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Fever and antipyretic use in children

Sompwe Eric Mukomena, Cilundika Mulenga Philipe, Mashinda Kulimba Désiré, Lutumba Tshindele Pascal, Mapatano Mala Ali, Luboya Numbi Oscar
INTRODUCTION: Long neglected, asymptomatic malaria is currently recognized as a potential threat and obstacle to malaria control. In DR Congo, the prevalence of this parasite is poorly documented. This study aims to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia in children less than 5 years of age as well as in those aged over five years for what concerns ongoing mass control interventions (LLINs). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among school age children, children less than 5 years of age living in the household of Lubumbashi...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Camilla Moriarty, Will Carroll
Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The oral formulation is widely used in paediatric practice and after paracetamol it is one of the most common drugs prescribed for children in hospital. The treatment of fever with antipyretics such as ibuprofen is controversial as fever is the normal response of the body to infection and unless the child becomes distressed or symptomatic, fever alone should not be routinely treated. Combined treatment with paracetamol and ibuprofen is commonly undertaken but almost certainly is not helpful...
July 25, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Maria Kelly, Laura J Sahm, Frances Shiely, Ronan O'Sullivan, Aoife McGillicuddy, Suzanne McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015...
2016: BMC Public Health
M Kelly, S McCarthy, R O'Sullivan, F Shiely, P Larkin, M Brenner, L J Sahm
Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms and accounts for numerous consultations with healthcare practitioners. It causes much anxiety amongst parents as many struggle with managing a feverish child and find it difficult to assess fever severity. Over- and under-dosing of antipyretics has been reported. Aim of the review The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children...
August 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Thanaporn Wattanakul, Pramote Teerapong, Katherine Plewes, Paul N Newton, Wirongrong Chierakul, Kamolrat Silamut, Kesinee Chotivanich, Ronnatrai Ruengweerayut, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, crossover, pharmacokinetic study of paracetamol dosed orally and intramuscularly was conducted...
2016: Malaria Journal
Riccardo Lubrano, Sara Paoli, Marco Bonci, Luigi Di Ruzza, Corrado Cecchetti, Raffaele Falsaperla, Piero Pavone, Nassim Matin, Giovanna Vitaliti, Isotta Gentile
BACKGROUND: Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the clinical records of 1397 children aged >1 month and < 16 years, requiring a primary care (ambulatory) outpatient visit due to fever...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Woei Kang Liew, Wenyin Loh, Wen Chin Chiang, Anne Goh, Oh Moh Chay, Mona Iancovici Kidon
BACKGROUND: Children with a diagnosis of cross-reactive hypersensitivity to both paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are limited in their choice of antipyretics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a Chinese proprietary medicine, Yin Qiao San (YQS), for fever relief. METHODS: A single centre, open label, prospective clinical trial exploring the tolerability and feasibility of using YQS for fever relief in children who are unable to use conventional antipyretic medications...
October 2015: Asia Pacific Allergy
Maurizio de Martino, Alberto Chiarugi
Paracetamol is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug for management of fever and mild-to-moderate pain in infants and children, and it is considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of both according to international guidelines and recommendations. The mechanism of action of paracetamol is complex and multifactorial, and several aspects of the pharmacology impact its clinical use, especially in the selection of the correct analgesic and antipyretic dose. A systematic literature search was performed by following procedures for transparent reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
December 2015: Pain and Therapy
Rosie Hague
Most illnesses associated with fever are self-limiting and children recover with no specific treatment. However, fever can also be the presenting feature of serious illness, which may be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. It is important to establish whether the temperature has been measured and, if so, how. The height of the temperature should be recorded, and always enquire what device has been used, as a reading from a forehead thermometer may not be accurate. While many families will use a thermometer the impression of the child being hot to touch without formal measurement should still be taken seriously...
July 2015: Practitioner
Polly Teuten, Siba Prosad Paul, Paul Anthony Heaton
Feverish illnesses commonly affect children and are the second most frequent reason for a child to be admitted to hospital. Most cases are viral in origin, usually with a good prognosis. Fever can be caused by severe and rapidly progressive illness which needs urgent referral to hospital for potentially life-saving treatment, and community practitioners must be able to identify such cases showing 'red flag'features. The fear of serious disease among parents and carers may result in 'fever phobia' leading to minor illnesses being managed inappropriately...
July 2015: Journal of Family Health
A Buongiorno, N Pierossi
AIM: PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) syndrome is the most common autoinflammatory syndrome in pediatrics, accepted as an hyperimmune condition. Pidotimod is a molecule with immunomodulatory activity on both innate and adaptive immune responses; it also has the capacity to modulate the function of the respiratory epithelial cells through the activation of a NK-KB pathway which would involve the host-virus interaction. Moreover, the proven beneficial effect of Pidotimod in enhancing the immune response during vaccination, and its benefits in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, should be noted...
June 2015: Minerva Pediatrica
Katarzyna Kominek, Agnieszka Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Paulina Krawiec, Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska
INTRODUCTION: Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics and antipyretics available without limits as preparations of the OTC group (over the counter drugs). Overdose and poisoning with this drug always brings about the risk of acute hepatic failure. The objective of the study was a retrospective evaluation of patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during the period 2004-2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis covered 44 patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during 2004-2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Antonio Greco, Armando De Virgilio, Maria Ida Rizzo, Mario Tombolini, Andrea Gallo, Massimo Fusconi, Giovanni Ruoppolo, Giulio Pagliuca, Salvatore Martellucci, Marco de Vincentiis
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited childhood systemic vasculitis that exhibits a specific predilection for the coronary arteries. KD predominantly affects young children between the ages of 6months and 4years. Incidence rates in Asians are up to 20 times higher than Caucasians. The aetiology of KD is not known. One reasonable open hypothesis is that KD is caused by an infectious agent that produces an autoimmune disease only in genetically predisposed individuals. The typical presentation of KD is a young child who has exhibited a high swinging fever for five or more days that persists despite antibiotic and/or antipyretic treatment...
August 2015: Autoimmunity Reviews
Rebecca Ferrier Innes
The most common background to hyperpyrexia and convulsions is immaturity of the child's physiological reactions to infection, so an understanding of the pathophysiology of pyrexia and febrile convulsions in young children enables nurses to take appropriate action. Correct management involves prompt recognition of rising temperature, administration of antipyretic medication, use of other cooling strategies and careful monitoring. Diagnosis of the underlying cause occasionally requires laboratory investigation, if no focus for infection is found, most cases being viral...
March 2015: Nursing Children and Young People
Evelyn K Ansah, Solomon Narh-Bana, Harriet Affran-Bonful, Constance Bart-Plange, Bonnie Cundill, Margaret Gyapong, Christopher J M Whitty
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of providing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on fever management in private drug retail shops where most poor rural people with fever present, with the aim of reducing current massive overdiagnosis and overtreatment of malaria. DESIGN: Cluster randomized trial of 24 clusters of shops. SETTING: Dangme West, a poor rural district of Ghana. PARTICIPANTS: Shops and their clients, both adults and children...
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Wenyin Loh, Hwee Hoon Lim, Rajeshwar Rao, Anne Goh, Lin Xin Ong, Wen Chin Chiang
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been found to be safe alternatives in adults with cross-intolerant hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However they are usually not prescribed in children and there is little information about their tolerance in the pediatric age group. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the tolerance to etoricoxib in children with hypersensitivity to multiple antipyretics. METHODS: A retrospective case series of children diagnosed with hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs and/or paracetamol who underwent a drug provocation test (DPT) with etoricoxib...
January 2015: Asia Pacific Allergy
F Ariffin, A S Ramli, N Naim, M I Selamat, S J Syed-Jamal
Dengue is life-threatening and the paediatric population is highly susceptible to complications. Deterioration can occur rapidly and ability to recognise early warning signs is crucial. This study aims to determine the knowledge and awareness of parents and carers and to predict their ability in recognising life-threatening symptoms and signs of dengue in children and to assess their health-seeking behaviour in dengue emergency. Methods This is a crosssectional study involving parents and carers of children ≤ 12 years old in schools and kindergartens in the Gombak district...
October 2014: Medical Journal of Malaysia
N A Geppe, E G Kondiurina, A N Galustian, T E Pak, N B Bal'tserovich, O V Zhiglinskaia, A V Kamaev, S G Lazareva, S L Laléko, I M Mel'nikova, O A Perminova, A U Sabitov
The pediatric dosage form of Egroferon--a drug indicated for the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections (ARIs)--is developed taking in account the broad range of pathogens (most of which are viruses), and age-dependent features of immune system reactions (absence of specific immunity and immunological memory, relative "immaturity" of immune reactions, reduced interferon production by immunocompetent cells, etc.). Ergoferon interferes with the non-specific mechanisms of antiviral defence that ensure eliciting of an immune response, regardless of the virus type (the interferon system and CD4+cells), and influences virus-induced histamine release and histamine-mediated inflammatory reactions...
2014: Antibiotiki i Khimioterapii︠a︡, Antibiotics and Chemoterapy [sic]
Emily Wragg, Joseph Francis, Jeshni Amblum
Pyrexia is the most common clinical complaint seen in children by healthcare professionals, yet many parents and professionals cannot recognise the condition and misunderstand antipyretic administration. This article explores the research on the use of antipyretics in children with fever, and compares concomitant and monotherapeutic methods of ibuprofen and paracetamol administration.
December 2014: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Nicholas J Wood, Chris C Blyth, Gabriela A Willis, Peter Richmond, Michael S Gold, Jim P Buttery, Nigel Crawford, Michael Crampton, J Kevin Yin, Maria Yui Kwan Chow, Kristine Macartney
OBJECTIVE: To examine influenza vaccine safety in Australian children aged under 10 years in 2013. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Active prospective surveillance study conducted with parents or carers of children who received influenza vaccine in outpatient clinics at six tertiary paediatric hospitals or from selected primary health care providers between 18 March and 19 July 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parental-reported frequency of systemic reactions (fever, headache, nausea, abdominal symptoms, convulsions, rash, rigors and fatigue), injection site reactions (erythema, swelling and/or pain at the injection site), use of antipyretics or analgesics, and medical attendance or advice within 72 hours after vaccination...
November 17, 2014: Medical Journal of Australia
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