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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475214/micro-environment-and-intracellular-metabolism-modulation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarization-in-relation-to-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Xiao Zhu, Yixuan Tu, Hainan Chen, Ampadu O Jackson, Vaibhav Patel, Kai Yin
BACKGROUND: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473848/bovine-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-hydrolysates-%C3%AE-lah-ameliorate-adipose-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Jing Gao, Jiajia Song, Min Du, Xueying Mao
Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2'-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS⁺) radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH) on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473115/the-effects-of-exercise-training-associated-with-low-level-laser-therapy-on-biomarkers-of-adipose-tissue-transdifferentiation-in-obese-women
#3
Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Fernanda Oliveira Duarte, Marcela Sene-Fiorese, Antonio Eduardo Aquino, Filippo Aragão Savioli, Pamela Cristina Lopes Quintiliano, Ana Claudia Pelissari Kravchychyn, Liliane Isabel Guimarães, Lian Tock, Lila Missae Oyama, Valter Tadeu Boldarine, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Investigations suggest the benefits of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to improve noninvasive body contouring treatments, inflammation, insulin resistance and to reduce body fat. However, the mechanism for such potential effects in association with exercise training (ET) and possible implications in browning adiposity processes remains unclear. Forty-nine obese women were involved, aged between 20 and 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m2 . The volunteers were divided into Phototherapy (808 nm) and SHAM groups...
February 23, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473041/the-role-of-statins-in-disease-modification-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
REVIEW
Stergios Soulaidopoulos, Elena Nikiphorou, Theodoros Dimitroulas, George D Kitas
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder associated with excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A complex interplay between traditional risk factors (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, obesity, smoking) and chronic inflammation is implicated in the development of premature atherosclerosis and consequently in the higher incidence of cardiovascular events observed in RA patients. Despite the acknowledgment of elevated cardiovascular risk among RA individuals, its management remains suboptimal...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472701/akkermansia-muciniphila-derived-extracellular-vesicles-influence-gut-permeability-through-the-regulation-of-tight-junctions
#5
Chaithanya Chelakkot, Youngwoo Choi, Dae-Kyum Kim, Hyun T Park, Jaewang Ghim, Yonghoon Kwon, Jinseong Jeon, Min-Seon Kim, Young-Koo Jee, Yong S Gho, Hae-Sim Park, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sung H Ryu
The gut microbiota has an important role in the gut barrier, inflammation and metabolic functions. Studies have identified a close association between the intestinal barrier and metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, Akkermansia muciniphila has been reported as a beneficial bacterium that reduces gut barrier disruption and insulin resistance. Here we evaluated the role of A. muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles (AmEVs) in the regulation of gut permeability. We found that there are more AmEVs in the fecal samples of healthy controls compared with those of patients with T2D...
February 23, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471797/exercise-reduces-body-fat-and-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-overweight-and-obese-male-taiwanese-adolescents
#6
Kuang-Chung Shih, Ching-Fai Kwok
BACKGROUND: Improvements in insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function have been shown following exercise in adults with obesity; however, few adolescent-based studies have been conducted. This study examined the impact of exercise training on body fat and insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: The effects of a 12-week exercise program on the parameters of adiposity and glucose homeostasis were investigated in 47 overweight and obese male adolescents...
February 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470286/genetic-variants-associated-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-hispanic-boys-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
John C Rausch, Joel E Lavine, Naga Chalasani, Xiuqing Guo, Soonil Kwon, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Jean P Molleston, Rohit Loomba, Elizabeth M Brunt, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Katherine P Yates, Jerome I Rotter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionately affects Hispanic boys. Further, obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for NAFLD. No gene localization studies had been performed on children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. This study aims to identify genomic variants associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in a population of children with varying histologic severity of NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) including 624,297 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed among all 22 autosomal chromosomes in 234 Hispanic boys (up to 18 years of age) who were consecutively recruited in a prospective cohort study in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Studies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466957/altered-dna-methylation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissues-derived-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
Francisco Barajas-Olmos, Federico Centeno-Cruz, Carlos Zerrweck, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Emilio J Cordova, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Faustino Gálvez, Armando Castillo, Hernán Maydón, Francisco Campos, Diana Gabriela Maldonado-Pintado, Lorena Orozco
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unknown. In this study we identified alterations of DNA methylation influencing T2D pathogenesis, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, liver, and blood from individuals with obesity. METHODS: The study included individuals with obesity, with and without T2D. From these patients, we obtained samples of liver tissue (n = 16), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (n = 30), and peripheral blood (n = 38)...
February 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466739/genetic-ablation-of-mir-33-increases-food-intake-enhances-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-promotes-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#9
Nathan L Price, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Allison Wing, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Araldi, Ángel Baldán, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Yajaira Suárez, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Gerald I Shulman, Rafael de Cabo, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33-/- mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33-/- mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466699/unveiling-network-based-functional-features-through-integration-of-gene-expression-into-protein-networks
#10
REVIEW
Mahdi Jalili, Tom Gebhardt, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Ali Salehzadeh-Yazdi
Decoding health and disease phenotypes is one of the fundamental objectives in biomedicine. Whereas high-throughput omics approaches are available, it is evident that any single omics approach might not be adequate to capture the complexity of phenotypes. Therefore, integrated multi-omics approaches have been used to unravel genotype-phenotype relationships such as global regulatory mechanisms and complex metabolic networks in different eukaryotic organisms. Some of the progress and challenges associated with integrated omics studies have been reviewed previously in comprehensive studies...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466466/family-history-and-obesity-in-youth-their-effect-on-acylcarnitine-aminoacids-metabolomics-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#11
Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Augusto Enrique Caballero, Isabel Ibarra-González, Arturo Herrera-Rosas, María Fabiola Serratos-Canales, Mireya León-Hernández, Antonio González-Chávez, Srinivas Mummidi, Ravindranath Duggirala, Juan Carlos López-Alvarenga
BACKGROUND: Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466053/interplay-between-gut-microbiota-and-p66shc-affects-obesity-associated-insulin-resistance
#12
Stefano Ciciliot, Mattia Albiero, Stefano Campanaro, Nicol Poncina, Serena Tedesco, Valentina Scattolini, Francesca Dalla Costa, Andrea Cignarella, Monica Vettore, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Sara Bogialli, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
The 66 kDa isoform of the mammalian Shc gene promotes adipogenesis, and p66Shc-/- mice accumulate less body weight than wild-type (WT) mice. As the metabolic consequences of the leaner phenotype of p66Shc-/- mice is debated, we hypothesized that gut microbiota may be involved. We confirmed that p66Shc-/- mice gained less weight than WT mice when on a high-fat diet (HFD), but they were not protected from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. p66Shc deletion significantly modified the composition of gut microbiota and their modification after an HFD...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465311/p32-regulates-er-stress-and-lipid-homeostasis-by-down-regulating-gcs1-expression
#13
Yong Liu, Patrick L Leslie, Aiwen Jin, Koji Itahana, Lee M Graves, Yanping Zhang
Sustained endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the development of many metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. p32 is a multicompartmental protein involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and glucose oxidation. p32 ablation is associated with resistance to age-associated and diet-induced obesity through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. Here, we show that p32 promotes lipid biosynthesis by modulating fatty acid-induced ER stress...
February 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465157/serum-concentrations-of-adipokines-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-and-benign-prostate-hyperplasia
#14
Lucyna Siemińska, Artur Borowski, Bogdan Marek, Mariusz Nowak, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Jakub Warakomski, Beata Kos-Kudła
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and prostate cancer are related, but the causal relationship remains unknown. The aim of the study was to compare concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and chemerin in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and to examine associations of the adipokines with the grade of prostate cancer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin resistance and anthropometric and metabolic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 140 men divided into two groups: I- prostate cancer (n=74) and II- with benign hyperplasia (n=66)...
February 21, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464885/effect-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-liver-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-rat-model-of-obesity
#15
Jessica Sacks, Anny Mulya, Ciaran E Fealy, Hazel Huang, John D Mosinski, Mangesh R Pagadala, Hideharu Shimizu, Esam Batayyah, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, John P Kirwan
Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464872/time-dependent-effect-of-phytocannabinoid-treatments-in-fat-cells
#16
S Ramlugon, R-A Levendal, C L Frost
The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin...
February 21, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464546/gene-diet-related-factors-of-hyperglycaemia-in-postmenopausal-women
#17
Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Maria Mosor, Juliusz Przysławski, Jerzy Nowak
As ageing and increased body fat are the signs of insulin resistance, we have studied whether the presence of Pro12Ala and C1431T of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 gene and Trp64Arg of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene may predispose to the hyperglycaemia development in postmenopausal women, who have never undergone hypoglycaemic treatment. The distributions of selected allele and genotype frequencies were determined by the PCR-RFLP method in normo- and hyperglycaemic, who have never been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus were measured...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464285/revisiting-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-emerging-role-of-aquaglyceroporins
#18
REVIEW
Inês Vieira da Silva, Joana S Rodrigues, Irene Rebelo, Joana P G Miranda, Graça Soveral
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field...
February 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462590/lipid-bilayer-stress-in-obesity-linked-inflammatory-and-metabolic-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Marco A Gianfrancesco, Nicolas Paquot, Jacques Piette, Sylvie Legrand-Poels
The maintenance of the characteristic lipid compositions and physicochemical properties of biological membranes is essential for their proper function. Mechanisms allowing to sense and restore membrane homeostasis have been identified in prokaryotes for a long time and more recently in eukaryotes. A membrane remodeling can result from aberrant metabolism as seen in obesity. In this review, we describe how such lipid bilayer stress can account for the modulation of membrane proteins involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked inflammatory and metabolic disorders...
February 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462515/risk-factor-for-diabetes-mellitus-and-high-blood-glucose-with-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-using-a-postmarketing-surveillance-database-in-japan
#20
Masayuki Hashiguchi, Junya Maruyama, Mikiko Shimizu, Daichi Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Shiga
To investigate whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) use is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia, we performed a nested case-control study using a postmarketing surveillance database in Japan. The database cohort included 26,849 cases of statin use and 5308 cases of other lipid-lowering drug use in patients with hyperlipidemia. Participants received at least 1 type of statin, had a clear medication history of statin use, and had no complications of diabetes mellitus...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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