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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882646/symb-and-symc-two-membrane-associated-proteins-are-required-for-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-hyphal-cell-cell-fusion-and-maintenance-of-a-mutualistic-interaction-with-lolium-perenne
#1
Kimberly A Green, Yvonne Becker, Aiko Tanaka, Daigo Takemoto, Helen L Fitzsimons, Stephan Seiler, Hervé Lalucque, Philippe Silar, Barry Scott
Cell-cell fusion in fungi is required for colony formation, nutrient transfer and signal transduction. Disruption of genes required for hyphal fusion in Epichloë festucae, a mutualistic symbiont of Lolium grasses, severely disrupts the host interaction phenotype. We examined whether symB and symC, the E. festucae homologs of Podospora anserina self-signaling genes IDC2 and IDC3, are required for E. festucae hyphal fusion and host symbiosis. Deletion mutants of these genes were defective in hyphal cell fusion, formed intra-hyphal hyphae, and had enhanced conidiation...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836848/investigation-of-the-role-played-by-cellobiose-dehydrogenases-from-podospora-anserina-during-lignocellulose-degradation
#2
Narumon Tangthirasunun, David Navarro, Sona Garajova, Didier Chevret, Laetitia Chan Ho Tong, Valérie Gautier, Kevin D Hyde, Philippe Silar, Jean-Guy Berrin
: Conversion of biomass into high-value products including biofuels is of great interest to develop sustainable biorefineries. Fungi are an inexhaustible source of enzymes to degrade plant biomass. Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) play an important role in the breakdown through synergistic action with fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The three CDH genes of the model fungus Podospora anserina were inactivated resulting in singly and multiple CDH mutants. We detected almost no difference in the growth and fertility of the mutants on various lignocellulose sources, except on crystalline cellulose, where a two-fold decrease in fertility of the mutants lacking PaCDH1 and PaCDH2 was observed...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763253/fungal-sex-the-ascomycota
#3
Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683587/cyclophilin-d-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy-and-affects-the-lifespan-of-p-anserina-in-response-to-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#4
Piet Kramer, Alexander T Jung, Andrea Hamann, Heinz D Osiewacz
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648755/on-the-evolutionary-trajectories-of-signal-transducing-amyloids-in-fungi-and-beyond
#5
Asen Daskalov
In the last decade, multiple reports have established that amyloids can bear important functional roles in a variety of biological processes and in distant taxonomic clades. In filamentous fungi, amyloids are involved in a signal transducing mechanism in which a group of NOD-like receptors (NLRs) controls downstream effector proteins to induce a programmed cell death reaction. A structurally characterized example of fungal signal-transducing amyloid is the prion-forming domain (PFD) of the HET-S toxin from Podospora anserina...
September 20, 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557418/emestrins-anti-cryptococcus-epipolythiodioxopiperazines-from-podospora-australis
#6
Yan Li, Qun Yue, Nicole M Krausert, Zhiqiang An, James B Gloer, Gerald F Bills
Eleven emestrin-type epipolythiodioxopiperazines, including four new compounds, emestrins H-K (1-4), were isolated from the crude extracts of two strains of the coprophilous fungus Podospora australis. The structures of 1-4 were established primarily by analysis of NMR data, and the absolute configuration of C-6 in 1 was independently assigned using the modified Mosher method. Four of the known emestrins obtained (emestrins C-E and MPC1001C) were found to selectively inhibit the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442014/regulation-of-aerobic-energy-metabolism-in-podospora-anserina-by-two-paralogous-genes-encoding-structurally-different-c-subunits-of-atp-synthase
#7
Carole H Sellem, Jean-Paul di Rago, Jean-Paul Lasserre, Sharon H Ackerman, Annie Sainsard-Chanet
Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8-15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439201/comparison-of-fungal-carbohydrate-esterases-of-family-ce16-on-artificial-and-natural-substrates
#8
Vladimír Puchart, Jane W Agger, Jean-Guy Berrin, Anikó Várnai, Bjørge Westereng, Peter Biely
The enzymatic conversion of acetylated hardwood glucuronoxylan to functional food oligomers, biochemicals or fermentable monomers requires besides glycoside hydrolases enzymes liberating acetic acid esterifying position 2 and/or 3 in xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residues. The 3-O-acetyl group at internal Xylp residues substituted by MeGlcA is the only acetyl group of hardwood acetylglucuronoxylan and its fragments not attacked by acetylxylan esterases of carbohydrate esterase (CE) families 1, 4, 5 and 6 and by hemicellulolytic acetyl esterases classified in CE family 16...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353975/the-papsr1-and-pawhi2-genes-are-members-of-the-regulatory-network-that-connect-stationary-phase-to-mycelium-differentiation-and-reproduction-in-podospora-anserina
#9
Hélène Timpano, Laetitia Chan Ho Tong, Valérie Gautier, Hervé Lalucque, Philippe Silar
In filamentous fungi, entrance into stationary phase is complex as it is accompanied by several differentiation and developmental processes, including the synthesis of pigments, aerial hyphae, anastomoses and sporophores. The regulatory networks that control these processes are still incompletely known. The analysis of the "Impaired in the development of Crippled Growth (IDC)" mutants of the model filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina has already yielded important information regarding the pathway regulating entrance into stationary phase...
September 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352624/the-het-s-s-prion-motif-in-the-control-of-programmed-cell-death
#10
REVIEW
Roland Riek, Sven J Saupe
The [Het-s] prion of the fungus Podospora anserina is a well-studied model system to elucidate the action of prions and beyond. The [Het-s] prion works as an activation trigger of a cell death execution protein termed HET-S. Amyloid transconformation of the prion-forming region of HET-S induces activation of its pore-forming cell death execution HeLo domain. The prion motif functions in a signal transduction process by which a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor termed NWD2 controls the HET-S cell death effector...
2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263000/plant-biomass-degrading-ability-of-the-coprophilic-ascomycete-fungus-podospora-anserina
#11
REVIEW
Marie Couturier, Narumon Tangthirasunun, Xie Ning, Sylvain Brun, Valérie Gautier, Chloé Bennati-Granier, Philippe Silar, Jean-Guy Berrin
The degradation of plant biomass is a major challenge towards the production of bio-based compounds and materials. As key lignocellulolytic enzyme producers, filamentous fungi represent a promising reservoir to tackle this challenge. Among them, the coprophilous ascomycete Podospora anserina has been used as a model organism to study various biological mechanisms because its genetics are well understood and controlled. In 2008, the sequencing of its genome revealed a great diversity of enzymes targeting plant carbohydrates and lignin...
September 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148175/overlapping-podospora-anserina-transcriptional-responses-to-bacterial-and-fungal-non-self-indicate-a-multilayered-innate-immune-response
#12
Marina Lamacchia, Witold Dyrka, Annick Breton, Sven J Saupe, Mathieu Paoletti
Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915272/yeast-and-fungal-prions-amyloid-handling-systems-amyloid-structure-and-prion-biology
#13
R B Wickner, H K Edskes, A Gorkovskiy, E E Bezsonov, E E Stroobant
Yeast prions (infectious proteins) were discovered by their outré genetic properties and have become important models for an array of human prion and amyloid diseases. A single prion protein can become any of many distinct amyloid forms (called prion variants or strains), each of which is self-propagating, but with different biological properties (eg, lethal vs mild). The folded in-register parallel β sheet architecture of the yeast prion amyloids naturally suggests a mechanism by which prion variant information can be faithfully transmitted for many generations...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908647/peroxisome-dynamics-during-development-of-the-fungus-podospora-anserina
#14
Harumi Takano-Rojas, Denise Zickler, Leonardo Peraza-Reyes
Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity...
May 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884511/global-protein-oxidation-profiling-suggests-efficient-mitochondrial-proteome-homeostasis-during-aging
#15
Carina Ramallo Guevara, Oliver Philipp, Andrea Hamann, Alexandra Werner, Heinz D Osiewacz, Sascha Rexroth, Matthias Rögner, Ansgar Poetsch
The free radical theory of aging is based on the idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to the accumulation of age-related protein oxidation. Because themajority of cellular ROS is generated at the respiratory electron transport chain, this study focuses on the mitochondrial proteome of the aging model Podospora anserina as target for ROS-induced damage. To ensure the detection of even low abundant modified peptides, separation by long gradient nLC-ESI-MS/MS and an appropriate statistical workflow for iTRAQ quantification was developed...
May 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846452/characterization-of-the-aoda-dnma-mnsod-and-pima-genes-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#16
Éva Leiter, Hee-Soo Park, Nak-Jung Kwon, Kap-Hoon Han, Tamás Emri, Viktor Oláh, Ilona Mészáros, Beatrix Dienes, János Vincze, László Csernoch, Jae-Hyuk Yu, István Pócsi
Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26777252/an-aspergillus-nidulans-gh26-endo-%C3%AE-mannanase-with-a-novel-degradation-pattern-on-highly-substituted-galactomannans
#17
Pernille von Freiesleben, Nikolaj Spodsberg, Thomas Holberg Blicher, Lars Anderson, Henning Jørgensen, Henrik Stålbrand, Anne S Meyer, Kristian B R M Krogh
The activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase (AnMan26A) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. The AnMan26A was characterized in parallel with the GH26 endomannanase from Podospora anserina (PaMan26A) and three GH5 endomannanases from A. nidulans and Trichoderma reesei (AnMan5A, AnMan5C and TrMan5A). The initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion of locust bean gum and guar gum galactomannans were determined...
February 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26713322/prions-are-affected-by-evolution-at-two-levels
#18
REVIEW
Reed B Wickner, Amy C Kelly
Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves...
March 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679294/identification-of-potential-mitochondrial-clpxp-protease-interactors-and-substrates-suggests-its-central-role-in-energy-metabolism
#19
Fabian Fischer, Julian D Langer, Heinz D Osiewacz
Maintenance of mitochondria is achieved by several mechanisms, including the regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis. The matrix protease CLPXP, involved in protein quality control, has been implicated in ageing and disease. However, particularly due to the lack of knowledge of CLPXP's substrate spectrum, only little is known about the pathways and mechanisms controlled by this protease. Here we report the first comprehensive identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP in vivo interaction partners and substrates using a combination of tandem affinity purification and differential proteomics...
December 17, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640050/illumina-miseq-investigations-on-the-changes-of-microbial-community-in-the-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-infected-soil-during-and-after-reductive-soil-disinfestation
#20
Xinqi Huang, Liangliang Liu, Teng Wen, Rui Zhu, Jinbo Zhang, Zucong Cai
Although reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is increasingly used for the control of soil-borne diseases, its impact on the soil microbial community during and after RSD remains poorly understood. MiSeq pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed to investigate the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) infected soil during RSD and at the simulative banana cultivation after RSD. The results showed that RSD significantly increased soil microbial populations and a different microbial community with the pathogenic soil was established after RSD...
December 2015: Microbiological Research
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