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brain tumors pet

Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Taichi Ishiguro, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takakazu Kawamata
BACKGROUND: Transient focal MRI abnormalities after status epilepticus (SE) are rarely seen in patients with benign brain tumors, and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. We report a rare case of cerebral cavernous malformation with transient focal MRI abnormalities around the tumor and accumulation of 11C-methionine on PET after SE. These findings mimicked those of a glioma because the MRI and methionine PET findings were similar. We also speculate about the cause of this phenomenon in relation to pathological findings of this case...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chrysoula Vraka, Monika Dumanic, Teresa Racz, Florian Pichler, Cecile Philippe, Theresa Balber, Eva-Maria Klebermass, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser
In drug development, biomarkers for cerebral applications have a lower success rate compared to cardiovascular drugs or tumor therapeutics. One reason is the missing blood brain barrier penetration, caused by the tracer's interaction with efflux transporters such as the P-gp (MDR1 or ABCB1). Aim of this study was the development of a reliable model to measure the interaction of radiotracers with the human efflux transporter P-gp in parallel to the radiolabeling process. LigandTracer® Technology was used with the wildtype cell line MDCKII and the equivalent cell line overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-hMDR1)...
February 14, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Vladimir Kepe, Claudio Scafoglio, Jie Liu, William H Yong, Marvin Bergsneider, Sung-Cheng Huang, Jorge R Barrio, Ernest M Wright
A novel glucose transporter, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), has been demonstrated to contribute to the demand for glucose by pancreatic and prostate tumors, and its functional activity has been imaged using a SGLT specific PET imaging probe, α-methyl-4-[F-18]fluoro-4-deoxy-D-glucopyaranoside (Me-4FDG). In this study, Me-4FDG PET was extended to evaluate patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors. Me-4FDG PET scans were performed in four patients diagnosed with WHO Grade III or IV astrocytomas and control subjects, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG) PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same subjects...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Masahide Matsuda, Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Kentaro Hatano, Akira Joraku, Yuichi Iizumi, Yosuke Masuda, Hiroyuki Nishiyama, Akira Matsumura
Tumor angiogenesis has attracted increasing attention because of its potential as a valuable marker in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors as well as a novel therapeutic target. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed by the neovasculature endothelium of some tumors, with little to no expression by the tumor cells or normal vasculature endothelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of PSMA for the evaluation of the tumor neovasculature of various brain tumors and the possibility of detecting PSMA expression in brain tumors using PET imaging with89 Zr-Df-IAB2M (anti-PSMA minibody)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Geetanjali Arora, Punit Sharma, Anshul Sharma, Anil Kumar Mishra, Puja Panwar Hazari, Ahitagni Biswas, Ajay Garg, Deepak Aheer, Rakesh Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Posttherapy changes in treated glioma patients cannot be reliably differentiated from tumor recurrence. We evaluated the role of Tc-methionine SPECT/CT for the detection of recurrent glioma and compared the same with F-FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced MRI (CeMRI). METHODS: Forty-four patients with histologically proven, previously treated glioma and clinical suspicion of recurrence were prospectively enrolled in the study. Of these 44 patients, 39 (28 male and 11 female subjects; age, 38...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Hari Nandu, Patrick Y Wen, Raymond Y Huang
Imaging plays several key roles in managing brain tumors, including diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Ongoing challenges remain as new therapies emerge and there are urgent needs to find accurate and clinically feasible methods to noninvasively evaluate brain tumors before and after treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of several advanced imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET), including advances in new PET agents, and summarize several key areas of their applications, including improving the accuracy of diagnosis and addressing the challenging clinical problems such as evaluation of pseudoprogression and anti-angiogenic therapy, and rising challenges of imaging with immunotherapy...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Antoine Verger, Christian P Filss, Philipp Lohmann, Gabriele Stoffels, Michael Sabel, Hans-J Wittsack, Elena Rota Kops, Norbert Galldiks, Gereon R Fink, Nadim J Shah, Karl-Josef Langen
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of O-(2-18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18 F-FET) PET and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) for the diagnosis of progressive or recurrent glioma. METHODS: Thirty-two pretreated gliomas (25 progressive or recurrent tumors, 7 treatment-related changes, TRC) were investigated with18 F-FET PET and PWI using a hybrid PET/MR scanner. Volumes of interest (VOIs) with a diameter of 16 mm were centered upon the maximum of abnormality in the tumor area in PET and PWI maps (rCBV, rCBF, MTT) and the contralateral unaffected hemisphere...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kohei Chida, Atsushi Sugawara, Takahiro Koji, Takaaki Beppu, Yoshiharu Mue, Tamotsu Sugai, Knuaki Ogasawara
A 79-year-old man presented with primary intramedullary malignant lymphoma with a presyrinx state in the cervical cord manifesting as left hemiparesis and hemidysesthesia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed an intramedullary mass in the cervical spinal cord at the level of C1 and T2-weighted image prolongation from the medulla to the level of C5. According to the progression of hemiparesis, he underwent an emergency removal of the tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was totally removed, and the peritumoral signal abnormality was not present in the postoperative MRI...
December 30, 2017: Curēus
Chih-Yang Hsu, Mike Doubrovin, Chia-Ho Hua, Omar Mohammed, Barry L Shulkin, Sue Kaste, Sara Federico, Monica Metzger, Matthew Krasin, Christopher Tinkle, Thomas E Merchant, John T Lucas
Identification of FDGavid- neoplasms may be obscured by high-uptake normal tissues, thus limiting inferences about the natural history of disease. We introduce a FDG-PET radiomics tissue classifier for differentiating FDGavid- normal tissues from tumor. Thirty-three scans from 15 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 68 scans from 23 patients with Ewing sarcoma treated on two prospective clinical trials were retrospectively analyzed. Disease volumes were manually segmented on FDG-PET and CT scans. Brain, heart, kidneys and bladder and tumor volumes were automatically segmented on PET images...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clarice Sprinz, Stephan Altmayer, Matheus Zanon, Guilherme Watte, Klaus Irion, Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger
PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review of the effect of blood glucose levels on 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake in normal organs. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases through 22 April 2017 to identify all relevant studies using the keywords "PET/CT" (positron emission tomography/computed tomography), "standardized uptake value" (SUV), "glycemia," and "normal." Analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations...
2018: PloS One
Sreedharan Thankarajan Arunraj, Girish Kumar Parida, Nishikant Avinash Damle, Saurabh Arora, Sreenivasa Reddy, Dhritiman Chakraborty, Meghna Prabhu, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
Medulloblastoma, also known as cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is the most common brain tumor in children and arises in the posterior cranial fossa. We present the case of a patient with desmoplastic type of medulloblastoma, which showed recurrence more than once. When Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT was done, the lesions showed somatostatin receptor expression, opening another potential therapeutic option for this patient.
February 27, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Giovanni Morana, Gianluca Bottoni, Maria Margherita Mancardi, Antonio Verrico, Arnoldo Piccardo
We report the finding of increased F-DOPA uptake in the brain parenchyma surrounding a temporoparietal low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and corresponding to transient seizure-induced MRI abnormalities. There was concomitant markedly increased tumoral uptake. This F-DOPA PET phenomenon may represent increased amino acid transport induced by seizures. In the setting of brain tumor imaging, increased F-DOPA uptake of low-grade epileptogenic tumors and adjacent brain parenchyma should be carefully interpreted in light of clinical and electroencephalographic findings related to seizure activity...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Harikrishna Kommidi, Umberto Tosi, Uday B Maachani, Hua Guo, Christopher S Marnell, Benedict Law, Mark M Souweidane, Richard Ting
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is becoming an increasingly popular approach to treat cancer, as HDAC overexpression is common in many malignancies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents systemically delivered drugs from reaching brain at effective concentration, making small-molecule-HDAC inhibition in brain tumors particularly challenging. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes for administering therapeutics are being considered in the clinic, and a need exists for drugs whose deliveries can be directly imaged, so that effective delivery across the BBB can be monitored...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jothilingam Sivapackiam, Richard Laforest, Vijay Sharma
INTRODUCTION: 68 Ga-Galmydar is an avid transport substrate of ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein; 170kDa plasma membrane protein), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2; 72kDa), penetrates human epidermal carcinoma (KB3-1), breast cancer (MCF7), embryonic kidney (HEK 293) tumor cells and rat cardiomyoblasts, and localizes within the mitochondria of tumor and myocardium cells. 68 Ga-Galmydar excretes from blood pool quickly, and shows stable retention within rat myocardium in vivo for extended periods, therefore, the agent shows potential to enable myocardial perfusion imaging...
December 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Robin E Bonomi, Maxwell Laws, Vadim Popov, Swatabdi Kamal, Shreya Potukutchi, Aleksandr Shavrin, Xin Lu, Nashaat Turkman, Ren-Shyan Liu, Thomas Mangner, Juri G Gelovani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a SIRT2-specific substrate-type radiotracer for non-invasive PET imaging of epigenetic regulatory processes mediated by SIRT2 in normal and disease tissues. PROCEDURES: A library of compounds containing tert-butyloxycarbonyl-lysine-aminomethylcoumarin backbone was derivatized with fluoroalkyl chains 3-16 carbons in length. SIRT2 most efficiently cleaved the myristoyl, followed by 12-fluorododecanoic and 10-fluorodecanoic groups (Kcat/Km 716...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Marta Lai, Irene Vassallo, Bernard Lanz, Carole Poitry-Yamate, Marie-France Hamou, Cristina Cudalbu, Rolf Gruetter, Monika E Hegi
Glioblastoma are notorious for their highly invasive growth, diffusely infiltrating adjacent brain structures that precludes complete resection, and is a major obstacle for cure. To characterize this "invisible" tumor part, we designed a high resolution multimodal imaging approach assessing in vivo the metabolism of invasively growing glioma xenografts in the mouse brain. Animals were subjected longitudinally to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1 H spectroscopy (MRS) at ultra high field (14.1 Tesla) that allowed the measurement of 16 metabolic biomarkers to characterize the metabolic profiles...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ruth Brown, Phei Shan Chuah, Emmanouil Panagiotidis, Sobhan Vinjamuri
A 54-year-old female treated for locally advanced ductal breast carcinoma was also diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. A staging 68Ga DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated somatostatin receptor-positive foci within the brain parenchyma. A whole body 18F-fluoride PET/CT also demonstrated several foci of low-grade tracer uptake in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed several cerebral and cerebellar metastases. This case highlights the need to be aware of each tumor's metastatic profile and the careful attention required for thoroughly evaluating imaging in the presence of multiple pathologies...
January 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Masamichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Tanishima, Taichi Tatsubayashi, Shinji Iwakura, Toshiji Tominaga, Tetsuya Horiuchi
We report a rare long-surviving case of solitary brain metastasis from colon cancer. The patient was a 64-year-old female. She had undergone laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ascending colon cancer in October 2012(pStage III b). She was discharged from the hospitalin a satisfactory state, but 26 days after the operation, she was transported to the emergency department for systemic tonic-clonic convulsions. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed solitary metastatic tumor in the brain, but there were no metastatic lesions in other organs...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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