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Anticipatory Postural Adjustment

Christian Schlenstedt, Martina Mancini, Jay Nutt, Amie P Hiller, Walter Maetzler, Günther Deuschl, Fay Horak
Introduction: This study aims at investigating whether impaired anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during gait initiation contribute to the occurrence of freezing of gait (FOG) or whether altered APAs compensate for FOG in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Gait initiation after 30 s quiet stance was analyzed without and with a cognitive dual task (DT) in 33 PD subjects with FOG (PD+FOG), 30 PD subjects without FOG (PD-FOG), and 32 healthy controls (HC). APAs were characterized with inertial sensors and muscle activity of the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was captured with electromyography recordings...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Nam G Lee, H You Joshua Sung, Chung H Yi, Hye S Jeon, Bong S Choi, Dong R Lee, Jae M Park, Tae H Lee, In T Ryu, Hyun S Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of conventional core stabilization (CCS) and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS) on anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) time, balance performance, and fear of falls in chronic hemiparetic stroke. DESIGN: Two-group randomized controlled trial with pretest-posttest design SETTING: Hospital's rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly divided into either CCS (n=14) or DNS (n=14) groups...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Giovanna Lagravinese, Elisa Pelosin, Gaia Bonassi, Federico Carbone, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait is a symptom that affects more than 50% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and increasing evidence suggests that nonmotor systems (i.e., limbic system) are involved in its underlying mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether gait initiation characteristics are influenced by emotional stimuli in patients with PD, with or without freezing of gait. METHODS: A total of 44 participants, divided into 3 groups (15 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait and 14 controls), stood on a sensorized mat and were asked to take a step forward in response to a pleasant image and a step backward in response to an unpleasant one (congruent task, low cognitive load) or to take a step backward in response to a pleasant image and a step forward in response to an unpleasant one (incongruent task, high cognitive load)...
February 2, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Marcelo Guimarães Silva, Lucas Struber, José Geraldo T Brandão, Olivier Daniel, Vincent Nougier
One of the challenges regarding human motor control is making the movement fluid and at a limited cognitive cost. The coordination between posture and movement is a necessary requirement to perform daily life tasks. The present experiment investigated this interaction in 20 adult men, aged 18-30 years. The cognitive costs associated to postural and movement control when kicking towards a target was estimated using a dual-task paradigm (secondary auditory task). Results showed that addition of the attentional demanding cognitive task yielded a decreased kicking accuracy and an increased timing to perform the movement, mainly during the backswing motion...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Shin-Yi Chiou, Madeleine Hurry, Thomas Reed, Jing Xiao Quek, Paul H Strutton
Voluntary limb movements are associated with increases in trunk muscle activity, some of which occur within a time window considered too fast to be induced by sensory feedback; these increases are termed anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Although it is known that the function of APAs is to maintain postural stability in response to perturbations, excitability of the corticospinal projections to the trunk muscles during the APAs remain unclear. Thirty-four healthy subjects performed rapid shoulder flexion in response to a visual cue in standing and lying positions...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
A Delafontaine, P Fourcade, J L Honeine, S Ditcharles, E Yiou
Balance control and whole-body progression during gait initiation (GI) involve knee-joint mobility. Single knee-joint hypomobility often occurs with aging, orthopedics or neurological conditions. The goal of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the CNS to adapt GI organization to single knee-joint hypomobility induced by the wear of an orthosis. Twenty-seven healthy adults performed a GI series on a force-plate in the following conditions: without orthosis ("control"), with knee orthosis over the swing leg ("orth-swing") and with the orthosis over the contralateral stance leg ("orth-stance")...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zahra Ebrahimabadi, Sedigheh Sadat Naimi, Abbas Rahimi, Heydar Sadeghi, Seyed Majid Hosseini, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Syed Asadullah Arslan
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study was to analyze how supra spinal motor control mechanisms are altered in different directions during anticipatory postural phase of gait initiation in chronic ankle instability patients. It seems that supra spinal pathways modulate anticipatory postural adjustment phase of gait initiation. Yet, there is a dearth of research on the effect of chronic ankle instability on the anticipatory postural adjustment phase of gait initiation in different directions...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Ladan Hemmati, Soraya Piroozi, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), postural control is a demanding task in terms of attention. Although the attentional demands of postural control have been investigated in these patients, the attentional demands of postural recovery during dual task performance have not been evaluated in patients with nonspecific CLBP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dual tasking on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in response to an external perturbation in patients with nonspecific CLBP...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Bing Chen, Yun-Ju Lee, Alexander S Aruin
Postural control is compromised in the presence of body instability. We studied anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments people use to maintain balance while standing on an unstable surface and performing voluntary arm movements. Nine healthy participants stood on a sliding board (that was either locked and as such motionless or unlocked and as such free to move in the anterior-posterior direction) and performed fast bilateral arms flexion. Arm acceleration, bilateral electromyographic activity (EMG) of the trunk and lower extremity muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were recorded and analyzed within the intervals typical for the anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Yun-Ju Lee, Bing Chen, Jing-Nong Liang, Alexander S Aruin
Voluntary pushing or translation perturbation of the support surface each induces a body perturbation that affects postural control. The objective of the study was to investigate anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments when pushing an object (that induces self-initiated perturbation) and standing on a sliding board (that induces translational perturbation). Thirteen healthy young participants were instructed to push a handle with both hands while standing on a sliding board that was either free to move in the anterior-posterior direction or stationary...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Eric Yiou, Teddy Caderby, Arnaud Delafontaine, Paul Fourcade, Jean-Louis Honeine
It is well known that balance control is affected by aging, neurological and orthopedic conditions. Poor balance control during gait and postural maintenance are associated with disability, falls and increased mortality. Gait initiation - the transient period between the quiet standing posture and steady state walking - is a functional task that is classically used in the literature to investigate how the central nervous system (CNS) controls balance during a whole-body movement involving change in the base of support dimensions and center of mass progression...
November 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Cécilia Neige, Laurent J Bouyer, Catherine Mercier
Many studies have described the dynamic modulation of corticospinal excitability of the prime movers during motor preparation. However although anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) are an inherent part of most voluntary movements, investigation of trunk muscle corticospinal excitability during motor preparation has been neglected in the literature. In the present study, the corticospinal excitability of the superficial multifidus (sMF) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscle has been assessed during the preparation of rapid arm flexions and extensions in fifteen participants...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Michael F Knox, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun, Paul W M Marshall
The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 weeks of exercise affects motor control in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP), measured by anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs). APAs and CPAs were measured prior to and following 8 weeks in two groups of people with CLBP: an exercise group (n=12) who attended three exercise sessions per week for 8 weeks; and a non-exercise control group (n=12) who were advised to continue their usual activities for the duration of the study. APAs and CPAs were recorded during unilateral arm flexion, bilaterally from rectus abdominis (RA), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) via surface electromyography...
December 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Alexander S Aruin, Mohan Ganesan, Yunju Lee
BACKGROUND: Deficit in balance control is a common and often an initial disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the role of short-term training in improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and its effect on subsequent control of posture in individuals with MS. METHODS: A pre-post feasibility study involved eight individuals with relapsing-remitting MS who participated in the laboratory tests before and after a single training session consisting of throwing a medicine ball...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Melanie D Bussey, Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Daniela Aldabe, Jonathan Shemmell
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sex on the kinetic, kinematic and neuromuscular correlates of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during a single leg lift task performed by healthy participants. Fifty healthy age and body mass index matched participants (25 women and 25 men) performed 20 single leg lift task (hip flexion to 90 ° as quickly as possible) with their dominant and their non-dominant lower limbs. A force plate was used to determine the medial-lateral displacement of the center of pressure (COPML), and the initiation of weight shift (T0); kinematics was used to determine leg lift (T1); and electromyography was used to determine onset times from eight muscles: bilateral external oblique, internal oblique and lumbar multifidus, and unilateral (stance limb) gluteus maximus and biceps femoris...
October 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
PURPOSE: The study aim was to compare the influence of an auditory stimulus (AS) on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) between young and older adults during a choice step reaction. METHODS: Sixteen young and 19 older adults stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We used a choice reaction time (CRT) task and a Simon task which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. The direction of the presented arrow and its spatial location matched in the congruent condition while they did not in the incongruent condition...
December 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Paolo Cavallari, Francesco Bolzoni, Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini
When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed. In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ruopeng Sun, Chuyi Cui, John B Shea
Gait adaptability is essential for fall avoidance during locomotion. It requires the ability to rapidly inhibit original motor planning, select and execute alternative motor commands, while also maintaining the stability of locomotion. This study investigated the aging effect on gait adaptability and dynamic stability control during a visually perturbed gait initiation task. A novel approach was used such that the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation were used to trigger the unpredictable relocation of a foot-size stepping target...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
Gianluca Bonora, Martina Mancini, Ilaria Carpinella, Lorenzo Chiari, Maurizio Ferrarin, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
The One-Leg Stance (OLS) test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD). In this study, an instrumented OLS test based on wearable inertial sensors is proposed to investigate both the initial anticipatory phase and the subsequent unipedal balance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Sébastien Ditcharles, Eric Yiou, Arnaud Delafontaine, Alain Hamaoui
Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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