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Insulin resistance obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656048/trunk-muscle-quality-assessed-by-computed-tomography-association-with-adiposity-indices-and-glucose-tolerance-in-men
#1
Alexandre Maltais, Natalie Alméras, Isabelle Lemieux, Angelo Tremblay, Jean Bergeron, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement of mid-thigh fat content requires the assessment of another region of interest beyond the usual abdominal scan required to measure levels of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle fat measured from a single abdominal scan (L4 -L5 ) would also provide information relevant to the estimation of muscle fat infiltration as it relates to cardiometabolic risk...
April 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655623/insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-criteria-in-lean-normoglycemic-college-age-subjects
#2
Dana K Townsend, Katheryn McGregor, Esther Wu, Kathryn Cialkowski, Mark D Haub, Thomas J Barstow
AIMS: The goal of this study was to determine insulin sensitivity in a fasted state and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in normoglycemic (NGT), lean (L) (n = 35) and, for comparison, overweight/obese (OW/O) (n = 9) college-aged subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insulin sensitivity for 44 NGT, normotensive subjects, age 18-26 yrs., was determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and from Matsuda index (ISI Matsuda). RESULTS: Subjects were normoglycemic fasted (4...
March 31, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#3
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653099/herbacetin-a-flaxseed-flavonoid-ameliorates-high-percent-dietary-fat-induced-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-metabolizing-and-lipid-regulating-enzymes
#4
Chinnadurai Veeramani, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
Healthy plants and their constituents have been considered as a safe remedy for the treatment of obesity and obesity associated diseases. Herbacetin is a dietary flavonoid that has been explored for many pharmacological activities; but, the anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties of herbacetin have not yet been explored. The present study was performed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of herbacetin on high-fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia in 57BL/6 J mice. Obesity associated insulin resistance was induced by continuously feeding the mice with high-fat diet for 10 weeks...
April 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652108/skeletal-muscle-specific-overexpression-of-heat-shock-protein-72-improves-skeletal-muscle-insulin-stimulated-glucose-uptake-but-does-not-alter-whole-body-metabolism
#5
Jps Marshall, E Estevez, H L Kammoun, E J King, C R Bruce, B G Drew, H Qian, P Illiades, P Gregorevic, M A Febbraio, D C Henstridge
AIMS: The induction of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) via heating, genetic manipulation or by pharmacological activation is metabolically protective in the setting of obesity-induced insulin resistance across mammalian species. In this study, we set out to determine whether the overexpression of Hsp72, specifically in skeletal muscle, can protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An Adeno-Associated Viral vector (AAV) designed to overexpress Hsp72 in skeletal muscle only, was used to study the effects of increasing Hsp72 levels on various metabolic parameters...
April 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651819/biochemical-predictors-of-early-onset-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-young-children-with-obesity
#6
Ju Young Kim, Jinmin Cho, Hye Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650791/impairments-in-adipose-tissue-microcirculation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-assessed-by-real-time-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#7
Donghua Hu, Devika Remash, Ryan D Russell, Timothy Greenaway, Stephen Rattigan, Kathryn A Squibb, Graeme Jones, Dino Premilovac, Stephen M Richards, Michelle A Keske
BACKGROUND: In obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), adipose tissue expansion (because of larger adipocytes) results in reduced microvascular density which is thought to lead to adipocyte hypoxia, inflammation, and reduced nutrient delivery to the adipocyte. Adipose tissue microvascular responses in humans with T2D have not been extensively characterized. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether impaired microvascular responses in human adipose tissue are most closely associated with adiposity, inflammation, or altered metabolism...
April 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650631/the-vasculature-in-prediabetes
#8
REVIEW
David H Wasserman, Thomas J Wang, Nancy J Brown
The frequency of prediabetes is increasing as the prevalence of obesity rises worldwide. In prediabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation and metabolic derangements associated with concomitant obesity cause endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic dysfunction, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Importantly, the microvasculature affects insulin sensitivity by affecting the delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle; thus, endothelial dysfunction and extracellular matrix remodeling promote the progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus...
April 13, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649809/body-mass-index-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-birth-weight
#9
Daniel L Ledo, Fabíola Isabel Suano-Souza, Maria do Carmo P Franco, Maria Wany L Strufaldi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to identify a possible association among high birth weight with overweight/obesity, high arterial blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 719 children and adolescents (6-12 years) stratified according to birth weight (low birth weight [LBW] <2,500 g, adequate birth weight [ABW] 2,500-3,999 g, and high birth weight [HBW] ≥4,000 g). Data collected were anthropometric data, arterial blood pressure levels, lipid profile, and insulin resistance (fasting glucose and insulin, used to calculate homeostatic model assessment-IR)...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649689/high-fat-diet-alters-pas-kinase-regulation-by-fasting-and-feeding-in-liver
#10
Ana Pérez-García, Pilar Dongil, Verónica Hurtado-Carneiro, Enrique Blázquez, Carmen Sanz, Elvira Álvarez
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population, along with their associated complications, is a major factor contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The liver is a vital organ for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, especially in the adjustment periods in fasting and feeding. Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK) controls glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism in response to nutritional status. PASK-deficient mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) resist the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis, with improved insulin sensitivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649572/associations-of-sarcopenic-obesity-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-insulin-resistance-over-five-years-in-older-men-the-concord-health-and-ageing-in-men-project
#11
David Scott, Robert Cumming, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona Blyth, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Markus Seibel, Louise M Waite, Vasant Hirani
PURPOSE: Previous cross-sectional studies investigating associations of sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance have not utilised consensus definitions of sarcopenia. We aimed to determine associations of sarcopenic obesity with MetS and insulin resistance over five years in community-dwelling older men. METHODS: 1231 men aged ≥70 years had appendicular lean mass (ALM) and body fat percentage assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and hand grip strength and gait speed tests...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649530/self-assembled-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-implications-as-a-nanomedicine-for-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Jun Gi Rho, Hwa Seung Han, Ji Hye Han, Hansang Lee, Van Quy Nguyen, Wang Hee Lee, Seunglee Kwon, Sungeun Heo, Juhwan Yoon, Han Ho Shin, Eun-Young Lee, Hoin Kang, Siyoung Yang, Eun Kyung Lee, Jae Hyung Park, Wook Kim
Self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HA-NPs) have been extensively investigated for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their biocompatibility and receptor-binding properties. Here, we report that an empty HA-NP itself not bearing any drug has therapeutic effects on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. HA-NPs inhibited not only the receptor-mediated internalization of low-molecular-weight (LMW) free HA but also LMW free HA-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in mouse primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) isolated from wild-type mice, but not in CD44-null (CD44-/-) BMDMs...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649378/poor-sleep-quality-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-postmenopausal-women-with-and-without-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Christopher E Kline, Martica H Hall, Daniel J Buysse, Conrad P Earnest, Timothy S Church
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep quality has previously been shown to be related to insulin resistance in apparently healthy adults. However, it is unclear whether an association between sleep quality and insulin resistance exists among adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Participants included 347 overweight/obese postmenopausal women without type 2 diabetes (age: 57.5 ± 6.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 31.7 ± 3.7 kg/m2 ; 54% with MetS). Sleep quality was assessed with the six-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale; values were categorized into quartiles...
March 20, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649377/vitamin-d-status-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity-effect-of-physical-activity-in-nonvitamin-d-supplemented-adolescents
#14
Md Jobayer Hossain, Alexa Levinson, Donald George, Jose Canas, Seema Kumar, P Babu Balagopal
BACKGROUND: The relationship among inadequate vitamin D status, obesity, and cardiometabolic risk and the potential impact of physical activity-based interventions on vitamin D status are poorly characterized in children. This study aimed to address these issues. METHODS: We studied a total of 21 adolescents (15 obese and 6 normal weight; age: 14-18 years; Tanner stage>IV). Adolescents with obesity (n = 15) underwent a randomized controlled (8 in the intervention group and 7 in the control group) 3-month physical activity-based lifestyle intervention...
March 13, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649324/a-low-dose-lipid-infusion-is-sufficient-to-induce-insulin-resistance-and-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-human-subjects
#15
Hanyu Liang, Helen Lum, Andrea Alvarez, Jose de Jesus Garduno-Garcia, Benjamin J Daniel, Nicolas Musi
OBJECTIVE: The root cause behind the low-grade inflammatory state seen in insulin resistant (obesity and type 2 diabetes) states is unclear. Insulin resistant subjects have elevations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are ligands for the pro-inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR)4 pathway. We tested the hypothesis that an experimental elevation in plasma FFA (within physiological levels) in lean individuals would upregulate TLR4 and activate downstream pathways (e.g., MAPK) in circulating monocytes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645064/adiponectin-expression-in-visceral-adiposity-is-an-important-determinant-of-insulin-resistance-in-morbid-obesity
#16
Anca Elena Sirbu, Laura Buburuzan, Steliana Kevorkian, Sorina Martin, Carmen Barbu, Catalin Copaescu, Bogdan Smeu, Simona Fica
INTRODUCTION: Visceral adiposity is associated with decreased serum adiponectin levels, peripheral resistance to insulin and an increased risk of cardio-metabolic complications. However, the link between adiponectin expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), its serum levels and metabolic protection is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the adiponectin gene expression in VAT and clinical and metabolic parameters in patients with severe obesity...
April 12, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643115/chronic-at1-blockade-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-oletf-rats
#17
Ruben Rodriguez, Jacqueline N Minas, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Daisuke Nakano, David G Parkes, A Nishiyama, Rudy M Ortiz
Obesity is associated with the inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which increases arterial pressure, impairs insulin secretion, and decreases peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity. RAS blockade reverses these detriments; however, it is not clear whether the disease state of the organism and treatment duration determine the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the benefits of acute vs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642915/adipokine-rbp4-drives-ovarian-cancer-cell-migration
#18
Yanyan Wang, Yilin Wang, Zhenyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked to several types of cancers including ovarian cancer. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine that drives the development of hyperinsulinemia and type II diabetes in obesity patients and animals. Previously, we have identified RBP4 as a serum marker for ovarian cancer. Here we further explored the consequence of RBP4 upregulation in ovarian cancer cells and its molecular mechanism. RESULTS: Our results show that RBP4 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells to the same extent as in adipose tissues...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629255/obesity-cardiac-remodeling-and-metabolic-profile-validation-of-a-new-simple-index-beyond-body-mass-index
#19
Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Concetta Di Nora, Stefano Poli, Lina Sparacino, Iulian Cosei, Andreea Ravasel, Andreea Catarina Popescu, Bogdan Alexandru Popescu
Aim: The body mass index (BMI), the most used anthropometric index of obesity, has an important limitation, not taking into consideration the distribution of body fat. We developed a new simple index: the waist-corrected BMI (wBMI), calculated as waist circumference (WC) × BMI. The study aim was to assess the role of wBMI, compared to BMI, WC, and Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) in predicting abnormal cardiac geometry, insulin resistance, increased arterial stiffness, and dyslipidemia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 805 patients referred to our Department of Preventive Cardiology for risk factors evaluation and treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625124/theophylline-suppresses-interleukin-6-expression-by-inhibiting-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-pre-adipocytes
#20
Takakazu Mitani, Tomohide Takaya, Naoki Harada, Shigeru Katayama, Ryoichi Yamaji, Soichiro Nakamura, Hitoshi Ashida
Adipose tissues in obese individuals are characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Pre-adipocytes and adipocytes in this state secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), which induce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but its effects on pro-inflammatory adipokine secretion by pre-adipocytes and adipocytes have not been examined. In this study, we found that theophylline decreased IL-6 secretion by 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse-derived primary pre-adipocytes...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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