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Insulin resistance obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236311/mir-221-negatively-regulates-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-white-adipose-tissue-by-repression-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#1
Jie Peng, Yuanfei Zhou, Zhao Deng, Hong Zhang, Yinghui Wu, Tongxing Song, Yang Yang, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
It is well known that obesity-induced white adipose tissue inflammation is an important reason for insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an important regulator of inflammtion response pathways in white adipose tissue. Here, we found that miR-221 negatively regulated SIRT1 in white adipose tissue during inflammation and HFD-induced obesity. MiR-221 is a putative oncogene which has been found overexpressed in a number of human tumors. Recently, it has also found that miR-221 was increased in obese adipose tissue and may be involved in inflammation and insulin-resistance...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236298/leptin-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Zunaira Alina
Leptin is an endogenous protein having 167 amino acids and is derived from adipocytes. It hass tertiary structure that resembles with that of the pro-inflammatory cytokines family. The fundamental role of leptin is to maintain the energy homeostasis with the aid of its counter hormone called ghrelin, known as the "hunger hormone". Small quantities of leptin are also present in various tissues like ovary, placenta, pituitary gland, mammary gland, skeletal muscle, stomach and lymphoid tissue. Expression of leptin is strongly associated with various inflammatory responses and immune system, and plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of obesity and development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235659/effect-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-late-life-depression-associations-with-disease-severity-and-treatment-resistance
#3
John S Mulvahill, Ginger E Nicol, David Dixon, Eric J Lenze, Jordan F Karp, Charles F Reynolds, Daniel M Blumberger, Benoit H Mulsant
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the co-occurrence of obesity and metabolic derangements. Prior research implicates MetS in prolongation of the course of depression in older adults, but its effect on antidepressant response is unknown in this population. The objective was to determine whether MetS and related metabolic dyscrasias are associated with decreased rate of remission from depression in older adults treated pharmacologically for depression. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial...
December 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235553/pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-profile-in-obese-adults-with-high-plasma-gip-levels
#4
J Góralska, U Raźny, A Polus, J Stancel-Możwiłło, M Chojnacka, A Gruca, A Zdzienicka, A Dembińska-Kieć, B Kieć-Wilk, B Solnica, M Malczewska-Malec
BACKGROUND: GIP provides a novel link between the immune system and the gut, although results from different experimental and observational studies are contradictory, ranging from anti-inflammatory, through neutral to pro-inflammatory action of GIP. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze inflammatory pathways on the level of gene expression and circulating inflammatory markers in relation to plasma GIP level. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 128 obese adults...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235014/increased-bile-acid-signals-after-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-improve-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-in-a-rodent-model-of-diet-induced-nash
#5
Takahiro Tsuchiya, Takeshi Naitoh, Munenori Nagao, Naoki Tanaka, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Hirofumi Imoto, Tomohiro Miyachi, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Michiaki Unno
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has resulted in it becoming a common cause of liver-related mortality; however, no efficient treatment has been established. It has been reported that bariatric surgery improves metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and NASH. Although the mechanism is unclear, it is thought that the changes in bile acid (BA) signaling via its nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), produce various metabolic effects...
December 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234897/potential-influence-of-the-phthalates-on-normal-liver-function-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-males
#6
Nataša Milošević, Nataša Milić, Dragana Živanović Bosić, Ivana Bajkin, Ivanka Perčić, Ludovico Abenavoli, Milica Medić Stojanoska
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, massively used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics, which may impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, obesity, and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the liver function and cardiometabolic risk factors in males. In this research, 102 male participants (51 normal weight and 51 overweight/obese) were enrolled and examined for phthalate metabolites exposure in urine samples after 12 h of fasting...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234478/fructose-ingestion-impairs-expression-of-genes-involved-in-skeletal-muscle-s-adaptive-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#7
Natalia Gomes Gonçalves, Stephanie Heffer Cavaletti, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Milton Arruda Martins, Chin Jia Lin
Background: The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic efficiency and possibly mediate the health benefits of physical exercise. In contrast, impaired expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or protein turnover in skeletal muscle-key biological processes involved in adaptation to physical training-leads to insulin resistance and obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234441/euphorbia-kansui-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-obese-human-subjects-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#8
Seung-Wook Lee, Hyun-Young Na, Mi Hyeon Seol, Mia Kim, Byung-Cheol Lee
Background: Obesity is a main cause of insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver diseases. This study evaluated Euphorbia kansui radix (Euphorbia) as a potential treatment option for obesity and obesity-induced IR in obese human and high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Methods: In the human study, we analyzed the body weight change of 14 patients who took a single dose of 6 g of Euphorbia powder. In the animal study, male mice were divided into three groups: normal chow, HFD, and Euphorbia (high-fat diet and 100 mg/Kg Euphorbia once per week)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234359/subtle-inflammation-a-possible-mechanism-of-future-cardiovascular-risk-in-obese-children
#9
Watchareewan Sontichai, Prapai Dejkhamron, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Prachya Kongtaweelert, Kevalee Unachak, Nuthapong Ukarapol
Purpose: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown to be associated with systemic inflammation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its relation to inflammatory markers in obese Thai children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Children with history of endogenous obesity, chronic diseases, drug ingestion, and any acute illness within 2 weeks prior to enrollment were excluded...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234057/effect-of-carnosine-supplementation-on-the-plasma-lipidome-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Estifanos Baye, Jozef Ukropec, Maximilian Pj de Courten, Silvia Vallova, Patrik Krumpolec, Timea Kurdiova, Giancarlo Aldini, Barbara Ukropcova, Barbora de Courten
Carnosine has been shown to reduce oxidation and glycation of low density lipoprotein hence improving dyslipidaemia in rodents. The effect of carnosine on human plasma lipidome has thus far not been investigated. We aimed to determine whether carnosine supplementation improves the plasma lipidome in overweight and obese individuals. Lipid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in 24 overweight and obese adults: 13 were randomly assigned to 2 g carnosine daily and 11 to placebo, and treated for 12 weeks...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233919/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE-deficiency-alters-inflammation-markers-in-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-high-fat-diet
#11
Emmani B M Nascimento, Louise Mannerås Holm, Alexander V Chibalin, Marie Björnholm, Juleen R Zierath
Conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid is mediated by diacylglycerol kinases (DGK), with DGKα specifically linked to adaptive immune responses. We determined the role of DGKα in obesity and inflammatory responses to a high fat diet (HFD). DGKα knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates were either a) chow-fed, b) HFD-fed for 12 weeks (Long-Term HFD), or c) HFD-fed for 3 days (Acute HFD). Body weight/composition, oxygen consumption, food intake and glucose tolerance (IPGT) was unaltered between chow-fed DGKα KO and WT mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233848/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeting-insulin-resistance-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Darren M Riddy, Philippe Delerive, Roger J Summers, Patrick M Sexton, Christopher J Langmead
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) continue to be important discovery targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many GPCRs are directly involved in the development of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, and in the etiology of inflammation that can lead to obesity-induced T2DM. This review summarizes the current literature describing a number of well-validated GPCR targets, but also outlines several new and promising targets for drug discovery. We highlight the importance of understanding the role of these receptors in the disease pathology, and their basic pharmacology, which will pave the way to the development of novel pharmacological probes that will enable these targets to fulfill their promise for the treatment of these metabolic disorders...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233588/changes-in-circulating-mirnas-in-healthy-overweight-and-obese-subjects-effect-of-diet-composition-and-weight-loss
#13
S Giardina, P Hernández-Alonso, A Díaz-López, A Salas-Huetos, J Salas-Salvadó, M Bulló
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that can play an important role in several chronic metabolic conditions, including obesity. However, to date little is known about how they are regulated. Weight loss induced by surgical procedures has been effective at modulating specific circulating miRNAs, but the effect of energy-restricted diets with different macronutrient compositions on circulating miRNAs is not well understood. The objective of the present analysis was to explore the effect of three energy-restricted diets of different macronutrient composition and carbohydrate quality on plasma miRNA levels...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233519/inhibition-of-central-de-novo-ceramide-synthesis-restores-insulin-signaling-in-hypothalamus-and-enhances-%C3%AE-cell-function-of-obese-zucker-rats
#14
Mélanie Campana, Lara Bellini, Claude Rouch, Latif Rachdi, Nicolas Coant, Noémie Butin, Cécile L Bandet, Erwann Philippe, Kelly Meneyrol, Nadim Kassis, Julien Dairou, Eric Hajduch, Benoit Colsch, Christophe Magnan, Hervé Le Stunff
OBJECTIVES: Hypothalamic lipotoxicity has been shown to induce central insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis; nevertheless, elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we aimed to determine the role of de novo ceramide synthesis in hypothalamus on the onset of central insulin resistance and the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis induced by obesity. METHODS: Hypothalamic GT1-7 neuronal cells were treated with palmitate...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231919/-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Anna Sarosiekjeznach-Steinhagen, Joanna Ostrowska, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Iwona Boniecka
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world (15% to 40% of the adult population). Introduction of lifestyle changes including dietary intervention and increased physical activity is most often the first-line treatment and is intended to support not only the treatment of liver disease, but also for diseases associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. In addition to well-known metformin, there are new classes of antidiabetic drugs, including GLP-1analog, SGLT-2 antagonist, pioglitazon...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231905/short-chain-fatty-acids-in-the-colon-and-peripheral-tissues-a-focus-on-butyrate-colon-cancer-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Sean M McNabney, Tara M Henagan
Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229986/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-impairs-insulin-signaling-in-lungs-of-allergen-challenged-mice-improvement-by-resveratrol
#17
Diana M André, Marina C Calixto, Carolina Sollon, Eduardo C Alexandre, Edith B G Tavares, Ana C A Naime, Gabriel F Anhê, Edson Antunes
Insulin resistance plays an important role in obesity-associated asthma exacerbations. Using a murine model of allergic airway inflammation, we evaluated the insulin signaling transmission in lungs of obese compared with lean mice. We further evaluated the effects of the polyphenol resveratrol in the pulmonary insulin signaling. In lean mice, insulin stimulation significantly increased phosphorylations of AKT, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and insulin receptor β (IRβ) in lung tissue and isolated bronchi (p < 0...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229948/assessment-of-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-in-obese-calf-muscle-using-multi-echo-echo-planar-correlated-spectroscopic-imaging
#18
Rajakumar Nagarajan, Catherine L Carpenter, Cathy C Lee, Navin Michael, Manoj K Sarma, Raissa Souza, Edward Xu, S Sendhil Velan, Theodore J Hahn, Vay-Liang Go, M Albert Thomas
Obesity-related conditions including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of preventable death. Recent evidence suggests that altered myocellular lipid metabolism in obesity may lead to increased insulin resistance (IR) that predisposes to these disorders. To test the hypothesis that muscles rich in type I vs. type II muscle fibers would exhibit similar changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content in obesity, we utilized a new four-dimensional multi echo echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging technique that allows separate determination of IMCL and EMCL content in individual calf muscles in obese vs...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229927/activation-of-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-in-human-visceral-adipose-tissue-contributes-to-local-and-systemic-inflammation
#19
María A Zuriaga, José J Fuster, Melissa G Farb, Susan MacLauchlan, Rosa Bretón-Romero, Shakun Karki, Donald T Hess, Caroline M Apovian, Naomi M Hamburg, Noyan Gokce, Kenneth Walsh
The accumulation of visceral adiposity is strongly associated with systemic inflammation and increased cardiometabolic risk. WNT5A, a non-canonical WNT ligand, has been shown to promote adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in animal studies. Among other non-canonical pathways, WNT5A activates planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. The current study investigated the potential contribution of non-canonical WNT5A/PCP signaling to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation and associated metabolic dysfunction in individuals with obesity...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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