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Insulin resistance obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910974/does-bariatric-surgery-influence-plasma-levels-of-fetuin-a-and-leukocyte-cell-derived-chemotaxin-2-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Hsien-Hao Huang, Chun Yeh, Jung-Chien Chen, Tzong-Hsi Lee, Shu-Chun Chen, Wei-Jei Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
Background: Fetuin-A and leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT-2) are liver-derived proteins. Fetuin-A is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obese patients with T2D have higher plasma fetuin-A levels than those without T2D. LECT-2 has positive correlation with the severity of both obesity and insulin resistance. The changes in plasma fetuin-A are not consistent after bariatric surgery and no studies have investigated the changes in LECT-2 on the obese patients with T2D after bariatric surgery...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910627/performance-of-body-mass-index-and-percentage-of-body-fat-in-predicting-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-thai-adults
#2
Somlak Vanavanan, Pornpen Srisawasdi, Mana Rochanawutanon, Nalinee Kumproa, Khanat Kruthkul, Martin H Kroll
Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (PBF) are used to measure obesity; however, their performance in identifying cardiometabolic risk in Southeast Asians is unclear. Generally, Asian women have higher PBF and lower BMI than do men and other ethnic populations. This study was conducted to address whether a discord exists between these measures in predicting obesity-related cardiometabolic risk in a Thai population and to test whether associations between the measures and risk factors for cardiovascular disease have a sex-specific inclination...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#3
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910091/meal-derived-glucagon-responses-are-related-to-lower-hepatic-phosphate-concentrations-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
K S Weber, K Straßburger, M Fritsch, A Bierwagen, C Koliaki, E Phielix, G Pacini, J-H Hwang, D F Markgraf, V Burkart, K Müssig, J Szendroedi, M Roden
AIM: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters glucagon, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and hepatic energy metabolism, yet the possible relationships remain unclear. METHODS: In this observational study, lean insulin-sensitive control subjects (BMI: 23.2±1.5kg/m2 ), age-matched insulin-resistant obese subjects (BMI: 34.3±1.7kg/m2 ) and similarly obese elderly T2D patients (BMI: 32.0±2.4kg/m2 ) underwent mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs), and assessment of hepatic γATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi ) and lipids using 31 P/1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
June 2, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909238/autophagy-as-an-emerging-target-in-cardiorenal-metabolic-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-management
#5
REVIEW
Yingmei Zhang, Adam T Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers, Jun Ren
Although advances in medical technology and health care have improved the early diagnosis and management for cardiorenal metabolic disorders, the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and kidney disease remains high. Findings from numerous population-based studies, clinical trials, and experimental evidence have consolidated a number of theories for the pathogenesis of cardiorenal metabolic anomalies including resistance to the metabolic action of insulin, abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative and nitrosative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial damage, and inflammation...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909009/knockout-of-cnr1-prevents-metabolic-stress-induced-cardiac-injury-through-improving-insulin-resistance-ir-injury-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-by-promoting-ampk-alpha-activation
#6
Su-Juan Pei, Huai-Yuan Zhu, Jin-Hui Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Deng
Obesity and diabetes are associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the pathogenesis of DCM is not fully understood. Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we reported that CNR1 expression was increased in high fat diet (HFD)-induced heart of mice. Following, the wild type (CNR1+/+ ) and CNR1-knockout (CNR1-/- ) mice were employed and subjected to HFD treatments for 16 weeks to further investigate the effects of CNR1 on DCM. The results indicated that CNR1 knockout mice after HFD feeding exhibited a significant decrease of body weight and lipid accumulation in serum...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908753/abdominal-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-after-an-episode-of-acute-pancreatitis
#7
Ruma G Singh, Sayali A Pendharkar, Aya Cervantes, Jaelim Cho, Victor Miranda-Soberanis, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that individuals after an episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic derangements. While the link between general obesity and insulin resistance (IR) is well established, only a few studies have investigated the association between abdominal obesity and IR. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between abdominal obesity and several indices of IR in individuals after an episode of AP. METHODS: Patients were eligible for this cross-sectional study if they were previously admitted with a primary diagnosis of AP based on the recent international guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907844/insulin-suppression-of-fatty-acid-skeletal-muscle-enzyme-activity-in-postmenopausal-women-and-improvements-in-metabolic-flexibility-and-lipoprotein-lipase-with-aerobic-exercise-and-weight-loss
#8
Alice S Ryan, Heidi K Ortmeyer
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are characterized by metabolic inflexibility, a condition described as an inability to switch from fat oxidation during fasting to carbohydrate oxidation during hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of metabolic flexibility in 103 obese (37-59% fat), sedentary (VO2 max: 19.4 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min), postmenopausal (45-76 years) women, and changes in metabolic flexibility with exercise and weight loss interventions...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907843/plasma-metabolites-reveal-distinct-profiles-associating-with-different-metabolic-risk-factors-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs
#9
Maheswary Muniandy, Vidya Velagapudi, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Miina Ollikainen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to a myriad of cardiometabolic outcomes, each of which may have a specific metabolomic signature and a genetic basis. We identified plasma metabolites associating with different cardiometabolic risk factors (adiposity, cholesterol, insulin resistance, and inflammation) in monozygotic (MZ) twins. Additionally, we assessed if metabolite profiling can identify subgroups differing by cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: We quantified 111 plasma metabolites (Acquity UPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry), and measured blood lipids, HOMA index, CRP, and adiposity (BMI, %bodyfat by DEXA, fat distribution by MRI) in 40 MZ twin pairs (mean BMI 27...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907703/objective-sleep-characteristics-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-young-adolescents
#10
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Mirja Quante, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Susan Redline, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
: media-1vid110.1542/5778442247001PEDS-VA_2017-4085 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter sleep duration is associated with childhood obesity. Few studies measure sleep quantity and quality objectively or examine cardiometabolic biomarkers other than obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 829 adolescents derived sleep duration, efficiency and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from >5 days of wrist actigraphy recording for >10 hours/day. The main outcome was a metabolic risk score (mean of 5 sex-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol scaled inversely, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), for which higher scores indicate greater metabolic risk...
June 15, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905079/untargeted-profiling-of-concordant-discordant-phenotypes-of-high-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-to-predict-the-risk-of-developing-diabetes
#11
Anna Marco-Ramell, Sara Tulipani, Magali Palau-Rodriguez, Raul Gonzalez-Dominguez, Antonio Miñarro, Olga Jauregui, Alex Sanchez-Pla, Manuel Macias-Gonzalez, Fernando Cardona, Francisco J Tinahones, Cristina Andres-Lacueva
This study explores the metabolic profiles of concordant/discordant phenotypes of high insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. Through untargeted metabolomics (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), we analyzed the fasting serum of subjects with high IR and/or obesity ( n = 64). An partial least-squares discriminant analysis with orthogonal signal correction followed by univariate statistics and enrichment analysis allowed exploration of these metabolic profiles. A multivariate regression method (LASSO) was used for variable selection and a predictive biomarker model to identify subjects with high IR regardless of obesity was built...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904722/underrated-enemy-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-cancers-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
REVIEW
Aleksandra Derra, Martyna Bator, Tomasz Menżyk, Michał Kukla
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is intrahepatic ectopic lipid deposition which is present despite a lack of other causes of secondary hepatic fat accumulation. It is the most common chronic liver disorder in the welldeveloped countries. NAFLD is a multidisciplinary disease that affects various systems and organs and is inextricably linked to simple obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and overt diabetes mellitus type 2. The positive energy balance related to obesity leads to a variety of systemic changes including modified levels of insulin, insulin- like growth factor-1, adipokines, hepatokines and cytokines...
June 2018: Clinical and experimental hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904612/proteomic-identification-of-potential-markers-of-myosteatosis-in-human-urine
#13
Holger Husi, Alisdair MacDonald, Richard J E Skipworth, Janice Miller, Andrew Cronshaw, Kenneth C H Fearon, James A Ross
Myosteatosis, the infiltration of fat in skeletal muscle, is associated with lower skeletal muscle density (SMD) as detected by computed tomography (CT). It increases with aging and obesity and is thought to play a role in the aetiology of insulin resistance and type II diabetes. The clinical significance of myosteatosis in cancer cachexia, however, remains to be determined. Along with demonstrable subcutaneous and visceral lipolysis, myosteatosis may also be a key component of the syndrome. We aimed to investigate the use of human urine as a non-invasive way to screen for molecular biomarkers of myosteatosis/reduced SMD using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901727/food-overconsumption-in-healthy-adults-triggers-early-and-sustained-increases-in-serum-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-changes-in-cysteine-linked-to-fat-gain
#14
Amany K Elshorbagy, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl Turner, Helga Refsum, Leonie K Heilbronn
Background: Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. BCAAs predict future diabetes. Objective: We investigated amino acid changes during food overconsumption. Methods: Forty healthy men and women with a body mass index (mean ± SEM) of 25.6 ± 0.6 were overfed by 1250 kcal/d for 28 d, increasing consumption of all macronutrients...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901625/high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-functionality-and-metabolic-syndrome-protocol-for-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Rodrigues Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. One function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is the cholesterol-efflux pathway, which is the pathway where cholesterol is removed from macrophages within the arterial walls back into the bloodstream and out to the liver...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900844/-adiponectin-an-endogenous-molecule-with-anti-inflammatory-and-antidepressant-properties
#16
Sarah Nicolas, Joëlle Chabry, Alice Guyon, Hadi Zarif, Catherine Heurteaux, Agnès Petit-Paitel
Adiponectin (ApN) is a hormone produced by adipose tissue, yet the plasma level of ApN is decreased in overweight and obese people, as well as in people with diabetes. In the periphery, this decrease in circulating levels of ApN induces the establishment of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and is involved in the development of insulin resistance and atheromas. Conversely, "favorable" living conditions, weight loss and regular physical exercise increase ApN blood concentration. Some forms of ApN can reach the brain parenchyma through the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898626/glucoraphanin-a-broccoli-sprout-extract-that-ameliorates-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Liang Xu, Naoto Nagata, Tsuguhito Ota
Obesity is a low-grade sustained inflammatory state that causes oxidative stress in different metabolic tissues, which leads to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Particularly, obesity-induced metabolic endotoxemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress...
June 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898625/branched-chain-amino-acids-are-associated-with-metabolic-parameters-in-bipolar-disorder
#18
F T Fellendorf, M Platzer, R Pilz, A Rieger, H P Kapfhammer, H Mangge, N Dalkner, S Zelzer, A Meinitzer, A Birner, S A Bengesser, R Queissner, C Hamm, R Hartleb, E Z Reininghaus
OBJECTIVES: An important aspect of bipolar disorder (BD) research is the identification of biomarkers pertaining to the somatic health state. The branched-chain essential amino acids (BCAAs), viz valine, leucine and isoleucine, have been proposed as biomarkers of an individual's health state, given their influence on protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis inhibition. METHODS: BCAA levels of 141 euthymic/subsyndromal individuals with BD and 141 matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed by high-pressure lipid chromatography and correlated with clinical psychiatric, anthropometric and metabolic parameters...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897474/insulin-resistance-hyperinsulinemia-and-lh-relative-roles-in-peripubertal-obesity-associated-hyperandrogenemia
#19
Christine M Burt Solorzano, Karen L Knudsen, Amy D Anderson, Eleanor G Hutchens, Jessicah S Collins, James T Patrie, John C Marshall, Christopher R McCartney
Context: Peripubertal obesity is associated with variable hyperandrogenemia, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To assess the roles of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in peripubertal obesity-associated hyperandrogenemia. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Academic clinical research unit. Participants: Eleven obese (body mass index-for-age ≥ 95%) peripubertal girls...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896801/high-fat-diet-induced-remission-of-diabetes-in-a-subset-of-k-atp-gof-insulin-secretory-deficient-mice
#20
Zihan Yan, Zeenat A Shyr, Manuela Fortunato, Alecia Welscher, Mariana Alisio, Michael Martino, Brian N Finck, Hannah Conway, Maria S Remedi
Chronic hyperglycemia has been proposed to cause pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and loss of β-cell mass. As in human monogenic neonatal diabetes, mice expressing KATP channel gain-of-function (GOF) mutations demonstrate deficiency in insulin secretion and develop severe diabetes. As diabetes progresses, they show loss of islet insulin content and β-cell mass, secondary consequences of glucotoxicity. Co-morbidity of chronic hyperglycemia and elevated lipids, so called glucolipotoxicity, is also crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetes...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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