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wheezing in infant and children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#1
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210195/hair-nicotine-at-15-months-old-tobacco-exposure-and-wheeze-or-asthma-from-15-months-to-6-years-old
#2
Philip K Pattemore, Karen M Silvers, Chris M Frampton, Kristin Wickens, Tristram Ingham, David Fishwick, Julian Crane, G Ian Town, Michael J Epton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age and prior parent-reported smoking exposure, and the risk of wheezing and current asthma from 15 months to 6 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: We measured hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age in 376 of 535 infants enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Christchurch, New Zealand. We obtained detailed information from parents about smoking exposure during pregnancy and in the home at 3 and 15 months of age...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189674/concurrent-community-transmission-of-enterovirus-d68-with-human-rhinoviruses-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-among-children-in-sendai-japan
#3
Takaya Metoki, Michiko Okamoto, Akira Suzuki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Yuka Rokugo, Ryoichi Onuma, Suguru Ohmiya, Ko Sato, Hidekazu Nishimura, Hitoshi Oshitani, Satoru Kumaki, Rie Noguchi, Taiki Sato, Yohei Watanabe
BACKGROUND: In the autumn of 2015, we experienced a surge in the number of pediatric cases of wheeze in our hospital, which was suspected to be caused by enterovirus (EV)-D68 transmission in the community. Thus, we implemented an ad hoc retrospective surveillance for EV-D68. METHODS: Patients aged < 15 years old with acute respiratory infection were eligible for inclusion in this study. All enrolled patients underwent virus detection test. Additionally, neutralization tests (NTs) were performed using the stored serum samples of the enrolled patients to compare the antigenicity of the virus isolated in this study with that isolated in 2010 and evaluate the anti-EV-D68 antibody prevalence...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168321/effect-of-fetal-and-infant-growth-on-respiratory-symptoms-in-preterm-born-children
#4
John Lowe, Sarah J Kotecha, William J Watkins, Sailesh Kotecha
OBJECTIVES: Fetal growth and rapid postnatal weight gain are associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in childhood. However, the preterm-born population is less well studied. We assessed if the increased respiratory symptoms associated with altered fetal growth and infant weight gain were mediated by early factors. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from our cohort of preterm- and term-born (n = 4284 and 2865) children, aged 1-10 years. Respiratory outcomes obtained from a respiratory questionnaire were regressed on measures of fetal growth and infant weight gain, defined as >0...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167839/early-life-exposure-to-indoor-air-pollution-or-tobacco-smoke-and-lower-respiratory-tract-illness-and-wheezing-in-african-infants-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort-study
#5
Aneesa Vanker, Whitney Barnett, Lesley Workman, Polite M Nduru, Peter D Sly, Robert P Gie, Heather J Zar
Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are associated with lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) or wheezing in children. However, the effect of the timing of these exposures, specifically antenatal versus postnatal, and of alternate fuel sources such as the increasingly used volatile organic compounds have not been well studied. We longitudinally investigated the effect of antenatal or postnatal IAP and ETS on LRTI or wheezing prevalence and severity in African infants...
November 2017: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047178/the-effect-of-montelukast-on-early-life-wheezing-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-study
#6
Ozlem Keskin, Ebru Arik Yilmaz, Christine Motzkus, Cansin Sackesen, Craig M Lilly, Omer Kalayci
BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are increased in the airways of infants with virus-associated wheezing. We aimed to determine the effects of a cysteinyl-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist on symptoms during an early-life wheezing illness and to investigate the factors that affect the response to this drug. METHOD: This placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized controlled trial recruited children aged 3-36 months with wheezing illness and randomized to active drug or placebo for 56 days...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042485/maternal-stress-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-diseases-in-children-during-the-first-year-of-life
#7
Katarzyna Smejda, Kinga Polanska, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Anna Krol, Wojciech Hanke, Joanna Jerzynska, Wlodzimierz Stelmach, Paweł Majak, Iwona Stelmach
BACKGROUND: Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between exposure to different kinds of prenatal stress and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, wheezing, and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. METHODS: The study population consisted of 370 mother-child pairs from a Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)...
October 17, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949070/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-infant-formula-and-cardiovascular-markers-in-childhood
#8
Linda P M Pluymen, Geertje W Dalmeijer, Henriëtte A Smit, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Cornelis K van der Ent, Lenie van Rossem
To investigate whether children who consumed infant formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) had a more favourable cardiovascular profile than children who consumed formula without these fatty acids, we used the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn, a birth cohort that included 2,468 newborns between 2001 and 2014. Data on infant feeding were obtained by questionnaires. At age 5, blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid distension were measured. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to compare levels of cardiovascular markers in formula-fed children born before and after the LCPUFA supplementation...
September 26, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899531/sleep-disorders-and-allergic-diseases-in-chinese-toddlers
#9
Xu Wang, Xiang Gao, Qian Yang, Xia Wang, Shenghui Li, Fan Jiang, Jun Zhang, Fengxiu Ouyang
OBJECTIVE: Optimal sleep is important for child growth, development, and immune function. We aimed to explore whether sleep disorders were associated with the risk of allergic diseases in Chinese toddlers. METHODS: This study included 566 children (aged 23.9 ± 0.7 months; 51.1% boys) in Shanghai, China. Sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, nocturnal awaking and snoring) were assessed by an expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ-expanded)...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831038/caesarean-section-is-associated-with-reduced-perinatal-cytokine-response-increased-risk-of-bacterial-colonization-in-the-airway-and-infantile-wheezing
#10
Sui-Ling Liao, Ming-Han Tsai, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Man-Chin Hua, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Chih-Yung Chiu, Kuan-Wen Su, Shih-Yin Huang, Chuan-Chi Kao, Shen-Hao Lai, Jing-Long Huang
The relationship between cesarean section (CS) and allergic disorders such as asthma and wheezing has been inconsistent, and the mechanisms for their connection remained largely unknown. We aimed to investigate whether CS is associated with infantile wheeze and to explore the connection between CS and several risk factors known to correlate with allergy development. Mononuclear cells were isolated from cord blood and assessed for cytokine responses by ELISA. Bacteria from nasopharyngeal specimens were identified with traditional culture methods...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822439/-multisystemic-smooth-muscle-dysfunction-syndrome-in-children-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Y L Zhou, Y Y Zhang, B L Cheng, D Xu, L F Tang, Z M Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome(MSMDS). Method: Clinical data of a case diagnosed as MSMDS and hospitalized in our hospital in July 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. Literature search was performed at databases of PubMed, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP with the key words "multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome" "ACTA2" . The literature retrieval was confined from January 1980 to November 2016...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757230/vitamin-d-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-and-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-infants-with-recurrent-respiratory-symptoms
#12
Anette M Määttä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Kristiina Malmström, L Pekka Malmberg, Jouko Sundvall, Anna S Pelkonen, Mika J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency might be associated with biased T-cell responses resulting in inflammatory conditions such as atopy and asthma. Little is known about the role of vitamin D in low-grade systemic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in young children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether vitamin D insufficiency and increased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are linked to AHR in symptomatic infants. METHODS: Seventy-nine infants with recurrent or persistent lower respiratory tract symptoms underwent comprehensive lung function testing and a bronchial methacholine challenge test...
September 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754005/can-early-omega-3-fatty-acid-exposure-reduce-risk-of-childhood-allergic-disease
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695368/an-interaction-of-lps-and-rsv-infection-in-augmenting-the-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Na Zhou, Wei Li, Luo Ren, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria)...
July 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675776/vitamin-d-supplementation-in-primary-allergy-prevention-systematic-review-of-randomized-and-non-randomized-studies
#15
REVIEW
J J Yepes-Nuñez, J L Brożek, A Fiocchi, R Pawankar, C Cuello-García, Y Zhang, G P Morgano, A Agarwal, S Gandhi, L Terracciano, H J Schünemann
BACKGROUND: To date, a systematic review of the evidence regarding the association between vitamin D and allergic diseases development has not yet been undertaken. OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation when compared to no supplementation in pregnant women, breastfeeding women, infants, and children for the prevention of allergies. METHODS: Three databases were searched through January 30, 2016, including randomized (RCT) and nonrandomized studies (NRS)...
July 4, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646967/the-respiratory-microbiome-and-respiratory-infections
#16
Stefan A Unger, Debby Bogaert
Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic respiratory health do not fully explain why some children become sick and others do not. The respiratory tract hosts bacteria that can cause respiratory infections but also normal commensal bacteria. Together, this microbial population is called the microbiome...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633906/rsv-in-adult-ed-patients-do-emergency%C3%A2-providers-consider-rsv-as-an-admission-diagnosis
#17
William Binder, Jill Thorsen, Pierre Borczuk
BACKGROUND: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) has been recognized for over half a century as a cause of morbidity in infants and children. Over the past 20years, data has emerged linking RSV as a cause of illness in adults resulting in 177,000 annual hospitalizations and up to 14,000 deaths among older adults. OBJECTIVE: Characterize clinical variables in a cohort of adult RSV patients. We hypothesize that emergency physicians do not routinely consider RSV in the differential diagnosis (DDx) of influenza like illness...
August 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629669/influence-of-the-mediterranean-diet-during-pregnancy-in-the-development-of-wheezing-and-eczema-in-infants-in-pamplona-spain
#18
N Alvarez Zallo, I Aguinaga-Ontoso, I Alvarez-Alvarez, B Marin-Fernandez, F Guillén-Grima, C Azcona-San Julián
BACKGROUND: This study examined the relationship between different food groups and the adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the risk of wheezing and eczema in children aged 12-15 months. METHODS: The study involves 1087 Spanish infants from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). The study of the association of the different food consumption and Mediterranean diet with wheezing, recurrent wheezing and eczema was performed using different models of unconditional logistic regression to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
June 16, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601031/delayed-diagnosis-of-esophageal-foreign-body-a-case-report
#19
Salem Yahyaoui, Imen Jahaouat, Ines Brini, Azza Sammoud
INTRODUCTION: Foreign body (FB) ingestion, a common and serious problem in children, can present with a wide variety of symptoms. This paper describes and discusses the case of an esophageal foreign body (EFB), in which the patient presented with primarily respiratory clinical signs causing delayed diagnosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A six month old boy presented with three months history of harsh cough, stridor and pulmonary congestion. He was repeatedly treated with steroids and antibiotics...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580865/the-association-between-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-a-review
#20
A Vanker, R P Gie, H J Zar
Childhood respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in low and middle-income countries. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a recognised risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory illness. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology of ETS exposure and impact on respiratory health in children. We conducted a search of 3 electronic databases of publications on ETS and childhood respiratory illness from 1990-2015. Key findings were that up to 70% of children are exposed to ETS globally, but under-reporting may mask the true prevalence...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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