial losses of grain yield and forage biomass in susceptible maize worldwide. A major quantitative trait locus, Scmv1, has been identified to impart strong resistance to SCMV at early infection stage. Here, we demonstrate that ZmTrxh, encoding an atypical h-type thioredoxin, is the causal gene at Scmv1, and that its transcript abundance correlated strongly with maize resistance to SCMV. ZmTrxh alleles, whether they are resistant or susceptible, share the identical coding/proximal promoter regions, but vary in the upstream regulatory regions...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216146/divergent-levels-of-marker-chromosomes-in-an-hipsc-based-model-of%C3%A2-psychosis
#7
Julia Tcw, Claudia M B Carvalho, Bo Yuan, Shen Gu, Alyssa N Altheimer, Shane McCarthy, Dheeraj Malhotra, Jonathan Sebat, Arthur J Siegel, Uwe Rudolph, James R Lupski, Deborah L Levy, Kristen J Brennand
In the process of generating presumably clonal human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from two carriers of a complex structural rearrangement, each having a psychotic disorder, we also serendipitously generated isogenic non-carrier control hiPSCs, finding that the rearrangement occurs as an extrachromosomal marker (mar) element. All confirmed carrier hiPSCs and differentiated neural progenitor cell lines were found to be mosaic. We caution that mar elements may be difficult to functionally evaluate in hiPSC cultures using currently available methods, as it is difficult to distinguish cells with and without mar elements in live mosaic cultures...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215614/genome-characterization-infectivity-assays-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-infectious-transcripts-of-soybean-yellow-mottle-mosaic-virus-from-india-reveals-a-novel-short-mild-genotype
#8
Nagamani Sandra, Abdul Kader Jailani, Rakesh Kumar Jain, Bikash Mandal
Nucleotide sequence of a distinct soybean yellow mottle mosaic virusisolate from Vignaradiata (mungbean isolate, SYMMV-Mb) from India was determined and compared with othermembers of the family Tombusviridae. The complete monopartite single-stranded RNA genome of SYMMV-Mb consisted of 3974nt with six putative open reading frames and includes 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 35 and 254nt, respectively. SYMMV-Mb genome shared 75% nt sequence identity at complete genome level and 67-92% identity at all ORFs level with SYMMV Korean and USA isolates (soybean isolates) followed by CPMoV, whereas it shared very low identity with other tombusviridae members (5 to 41%)...
February 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215333/quantitative-methods-to-study-epithelial-morphogenesis-and-polarity
#9
B Aigouy, C Collinet, M Merkel, A Sagner
Morphogenesis of an epithelial tissue emerges from the behavior of its constituent cells, including changes in shape, rearrangements, and divisions. In many instances the directionality of these cellular events is controlled by the polarized distribution of specific molecular components. In recent years, our understanding of morphogenesis and polarity highly benefited from advances in genetics, microscopy, and image analysis. They now make it possible to measure cellular dynamics and polarity with unprecedented precision for entire tissues throughout their development...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214852/the-clinical-manifestation-and-genetic-evaluation-in-patients-with-45-x-46-xy-mosaicism
#10
Qinghua Wu, Cong Wang, Huirong Shi, Xiangdong Kong, Shumin Ren, Miao Jiang
45,X/46,XY mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality and probably underdiagnosed. Although clinical and genetic analyses have been performed in some disorders of sexual development, there have been few studies focusing on the phenotype and genetic details of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, especially in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of our service in relation to 16 cases with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The age at the first evaluation of the patients ranged from 43 days to 30 years...
February 18, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213872/capulavirus-and-grablovirus-two-new-genera-in-the-family-geminiviridae
#11
Arvind Varsani, Philippe Roumagnac, Marc Fuchs, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Enrique Moriones, Ali Idris, Rob W Briddon, Rafael Rivera-Bustamante, F Murilo Zerbini, Darren P Martin
Geminiviruses are plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that occur in most parts of the world. Currently, there are seven genera within the family Geminiviridae (Becurtovirus, Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Eragrovirus, Mastrevirus, Topocuvirus and Turncurtovirus). The rate of discovery of new geminiviruses has increased significantly over the last decade as a result of new molecular tools and approaches (rolling-circle amplification and deep sequencing) that allow for high-throughput workflows. Here, we report the establishment of two new genera: Capulavirus, with four new species (Alfalfa leaf curl virus, Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus, French bean severe leaf curl virus and Plantago lanceolata latent virus), and Grablovirus, with one new species (Grapevine red blotch virus)...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213670/emerging-genotype-phenotype-relationships-in-patients-with-large-nf1-deletions
#12
REVIEW
Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki, Victor-Felix Mautner, David N Cooper
The most frequent recurring mutations in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are large deletions encompassing the NF1 gene and its flanking regions (NF1 microdeletions). The majority of these deletions encompass 1.4-Mb and are associated with the loss of 14 protein-coding genes and four microRNA genes. Patients with germline type-1 NF1 microdeletions frequently exhibit dysmorphic facial features, overgrowth/tall-for-age stature, significant delay in cognitive development, large hands and feet, hyperflexibility of joints and muscular hypotonia...
February 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213156/myotonic-dystrophy-disease-repeat-range-penetrance-age-of-onset-and-relationship-between-repeat-size-and-phenotypes
#13
REVIEW
Kevin Yum, Eric T Wang, Auinash Kalsotra
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease primarily characterized by myotonia and progressive muscle weakness. The pathogenesis of DM involves microsatellite expansions in noncoding regions of transcripts that result in toxic RNA gain-of-function. Each successive generation of DM families carries larger repeat expansions, leading to an earlier age of onset with increasing disease severity. At present, diagnosis of DM is challenging and requires special genetic testing to account for somatic mosaicism and meiotic instability...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211971/atypical-angelman-syndrome-due-to-a-mosaic-imprinting-defect-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Anna Le Fevre, Jasmin Beygo, Cheryl Silveira, Benjamin Kamien, Jill Clayton-Smith, Alison Colley, Karin Buiting, Tracy Dudding-Byth
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe intellectual disability, limited, or absent speech and a generally happy demeanor. The four known etiological mechanisms; deletions, uniparental disomy, imprinting defects, and UBE3A mutation all affect expression of the UBE3A gene at 15q11-q13. An atypical phenotype is seen in individuals who are mosaic for a chromosome 15q11-q13 imprinting defect on the maternal allele. These patients present with a milder phenotype, often with hyperphagia and obesity or non-specific intellectual disability...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211673/capillary-microfluidics-assembled-virus-like-particle-bio-nano-receptor-interfaces-for-label-free-biosensing
#15
Faheng Zang, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, Adam D Brown, James N Culver, Reza Ghodssi
In this paper, a capillary microfluidics-integrated sensor system is developed for rapid assembly of bionanoreceptor interfaces on-chip and label-free biosensing. Genetically engineered Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) virus-like particle (VLP), displaying thousands copies of identical receptor peptides FLAG-tags, are utilized as nanoceptors for antibody sensing. Controlled and accelerated assembly of VLP receptor layer on impedance sensor has been achieved using capillary effect and surface evaporation from an open-channel capillary microfluidic system...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211491/interference-between-variants-of-peach-latent-mosaic-viroid-reveals-novel-features-of-its-fitness-landscape-implications-for-detection
#16
Pedro Serra, Edson Bertolini, M Carmen Martínez, Mariano Cambra, Ricardo Flores
Natural populations of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) are complex mixtures of variants. During routine testing, TaqMan rtRT-PCR and RNA gel-blot hybridization produced discordant results with some PLMVd isolates. Analysis of the corresponding populations showed that they were exclusively composed of variants (of class II) with a structural domain different from that of the reference and many other variants (of class I) targeted by the TaqMan rtRT-PCR probe. Bioassays in peach revealed that a representative PLMVd variant of class II replicated without symptoms, generated a progeny with low nucleotide diversity, and, intriguingly, outcompeted a representative symptomatic variant of class I when co-inoculated in equimolecular amounts...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211472/proteolysis-regulates-cardiomyocyte-maturation-and-tissue-integration
#17
Ryuichi Fukuda, Felix Gunawan, Arica Beisaw, Vanesa Jimenez-Amilburu, Hans-Martin Maischein, Sawa Kostin, Koichi Kawakami, Didier Y R Stainier
Tissue integrity is critical for organ formation and function. During heart development, cardiomyocytes differentiate and integrate to form a coherent tissue that contracts synchronously. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac tissue integrity are poorly understood. Here we show that proteolysis, via the E3 ubiquitin ligase ASB2, regulates cardiomyocyte maturation and tissue integrity. Cardiomyocytes in asb2b zebrafish mutants fail to terminally differentiate, resulting in reduced cardiac contractility and output...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209967/optimization-of-the-production-of-knock-in-alleles-by-crispr-cas9-microinjection-into-the-mouse-zygote
#18
Aurélien Raveux, Sandrine Vandormael-Pournin, Michel Cohen-Tannoudji
Microinjection of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in zygotes is an efficient and comparatively fast method to generate genetically modified mice. So far, only few knock-in mice have been generated using this approach, and because no systematic study has been performed, parameters controlling the efficacy of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted insertion are not fully established. Here, we evaluated the effect of several parameters on knock-in efficiency changing only one variable at a time. We found that knock-in efficiency was dependent on injected Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA concentrations and that cytoplasmic injection resulted in more genotypic complexity compared to pronuclear injection...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208955/high-serum-estradiol-and-heavy-metals-responsible-for-human-spermiation-defect-a-pilot-study
#19
Manish Jain, Amanpreet Kaur Kalsi, Amita Srivastava, Yogendra Kumar Gupta, Ashutosh Halder
INTRODUCTION: Spermiation is a process of releasing sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Failure in releasing sperm into the lumen is designated as spermiation defect. Spermiation defect cases present as oligo-azoospermia or azoospermia despite normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology. Human spermiation defect never got attention to investigate infertility practice. Most of the information on spermiation defect, so far is from animal experiments. We assume some cases of non-obstructive azoospermia with normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology could be due to spermiation defect...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208239/narcissus-yellow-stripe-virus-and-narcissus-mosaic-virus-detection-in-narcissus-via-multiplex-taqman-based-reverse-transcription-pcr-assay
#20
Jing Jin, Jianguo Shen, Wei Cai, Xie Guohui, Furong Liao, Fangluan Gao, Junfeng Ma, Xihong Chen, Zujian Wu
AIMS: Development of a multiplex TaqMan RT-qPCR assay to simultaneously detect Narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV) and Narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), frequently causing mixed narcissus infection. Feasibility verification was confirmed in natural samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primers and probes were designed based on the conserved CP gene regions of NYSV or NMV and their suitability for singleplex and multiplex TaqMan RT-qPCR assays as well as for conventional RT-PCR...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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