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Anticipatory Postural Adjustment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080466/improved-compensatory-postural-adjustments-of-the-deep-abdominals-following-exercise-in-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#1
Michael F Knox, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun, Paul W M Marshall
The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 weeks of exercise affects motor control in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP), measured by anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs). APAs and CPAs were measured prior to and following 8 weeks in two groups of people with CLBP: an exercise group (n=12) who attended three exercise sessions per week for 8 weeks; and a non-exercise control group (n=12) who were advised to continue their usual activities for the duration of the study. APAs and CPAs were recorded during unilateral arm flexion, bilaterally from rectus abdominis (RA), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) via surface electromyography...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055463/improvement-of-postural-control-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-after-a-single-session-of-ball-throwing-exercise
#2
Alexander S Aruin, Mohan Ganesan, Yunju Lee
BACKGROUND: Deficit in balance control is a common and often an initial disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the role of short-term training in improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and its effect on subsequent control of posture in individuals with MS. METHODS: A pre-post feasibility study involved eight individuals with relapsing-remitting MS who participated in the laboratory tests before and after a single training session consisting of throwing a medicine ball...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054327/sex-differences-in-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-rapid-single-leg-lift
#3
Melanie D Bussey, Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Daniela Aldabe, Jonathan Shemmell
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sex on the kinetic, kinematic and neuromuscular correlates of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during a single leg lift task performed by healthy participants. Fifty healthy age and body mass index matched participants (25 women and 25 men) performed 20 single leg lift task (hip flexion to 90 ° as quickly as possible) with their dominant and their non-dominant lower limbs. A force plate was used to determine the medial-lateral displacement of the center of pressure (COPML), and the initiation of weight shift (T0); kinematics was used to determine leg lift (T1); and electromyography was used to determine onset times from eight muscles: bilateral external oblique, internal oblique and lumbar multifidus, and unilateral (stance limb) gluteus maximus and biceps femoris...
October 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027033/auditory-stimulus-has-a-larger-effect-on-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-in-older-than-young-adults-during-choice-step-reaction
#4
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
PURPOSE: The study aim was to compare the influence of an auditory stimulus (AS) on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) between young and older adults during a choice step reaction. METHODS: Sixteen young and 19 older adults stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We used a choice reaction time (CRT) task and a Simon task which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. The direction of the presented arrow and its spatial location matched in the congruent condition while they did not in the incongruent condition...
December 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021750/cough-anal-reflex-may-be-the-expression-of-a-pre-programmed-postural-action
#5
Paolo Cavallari, Francesco Bolzoni, Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini
When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed. In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837917/aging-effect-on-step-adjustments-and-stability-control-in-visually-perturbed-gait-initiation
#6
Ruopeng Sun, Chuyi Cui, John B Shea
Gait adaptability is essential for fall avoidance during locomotion. It requires the ability to rapidly inhibit original motor planning, select and execute alternative motor commands, while also maintaining the stability of locomotion. This study investigated the aging effect on gait adaptability and dynamic stability control during a visually perturbed gait initiation task. A novel approach was used such that the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation were used to trigger the unpredictable relocation of a foot-size stepping target...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790972/investigation-of-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-one-leg-stance-using-inertial-sensors-evidence-from-subjects-with-parkinsonism
#7
Gianluca Bonora, Martina Mancini, Ilaria Carpinella, Lorenzo Chiari, Maurizio Ferrarin, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
The One-Leg Stance (OLS) test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD). In this study, an instrumented OLS test based on wearable inertial sensors is proposed to investigate both the initial anticipatory phase and the subsequent unipedal balance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713254/short-term-effects-of-thoracic-spine-manipulation-on-the-biomechanical-organisation-of-gait-initiation-a-randomized-pilot-study
#8
Sébastien Ditcharles, Eric Yiou, Arnaud Delafontaine, Alain Hamaoui
Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673716/contribution-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-and-the-cerebellum-to-the-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-and-execution-phases-of-human-gait-initiation
#9
Aliénor Richard, Angèle Van Hamme, Xavier Drevelle, Jean-Louis Golmard, Sabine Meunier, Marie-Laure Welter
Several brain structures including the brainstem, the cerebellum and the frontal cortico-basal ganglia network, with the primary and premotor areas have been shown to participate in the functional organization of gait initiation and postural control in humans, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and posterior cerebellum in the gait initiation process. Gait initiation parameters were recorded in 22 controls both before and after continuous theta burst transcranial stimulation (cTBS) of the SMA and cerebellum, and were compared to sham stimulation, using a randomized double-blind design study...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662461/standing-on-wedges-modifies-side-specific-postural-control-in-the-presence-of-lateral-external-perturbations
#10
Yun-Ju Lee, Jing-Nong Liang, Bing Chen, Mohan Ganesan, Alexander S Aruin
Standing on wedges changes the position in the ankle joints and affects postural stability in the medial-lateral direction. The objective of the study was to investigate the role of wedges and external lateral perturbations on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPA). Ten healthy young participants were exposed to perturbations applied to the lateral part of their right shoulder when standing on a planar surface, on a medial or lateral wedges. Bilateral electromyographic activity of dorsal and ventral postural muscles and the center of pressure (COP) displacement were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases...
October 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651215/anticipatory-postural-adjustment-patterns-during-gait-initiation-across-the-adult-lifespan
#11
Chiahao Lu, Sommer L Amundsen Huffmaster, Jack C Harvey, Colum D MacKinnon
Gait initiation involves a complex sequence of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during the transition from steady state standing to forward locomotion. APAs have four core components that function to accelerate the center of mass forwards and towards the initial single-support stance limb. These components include loading of the initial step leg, unloading of the initial stance leg, and excursion of the center of pressure in the posterior and lateral (towards the stepping leg) directions. This study examined the incidence, magnitude, and timing of these components and how they change across the lifespan (ages 20-79)...
September 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583462/decreased-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation-acutely-postconcussion
#12
Thomas A Buckley, Jessie R Oldham, Barry A Munkasy, Kelsey M Evans
OBJECTIVE: To investigate anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during the transitional movement task of gait initiation (GI) in individuals acutely after a concussion. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: University research center. PARTICIPANTS: A population-based sample of participants (N=84) divided into 2 equal groups of acutely postconcussion and healthy student athletes. INTERVENTION: Participants were tested on 2 occasions: a preinjury baseline test and then the concussion group was retested acutely postconcussion and the healthy student athlete group again at a similar time...
October 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560812/threshold-position-control-of-anticipation-in-humans-a-possible-role-of-corticospinal-influences
#13
Lei Zhang, Nicolas A Turpin, Anatol G Feldman
KEY POINTS: Sudden unloading of preloaded wrist muscles elicits motion to a new wrist position. Such motion is prevented if subjects unload muscles using the contralateral arm (self-unloading). Corticospinal influences originated from the primary motor cortex maintain tonic influences on motoneurons of wrist muscles before sudden unloading but modify these influences prior to the onset and until the end of self-unloading. Results are interpreted based on the previous finding that intentional actions are caused by central, particularly corticospinal, shifts in the spatial thresholds at which wrist motoneurons are activated, thus predetermining the attractor point at which the neuromuscular periphery achieves mechanical balance with environment forces...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544947/measuring-cortical-motor-hemodynamics-during-assisted-stepping-an-fnirs-feasibility-study-of-using-a-walker
#14
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Guilherme A Zimeo Morais, Joana Bisol Balardin, Daniel Boari Coelho, Nametala Maia Azzi, Luis Augusto Teixeira, João Ricardo Sato
Walkers are commonly prescribed worldwide to individuals unable to walk independently. Walker usage leads to improved postural control and voluntary movement during step. In the present study, we aimed to provide a concept-proof on the feasibility of an event-related protocol integrating the analyses of biomechanical variables of step initiation and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) while using a walker. Healthy young participants were tested while stepping with versus without the use of the walker...
July 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527423/task-related-and-person-related-variables-influence-the-effect-of-low-back-pain-on-anticipatory-postural-adjustments
#15
Jesse V Jacobs, Courtney A Lyman, Juvena R Hitt, Sharon M Henry
BACKGROUND: People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. METHODS: Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions...
August 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503144/rigid-ankle-foot-orthosis-deteriorates-mediolateral-balance-control-and-vertical-braking-during-gait-initiation
#16
Arnaud Delafontaine, Olivier Gagey, Silvia Colnaghi, Manh-Cuong Do, Jean-Louis Honeine
Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501732/asymmetrical-stabilization-and-mobilization-exploited-during-static-single-leg-stance-and-goal-directed-kicking
#17
Adam C King, Zheng Wang
The motor control properties of the right and left legs are dependent on the stabilization and mobilization features of the motor tasks. The current investigation examined the right and left leg control differences - interlateral asymmetries - during static single leg stance and dynamic goal directed kicking with an emphasis of the asymmetrical stabilization and mobilization components of movements. Ten young, healthy, right-leg preferred individuals with minimal kicking experience completed both tests on each limb...
May 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400724/influence-of-cervical-spine-mobility-on-the-focal-and-postural-components-of-the-sit-to-stand-task
#18
Alain Hamaoui, Caroline Alamini-Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cervical spine mobility on the focal and postural components of the sit-to-stand transition, which represent the preparatory and execution phases of the task, respectively. Sixteen asymptomatic female participants (22 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0,06 cm, 57,5 ± 5 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the sit-to-stand task at maximum speed, in four experimental conditions varying the mobility of the cervical spine by means of three different splints...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396629/effects-of-changing-body-weight-distribution-on-mediolateral-stability-control-during-gait-initiation
#19
Teddy Caderby, Eric Yiou, Nicolas Peyrot, Xavier de Viviés, Bruno Bonazzi, Georges Dalleau
During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) precede the execution of the first step. It is generally acknowledged that these APA contribute to forward progression but also serve to stabilize the whole body in the mediolateral direction during step execution. Although previous studies have shown that changes in the distribution of body weight between both legs influence motor performance during gait initiation, it is not known whether and how such changes affect a person's postural stability during this task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284667/center-of-pressure-and-center-of-mass-behavior-during-gait-initiation-on-inclined-surfaces-a-statistical-parametric-mapping-analysis
#20
Marcus Fraga Vieira, Ademir Alves de Brito, Georgia Cristina Lehnen, Fábio Barbosa Rodrigues
This study analyzed gait initiation (GI) on inclined surfaces with 68 young adult subjects of both sexes. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two AMTI force platforms, of which one was in a horizontal position and the other was inclined by 8% in relation to the horizontal plane. Departing from a standing position, each participant executed three trials in the following conditions: horizontal position (HOR), inclined position at ankle dorsi-flexion (UP), and inclined position at ankle plantar-flexion (DOWN)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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