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Anticipatory Postural Adjustment

Florian Monjo, Nicolas Forestier
Muscle fatigue modifies the gain between motor command magnitude and the mechanical muscular response. In other words, post-fatigue, central drives to the muscles must increase to maintain a particular submaximum mechanical output. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this modified gain can be predicted by the central nervous system (CNS) during discrete ballistic movements. In two separate experiments, subjects were required to perform shoulder flexions in standing and sitting positions at submaximum target peak accelerations...
September 30, 2016: Neuroscience
Alison Pienciak-Siewert, Dylan P Horan, Alaa A Ahmed
Classical theories of motor learning hypothesize that adaptation is driven by sensorimotor error; this is supported by studies of arm and eye movements which have shown that trial-to-trial adaptation increases with error. Studies of postural control have shown that anticipatory postural adjustments increase with the magnitude of a perturbation. However, differences in adaptation have been observed between the two modalities, possibly due to either the inherent instability or sensory uncertainty in standing posture...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jeong-Ho Park, Martina Mancini, Patricia Carlson-Kuhta, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Although balance and gait deteriorate as a person ages, it is unknown if all balance and gait measures change similarly across the adult age span. We developed the Instrumented Stand and Walk test (ISAW) to provide a quick quantification of key components of balance and walking: postural sway, anticipatory postural adjustments during step initiation, gait, and turning using body-worn, inertial sensors. Our aims were to characterize how different balance and gait measures change with age and to identify key age-related measures of mobility, in a wide age range of healthy, community-dwelling adults...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Jean-Louis Honeine, Marco Schieppati, Oscar Crisafulli, Manh-Cuong Do
Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ângela Fernandes, Andreia S P Sousa, Nuno Rocha, João Manuel R S Tavares
The aim of this study was to compare postural control strategies during gait initiation in single- and dual-task conditions in individuals in early stages of Parkinson´s Disease (PD). The activation timing of tibialis anterior occurred significantly later in the individuals with PD than in the controls (p=0.05), and a significant interaction between the groups, conditions and limbs was found (p=0.027). Differences between the single- and dual-task conditions were observed for the activation timing of the tibialis anterior (p=0...
August 19, 2016: Motor Control
Angel L Phanthanourak, Taylor W Cleworth, Allan L Adkin, Mark G Carpenter, Craig D Tokuno
This study examined how postural threat in the form of a potential perturbation affects an individual's ability to perform a heel raise. Seventeen adults completed three conditions: i) low threat, where participants performed a heel raise in response to a "go" tone, ii) high threat, where participants either heard the same "go" tone, for which they performed a heel raise, or experienced a support surface translation in the medio-lateral direction that disturbed their balance, and iii) choice reaction time task, where participants either completed a heel raise in response to the same "go" tone or a toe raise in response to a lower pitched tone...
September 3, 2016: Gait & Posture
Carlo Bruttini, Roberto Esposti, Francesco Bolzoni, Paolo Cavallari
It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR))...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Soufien Chikh, Eric Watelain, Arnaud Faupin, Antonio Pinti, Mohamed Jarraya, Cyril Garnier
Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults...
August 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Sandy McCombe Waller, Chieh-Ling Yang, Laurence Magder, Don Yungher, Vicki Gray, Mark W Rogers
Movement preparation of both anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and goal directed movement during a standing reaching task in adults with chronic hemiparesis and healthy controls was investigated. Using a simple reaction time paradigm, while standing on two separate force platforms, subjects received a warning light cue to "get ready to reach" followed 2.5s later by an imperative light cue to "reach as quickly as possible" with the paretic arm (matched arm for controls) to touch a target in front of them for a total of 90 trials...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Hidehito Tomita, Yoshiki Fukaya, Yukina Takagi, Asami Yokozawa
BACKGROUND: Although individuals with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP) exhibit several deficits in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) while standing, effects of severity of motor disability on their APAs are unclear. AIMS: To determine whether individuals with BSCP exhibit severity-dependent deficits in APAs. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Seven individuals with level II BSCP (BSCP-II group) and seven with level III BSCP (BSCP-III group) according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System and seven healthy controls lifted a load under two different load conditions...
October 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
A loud auditory stimulus (LAS) presented simultaneously with a visual imperative stimulus can reduce reaction time (RT) by automatically triggering a movement prepared in the brain and has been used to investigate a movement preparation. It is still under debate whether or not a response is prepared in advance in RT tasks involving choice responses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preparatory state of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during a choice reaction step initiation. Thirteen young adults were asked to step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus in two choice stepping conditions: (i) the responding side is not known and must be selected and (ii) the responding side is known but whether to initiate or inhibit a step response must be selected...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Mehdi Sadeghi, Saeed Talebian, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Behrouz Attarbashi Moghadam
OBJECTIVE: Cortical reorganization is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying impairment of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in low back pain (LBP) patients. In order to clarify changes in corticomotor neurophysiology, APAs were assessed by using electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: An equal number (29) of nonspecific LBP patients and healthy subjects performed unilateral rapid arm movements in response to auditory imperative stimulus preceded by warning stimulus within 2 s interstimulus interval...
2016: SpringerPlus
Alexander S Aruin
Balance impairment is common in individuals with neurological disorders and older adults and is a major cause of falls in these populations. Evidence on the effectiveness of conventional interventions for balance restoration is limited. We describe a novel approach to balance rehabilitation that is based on enhancing anticipatory postural adjustments.
April 2016: Journal of Novel Physiotherapies
T Shiratori, G L Girolami, A S Aruin
Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in preparation for predictable externally induced loading perturbation were studied in children with typically development (TD), hemiplegic (HEMI), and diplegic (DIPL) cerebral palsy. Twenty-seven children (n = 9 in each group) were asked to stand and catch a load dropped from a pre-specified height. Electrical activity of the leg and trunk muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were recorded to quantify the APAs. All groups were able to generate APAs prior to the perturbation, but the magnitude was smaller and the onset was delayed in the dorsal (agonist) postural muscles in both HEMI and DIPL as compared to TD...
October 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Josilene Souza Conceição, Felipe Gustavo Schaefer de Araújo, Gilmar Moraes Santos, John Keighley, Marcio Jose Dos Santos
CONTEXT: Rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) generally involve balance-perturbation training (BPT). Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) are the primary strategies used to maintain equilibrium during body perturbations. Little is known, however, about how APAs and CPAs are modified to promote better postural control for individuals with CAI after BPT. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of BPT that involves kicking a ball on postural-control strategies in individuals with CAI...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Andresa R Marinho-Buzelli, Ana Maria Barela, José Angelo Barela, Melissa Leandro Celestino, Milos R Popovic, Mary Verrie
Aquatic therapies are used to restore step initiation in people with locomotor disabilities. However, there is lack of evidence of underlining mechanisms of gait initiation in water. We investigated center of pressure (CoP), vertical and anterior-posterior impulse forces, and kinematics of the first step performed in water in comparison to overground walking. The peaks of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and the sections of CoP trajectories were longer in water than on land. Impulse forces were increased in water compared to land...
May 24, 2016: Motor Control
Fanny Barlaam, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Carole Fortin, Christine Assaiante, Christina Schmitz
During action, Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs) cancel the consequences of a movement on postural stabilization. Their muscular expression is characterized by early changes in the activity of the postural muscles, before the movement begins. To explore the mechanisms enabling the acquisition of APAs, a learning paradigm was designed in which the voluntary lifting of a load with one hand triggered the unloading of another load suspended below the contralateral forearm. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the muscular expression that uncovers the progressive learning of new APAs...
2016: PloS One
R Scott Dainty, Diane E Gregory
Limited research has examined the effect of different compression-ventilation ratios on the ergonomic demand of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) over time. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical demand of performing continuous chest compression CPR (CCC-CPR) and standard CPR (30:2 compression to breath ratio). Fifteen CPR certified individuals performed both standard CPR and CCC-CPR, randomly assigned, for three 2-min periods. Trunk and upper limb muscle activation, lumbar spine posture and compression force applied to a testing mannequin chest were measured throughout each CPR trial...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
A Plate, K Klein, O Pelykh, A Singh, K Bötzel
In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs...
September 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Alexandre Kretzer E Castro de Azevedo, Renato Claudino, Josilene Souza Conceição, Alessandra Swarowsky, Márcio José Dos Santos
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) during lateral instability of posture. Twenty-six subjects (13 individuals with PD and 13 healthy matched controls) were exposed to predictable lateral postural perturbations. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral muscles and the displacement of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded during four time intervals that are typical for postural adjustments, i...
2016: PloS One
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