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Insulin resistance obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040530/the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-is-not-increased-in-normal-weight-women-with-pcos
#1
Rasa Pelanis, Jan Roar Mellembakken, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Pernille Ravn, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi Piltonen, Johanna Puurunen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Peter Fedorcsak, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY QNSWER: OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI < 25 kg/m2. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040529/insulin-resistance-in-a-large-cohort-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-comparison-between-euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic-clamp-and-surrogate-indexes
#2
Flavia Tosi, Enzo Bonora, Paolo Moghetti
STUDY QUESTION: Could surrogate indexes identify insulin resistant individuals among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Surrogate indexes may be able to rule in, but not rule out, insulin resistance in women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Insulin resistance is a typical finding of women with PCOS and most clinical information on this issue is based upon surrogate indexes of insulin resistance. However, data on the performance of these indexes in PCOS women are very limited...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040448/male-brown-fat-specific-double-knockout-of-igfir-ir-atrophy-mitochondrial-fission-failure-impaired-thermogenesis-and-obesity
#3
Vanesa Viana-Huete, Carlos Guillén, Gema García, Silvia Fernández, Ana García-Aguilar, C R Kahn, Manuel Benito
It is unknown how the lack of IR (insulin receptor)/ IGFIR (insulin like growth factor receptor) in a tissue-specific manner does affect brown fat development and mitochondrial integrity and function and its impact on the redistribution of the adipose organ and the metabolic status. To address this important issue, we have developed the IR/IGFIR double knockout in brown adipose tissue-specific manner (DKO). Lack of those receptors caused a severe brown fat atrophy, an enhanced beige cell clusters in inguinal fat, loss of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial damage related to cristae disruption, and the loss of proteins involved in autophagosome formation, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control and dynamics and thermogenesis...
October 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036907/a-functional-interplay-between-igf-1-and-adiponectin
#4
REVIEW
Stefania Orrù, Ersilia Nigro, Annalisa Mandola, Andreina Alfieri, Pasqualina Buono, Aurora Daniele, Annamaria Mancini, Esther Imperlini
A functional relationship is suggested between two well-known protein hormones, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adiponectin. In the last two decades in fact, different experimental evidence has indicated a non-random link between them. Here, we describe briefly the IGF-1 and adiponectin systems, and we then focus on their putative interplay in relation to several pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Although the existing studies are hardly comparable, they definitely indicate a functional connection between these two protein hormones...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036763/effect-of-treadmill-exercise-on-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-in-rats-with-obesity-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Do Keun Cho, Dong Hun Choi, Joon Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on body weight, blood biochemistry, and autophagy. METHODS: Triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score was calculated, and the soleus muscle was analyzed for autophagy-related factors (Beclin-1, p62, LC3, Lamp-2) in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035695/expression-of-macrophage-genes-within-skeletal-muscle-correlates-inversely-with-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#6
Dongmei Liu, Flor Elisa Morales, Heidi B IglayReger, Mary K Treutelaar, Amy E Rothberg, Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Jacques Robidoux, Hisham Barakat, Jeffrey F Horowitz, Eric P Hoffman, Charles F Burant, Paul M Gordon
Background Local inflammation in obese adipose tissue has been shown to contribute to insulin resistance, however, the role of macrophage infiltration within skeletal muscle is still debateable. This study aimed to evaluate the association of skeletal muscle macrophage gene expression with adiposity levels and insulin sensitivity in obese patients. Methods Twenty-two non-diabetic obese patients and 23 healthy lean controls were included. Obese patients underwent a 3-month weight loss intervention. Macrophage gene expression in skeletal muscle (quantitative RT-PCR), body composition (DXA) and insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment and oral glucose tolerance test) were compared between groups and their associations were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035308/gut-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-insights-on-mechanisms-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Junli Ma, Qihang Zhou, Houkai Li
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033896/the-influence-of-a-kdt501-a-novel-isohumulone-on-adipocyte-function-in-humans
#8
Brian S Finlin, Beibei Zhu, Bernard P Kok, Cristina Godio, Philip M Westgate, Neile Grayson, Robert Sims, Jeffrey S Bland, Enrique Saez, Philip A Kern
OBJECTIVE: In a phase II clinical trial in nine obese, insulin-resistant humans, we observed that treatment with KDT501, a novel isohumulone drug, increased total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in plasma. The objective was to determine whether KDT501 increased adiponectin secretion from subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT) and the underlying mechanism(s). METHODS: Nine obese participants with either prediabetes or with normal glucose tolerance plus three features of metabolic syndrome were part of the study...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033611/stable-ischemic-heart-disease-in-women-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Fatima Samad, Anushree Agarwal, Zainab Samad
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women accounting for 1 in every 4 female deaths. Pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease in women includes epicardial coronary artery, endothelial dysfunction, coronary vasospasm, plaque erosion and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Angina is the most common presentation of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) in women. Risk factors for SIHD include traditional risks such as older age, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m(2)), smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease, sedentary lifestyle, family history of premature coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, and nontraditional risk factors, such as gestational diabetes, insulin resistance/polycystic ovarian disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, menopause, mental stress and autoimmune diseases...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#10
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc(-/-)) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc(-/-) mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031725/intestinal-sirt3-overexpression-in-mice-improves-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-independent-of-body-weight
#11
Deepti Ramachandran, Rosmarie Clara, Shahana Fedele, Junmin Hu, Endre Lackzo, Jing-Yi Huang, Eric Verdin, Wolfgang Langhans, Abdelhak Mansouri
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal metabolism might play a greater role in regulating whole body metabolism than previously believed. We aimed to enhance enterocyte metabolism in mice and investigate if it plays a role in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and its comorbidities. METHODS: Using the cre-loxP system, we overexpressed the mitochondrial NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylase SIRT3 in enterocytes of mice (iSIRT3 mice). We chronically fed iSIRT3 mice and floxed-SIRT3 control (S3fl) mice a low-fat, control diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and then phenotyped the mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031724/elevated-hepatic-dpp4-activity-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Christian Baumeier, Luisa Schlüter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Thomas Laeger, Maria Rödiger, Stella Amelie Alaze, Louise Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Robert Wolfgang Schwenk, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Increased hepatic expression of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this is causative for the development of NAFLD is not yet clarified. Here we investigate the effect of hepatic DPP4 overexpression on the development of liver steatosis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Plasma DPP4 activity of subjects with or without NAFLD was analyzed. Wild-type (WT) and liver-specific Dpp4 transgenic mice (Dpp4-Liv-Tg) were fed a high-fat diet and characterized for body weight, body composition, hepatic fat content and insulin sensitivity...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031716/adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-important-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-resistance-due-to-exogenous-steroids-but-not-insulin-resistance-caused-by-high-fat-feeding
#13
Yachen Shen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Manju Kumari, Evan D Rosen
OBJECTIVE: The critical role of adipose tissue in energy and nutrient homeostasis is influenced by many external factors, including overnutrition, inflammation, and exogenous hormones. Prior studies have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) in particular are major drivers of physiological and pathophysiological changes in adipocytes. In order to determine whether these effects directly require the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific GR knockout (AGRKO) mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030599/genome-wide-meta-analysis-associates-hla-dqa1-drb1-and-lpa-and-lifestyle-factors-with-human-longevity
#14
Peter K Joshi, Nicola Pirastu, Katherine A Kentistou, Krista Fischer, Edith Hofer, Katharina E Schraut, David W Clark, Teresa Nutile, Catriona L K Barnes, Paul R H J Timmers, Xia Shen, Ilaria Gandin, Aaron F McDaid, Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Scott D Gordon, Franco Giulianini, Thibaud S Boutin, Abdel Abdellaoui, Wei Zhao, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Traci M Bartz, Stella Trompet, Leslie A Lange, Laura Raffield, Ashley van der Spek, Tessel E Galesloot, Petroula Proitsi, Lisa R Yanek, Lawrence F Bielak, Antony Payton, Federico Murgia, Maria Pina Concas, Ginevra Biino, Salman M Tajuddin, Ilkka Seppälä, Najaf Amin, Eric Boerwinkle, Anders D Børglum, Archie Campbell, Ellen W Demerath, Ilja Demuth, Jessica D Faul, Ian Ford, Alessandro Gialluisi, Martin Gögele, MariaElisa Graff, Aroon Hingorani, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, David M Hougaard, Mikko A Hurme, M Arfan Ikram, Marja Jylhä, Diana Kuh, Lannie Ligthart, Christina M Lill, Ulman Lindenberger, Thomas Lumley, Reedik Mägi, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Sarah E Medland, Lili Milani, Reka Nagy, William E R Ollier, Patricia A Peyser, Peter P Pramstaller, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Daniela Ruggiero, Yasaman Saba, Reinhold Schmidt, Helena Schmidt, P Eline Slagboom, Blair H Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Nona Sotoodehnia, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Frank J A van Rooij, André L Verbeek, Sita H Vermeulen, Peter Vollenweider, Yunpeng Wang, Thomas Werge, John B Whitfield, Alan B Zonderman, Terho Lehtimäki, Michele K Evans, Mario Pirastu, Christian Fuchsberger, Lars Bertram, Neil Pendleton, Sharon L R Kardia, Marina Ciullo, Diane M Becker, Andrew Wong, Bruce M Psaty, Cornelia M van Duijn, James G Wilson, J Wouter Jukema, Lambertus Kiemeney, André G Uitterlinden, Nora Franceschini, Kari E North, David R Weir, Andres Metspalu, Dorret I Boomsma, Caroline Hayward, Daniel Chasman, Nicholas G Martin, Naveed Sattar, Harry Campbell, Tōnu Esko, Zoltán Kutalik, James F Wilson
Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028831/short-term-vitamin-e-treatment-impairs-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-required-for-adipose-tissue-expansion-resulting-in-fatty-liver-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#15
Martin Alcala, Maria Calderon-Dominguez, Dolors Serra, Laura Herrero, Maria P Ramos, Marta Viana
OBJECTIVES: The use of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity remains controversial. Our aim is to demonstrate that antioxidant supplementation may promote negative effects if used before the establishment of oxidative stress due to a reduced ROS generation under physiological levels, in a mice model of obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 14 weeks, with (OE group) or without (O group) vitamin E supplementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027303/increased-maternal-insulin-resistance-promotes-placental-growth-and-decreases-placental-efficiency-in-pregnancies-with-obesity-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Kei Tanaka, Kenji Yamada, Miho Matsushima, Tomoko Izawa, Seishi Furukawa, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
AIM: Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured during pregnancy to analyze placental weight and efficiency in relation to maternal insulin resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study of 510 pregnant women (130 with gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM], 380 with normal glucose tolerance) was conducted. We reviewed the patients' demographic data (age, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index [BMI]) and perinatal outcomes (birth weight, placental weight, BMI at delivery, maternal weight gain, HOMA-IR)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026804/the-effect-of-cardamom-supplementation-on-serum-lipids-glycemic-indices-and-blood-pressure-in-overweight-and-obese-pre-diabetic-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Yaghooblou Fatemeh, Fereydoun Siassi, Abbas Rahimi, Fariba Koohdani, Farideh Doostan, Mostafa Qorbani, Gity Sotoudeh
BACKGROUND: Spice consumption helps the treatment of diseases due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory contents. Cardamom is one of this spices; therefore, this study is designed to determine the effect of cardamom supplementation on serum lipids, glycemic indices, and blood pressure in pre-diabetic women. METHODS: Eighty overweight or obese pre-diabetic women were randomly allocated to two groups. The intervention group received 3 g of green cardamom and the placebo group received 3 g of rusk powder for 2 months...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026762/correlation-of-vitamin-d-with-metabolic-parameters-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#18
Arun Kumar, Satish Barki, Vinod Raghav, Ashutosh Chaturvedi, K V S Hari Kumar
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and hypovitaminosis D are the two most common endocrine disorders in young women leading to many adverse metabolic consequences. We evaluated the correlation of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25OHD) with metabolic parameters and insulin resistance in PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 100 PCOS patients (age 18-40 years, duration >6 months) serially, in this cross-sectional study. We excluded patients with past use of insulin sensitizers and hormone therapy...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026214/treatment-with-the-tgf-b-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15-reduces-the-adiposity-and-corrects-the-metabolic-dysfunction-of-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Vw-W Tsai, H P Zhang, R Manandhar, K K M Lee-Ng, H Lebhar, C P Marquis, Y Husaini, A Sainsbury, D A Brown, S N Breit
OBJECTIVES: To test the potential efficacy of recombinant macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) as an obesity therapeutic. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, either fed on normal-chow or high-fat-diet for 16 weeks in order to induce diet-induced obesity, were infused with either recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 or vehicle for 34 days by osmotic-mini-pump. During the experimental period metabolic parameters were measured. Blood and tissue were collected for analysis of inflammatory markers...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025435/withania-somnifera-as-a-potential-candidate-to-ameliorate-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-anxiety-and-neuroinflammation
#20
Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of obesity has reached alarming levels in both developing and developed nations. Excessive calorie intake and sedentary lifestyle due to technological advancements are the main causal factors for overweight and obesity among the human population. Obesity has been associated with a number of co-morbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration and dementia. The progression of neurological disorders in obese subjects has been mainly attributed to neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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