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Anticipatory Postural Adjustment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583462/decreased-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation-acutely-post-concussion
#1
Thomas A Buckley, Jessie R Oldham, Barry A Munkasy, Kelsey E Evans
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during the transitional movement task of gait initiation (GI) in individuals acutely following a concussion. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: University Research Center. PARTICIPANTS: A population based sample of 84 participants divided into two equal groups of acutely post-concussion (CONC) and healthy student athletes. INTERVENTION: Participants were tested on two occasions - a pre-injury baseline test and then the CONC group was retested acutely post-concussion and the control group again at a similar time...
June 2, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560812/threshold-position-control-of-anticipation-in-humans-a-possible-role-of-corticospinal-influences
#2
Lei Zhang, Nicolas A Turpin, Anatol G Feldman
The role of corticospinal (CS) pathways in anticipatory motor actions was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex projecting to motoneurons (MNs) of wrist muscles. Preloaded wrist flexors were suddenly unloaded by the experimenter or by the subject using the other hand (self-unloading). After sudden unloading, the wrist joint involuntarily flexed to a new position. In contrast, during self-unloading the wrist remained almost motionless, implying that an anticipatory postural adjustment occurred...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544947/measuring-cortical-motor-hemodynamics-during-assisted-stepping-an-fnirs-feasibility-study-of-using-a-walker
#3
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Guilherme A Zimeo Morais, Joana Bisol Balardin, Daniel Boari Coelho, Nametala Maia Azzi, Luis Augusto Teixeira, João Ricardo Sato
Walkers are commonly prescribed worldwide to individuals unable to walk independently. Walker usage leads to improved postural control and voluntary movement during step. In the present study, we aimed to provide a concept-proof on the feasibility of an event-related protocol integrating the analyses of biomechanical variables of step initiation and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) while using a walker. Healthy young participants were tested while stepping with versus without the use of the walker...
July 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527423/task-related-and-person-related-variables-influence-the-effect-of-low-back-pain-on-anticipatory-postural-adjustments
#4
Jesse V Jacobs, Courtney A Lyman, Juvena R Hitt, Sharon M Henry
BACKGROUND: People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. METHODS: Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions...
May 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503144/rigid-ankle-foot-orthosis-deteriorates-mediolateral-balance-control-and-vertical-braking-during-gait-initiation
#5
Arnaud Delafontaine, Olivier Gagey, Silvia Colnaghi, Manh-Cuong Do, Jean-Louis Honeine
Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501732/asymmetrical-stabilization-and-mobilization-exploited-during-static-single-leg-stance-and-goal-directed-kicking
#6
Adam C King, Zheng Wang
The motor control properties of the right and left legs are dependent on the stabilization and mobilization features of the motor tasks. The current investigation examined the right and left leg control differences - interlateral asymmetries - during static single leg stance and dynamic goal directed kicking with an emphasis of the asymmetrical stabilization and mobilization components of movements. Ten young, healthy, right-leg preferred individuals with minimal kicking experience completed both tests on each limb...
May 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400724/influence-of-cervical-spine-mobility-on-the-focal-and-postural-components-of-the-sit-to-stand-task
#7
Alain Hamaoui, Caroline Alamini-Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cervical spine mobility on the focal and postural components of the sit-to-stand transition, which represent the preparatory and execution phases of the task, respectively. Sixteen asymptomatic female participants (22 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0,06 cm, 57,5 ± 5 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the sit-to-stand task at maximum speed, in four experimental conditions varying the mobility of the cervical spine by means of three different splints...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396629/effects-of-changing-body-weight-distribution-on-mediolateral-stability-control-during-gait-initiation
#8
Teddy Caderby, Eric Yiou, Nicolas Peyrot, Xavier de Viviés, Bruno Bonazzi, Georges Dalleau
During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) precede the execution of the first step. It is generally acknowledged that these APA contribute to forward progression but also serve to stabilize the whole body in the mediolateral direction during step execution. Although previous studies have shown that changes in the distribution of body weight between both legs influence motor performance during gait initiation, it is not known whether and how such changes affect a person's postural stability during this task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284667/center-of-pressure-and-center-of-mass-behavior-during-gait-initiation-on-inclined-surfaces-a-statistical-parametric-mapping-analysis
#9
Marcus Fraga Vieira, Ademir Alves de Brito, Georgia Cristina Lehnen, Fábio Barbosa Rodrigues
This study analyzed gait initiation (GI) on inclined surfaces with 68 young adult subjects of both sexes. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two AMTI force platforms, of which one was in a horizontal position and the other was inclined by 8% in relation to the horizontal plane. Departing from a standing position, each participant executed three trials in the following conditions: horizontal position (HOR), inclined position at ankle dorsi-flexion (UP), and inclined position at ankle plantar-flexion (DOWN)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275124/a-modelling-approach-to-the-dynamics-of-gait-initiation
#10
Manish Anand, Justin Seipel, Shirley Rietdyk
Gait initiation is an integral and complex part of human locomotion. In this paper, we present a novel compliant-leg model-based approach to understanding the key phases of initiation, the nature of the effective forces involved in initiation, and the importance of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). The results demonstrate that in the presence of APAs, we observe a change in the characteristic of forcing required for initiation, and the energetic cost of gait initiation is also reduced by approximately 58%...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271221/control-of-vertical-posture-while-elevating-one-foot-to-avoid-a-real-or-virtual-obstacle
#11
Hirofumi Ida, Sambit Mohapatra, Alexander Aruin
The purpose of this study is to investigate the control of vertical posture during obstacle avoidance in a real versus a virtual reality (VR) environment. Ten healthy participants stood upright and lifted one leg to avoid colliding with a real obstacle sliding on the floor toward a participant and with its virtual image. Virtual obstacles were delivered by a head mounted display (HMD) or a 3D projector. The acceleration of the foot, center of pressure, and electrical activity of the leg and trunk muscles were measured and analyzed during the time intervals typical for early postural adjustments (EPAs), anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs)...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261073/recovery-from-multiple-apas-delays-gait-initiation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Rajal G Cohen, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Background: Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked with deficits in inhibitory control, but causal mechanisms are not established. Freezing at gait initiation (start hesitation) is often accompanied by multiple anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). If inhibition deficits contribute to freezing by interfering with ability to inhibit initial weight shifts in the wrong direction, then PD subjects should experience more episodes of multiple APAs than healthy controls (HCs) do. If inhibition deficits contribute to freezing by interfering with ability to release a previously inhibited step following multiple APAs, then step onset following multiple APAs should be delayed more in people with PD than in HCs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254637/anticipatory-postural-adjustment-during-self-initiated-cued-and-compensatory-stepping-in-healthy-older-adults-and-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#13
Christian Schlenstedt, Martina Mancini, Fay Horak, Daniel Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) across a variety of step initiation tasks in people with Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Step initiation was analyzed during self-initiated gait, perceptual cued gait, and compensatory forward stepping after platform perturbation. People with PD were assessed on and off levodopa. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: People (N=31) with PD (n=19) and healthy aged-matched subjects (n=12)...
February 28, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230070/an-fmri-compatible-force-measurement-system-for-the-evaluation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-step-initiation
#14
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto, Daniel Boari Coelho, Catarina Costa Boffino, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Rachael Brant, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, Luis Augusto Teixeira, Rajal G Cohen, Fay Bahling Horak, Edson Amaro
Knowledge of brain correlates of postural control is limited by the technical difficulties in performing controlled experiments with currently available neuroimaging methods. Here we present a system that allows the measurement of anticipatory postural adjustment of human legs to be synchronized with the acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The device is composed of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible force sensors able to measure the level of force applied by both feet. We tested the device in a group of healthy young subjects and a group of elderly subjects with Parkinson's disease using an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) experiment design...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220064/effect-of-experimentally-induced-trunk-muscular-tensions-on-the-sit-to-stand-task-performance-and-associated-postural-adjustments
#15
Alain Hamaoui, Caroline Alamini-Rodrigues
It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the STS at maximum speed, in seven experimental conditions varying the muscular tension along each side of the trunk, using a specific bimanual compressive load paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213690/anticipatory-postural-adjustments-associated-with-reaching-movements-are-programmed-according-to-the-availability-of-visual-information
#16
Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini, Francesco Bolzoni, Paolo Cavallari
During goal-directed arm movements, the eyes, head, and arm are coordinated to look at and reach the target. We examined whether the expectancy of visual information about the target modifies Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs). Ten standing subjects had to (1) move the eyes, head and arm, so as to reach, with both gaze and index-finger, a target of known position placed outside their visual field (Gaze-Reach); (2) look at the target while reaching it (Reach in Full Vision); (3) keep the gaze away until having touched it (Reach then Gaze) and (4) just Gaze without Reach the target...
May 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167093/effect-of-cue-timing-and-modality-on-gait-initiation-in-parkinson-disease-with-freezing-of-gait
#17
Chiahao Lu, Sommer L Amundsen Huffmaster, Paul J Tuite, Jacqueline M Vachon, Colum D MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of cue timing, across 3 sensory modalities, on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Biomechanics research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with idiopathic PD (N=25; 11 with freezing of gait [FOG]) were studied in the off-medication state (12-h overnight withdrawal). INTERVENTIONS: Gait initiation was tested without cueing (self-initiated) and with 3 cue timing protocols: fixed delay (3s), random delay (4-12s), and countdown (3-2-1-go, 1-s intervals) across 3 sensory modalities (acoustic, visual, and vibrotactile)...
July 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164375/pedunculopontine-network-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-postural-control-and-sleep-disorders
#18
Cecile Gallea, Claire Ewenczyk, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, David Grabli, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Romain Valabregue, Pierre Berroir, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Eric Bertasi, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Eric Bardinet, Emmanuel Roze, Habib Benali, Cyril Poupon, Chantal François, Isabelle Arnulf, Stéphane Lehéricy, Marie Vidailhet
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate pedunculopontine nucleus network dysfunctions that mediate impaired postural control and sleep disorder in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We examined (1) Parkinson's disease patients with impaired postural control and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (further abbreviated as sleep disorder), (2) Parkinson's disease patients with sleep disorder only, (3) Parkinson's disease patients with neither impaired postural control nor sleep disorder, and (4) healthy volunteers...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160750/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-neurostimulation-of-multifidus-muscles-combined-with-motor-training-influences-spine-motor-control-and-chronic-low-back-pain
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Louis-David Beaulieu, Richard Preuss, Cyril Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The study tested whether combining repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS) and motor training of the superficial multifidus muscle (MF) better improved the corticomotor control of spine than training alone in chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Twenty-one participants with CLBP were randomly allocated to [RPMS+training] and [Sham+training] groups for three sessions (S1-S3) over a week where MF was stimulated before training (volitional contraction)...
March 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#20
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
February 28, 2017: Neurology
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