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Coronary microcirculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761309/is-there-a-role-for-cardiac-positron-emission-tomography-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#1
Paco E Bravo
Coronary microvascular dysfunction and, its functional consequence, myocardial ischemia are common pathologic features in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Both have been commonly invoked as potential triggers of and/or contributors to the underlying pathophysiological processes leading to heart failure, and malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Positron emission tomography (PET) with myocardial blood flow quantification provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the integrity and function of the coronary microcirculation in HCM...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754402/impact-of-mean-arterial-pressure-on-sublingual-microcirculation-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-secondary-outcome-from-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#2
Frederik Holmgaard, Anne G Vedel, Hanne Berg Ravn, Jens C Nilsson, Lars S Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: In this substudy of a randomised, clinical trial, we explored the sublingual microcirculation during cardiac surgery at two different levels of blood pressure. We hypothesised that a higher mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass would cause higher Microvascular Flow Index. METHODS: Thirty-six cardiac surgery patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were included and randomised to either low (40-50 mmHg) or high (70-80 mmHg) mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass...
May 13, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743901/effect-of-nicorandil-administration-on-myocardial-microcirculation-during-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Chunguang Feng, Bing Han, Yi Liu, Lulu Wang, Dongdong Niu, Ming Lou, Cunzhi Lu
Introduction: Prevention of the no-reflow phenomenon has a crucial role in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) procedures. Aim: To assess the effects of early intracoronary administration of nicorandil (NIC) during P-PCI on myocardial microcirculation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Material and methods: A total of 120 patients with first acute anterior wall ST segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent P-PCI were randomly divided into two groups: the NIC group (A, n = 60) and the placebo group (B, n = 60)...
2018: Postępy W Kardiologii Interwencyjnej, Advances in Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728013/coronary-and-peripheral-vasomotor-responses-to-mental-stress
#4
Muhammad Hammadah, Jeong Hwan Kim, Ibhar Al Mheid, Ayman Samman Tahhan, Kobina Wilmot, Ronnie Ramadan, Ayman Alkhoder, Mohamed Khayata, Girum Mekonnen, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Yasir Bouchi, Belal Kaseer, Fahad Choudhary, Mohamad M Gafeer, Frank E Corrigan, Amit J Shah, Laura Ward, Michael Kutner, J Douglas Bremner, David S Sheps, Paolo Raggi, Viola Vaccarino, Habib Samady, Kreton Mavromatis, Arshed A Quyyumi
BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular dysfunction may contribute to myocardial ischemia during mental stress (MS). However, the role of coronary epicardial and microvascular function in regulating coronary blood flow (CBF) responses during MS remains understudied. We hypothesized that coronary vasomotion during MS is dependent on the coronary microvascular endothelial function and will be reflected in the peripheral microvascular circulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 38 patients aged 59±8 years undergoing coronary angiography, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary epicardial and microvascular responses were measured using intracoronary acetylcholine and nitroprusside, respectively, and after MS induced by mental arithmetic testing...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714043/vasomotion-as-an-oscillatory-sign-of-functional-impairment-in-the-human-internal-thoracic-artery-a-study-based-on-risk-factors-and-vessel-reactivity
#5
Diogo A Fonseca, Pedro E Antunes, Manuel J Antunes, Maria Dulce Cotrim
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Vasomotion has been viewed as a rhythmic oscillation of the vascular tone that is physiologically important for optimal tissue perfusion. Also, it has been primarily studied in the microcirculation. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and the physiological significance remain unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Vasomotion is not specific of the microcirculation, as shown by our findings. In human arteries from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, an increased incidence was associated with endothelial dysfunction settings...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687698/microcirculatory-dysfunction-in-the-heart-and-the-brain
#6
Hernán Mejía-Rentería, Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Francesco Lauri, Miguel Yus, Javier Escaned
Coronary microcirculatory dysfunction is a major cause of myocardial ischemia that influences the outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. The mechanisms of coronary microcirculatory dysfunction are heterogeneous and may result from a spectrum of biological and cardiovascular risk factors that may affect also the microcirculation of other vital organs. Microcirculatory dysfunction of the brain, known as cerebral small vessel disease, is increasingly being recognized as a cause of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders...
April 20, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665152/endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-mediated-vasodilatation-compensates-nitric-oxide-mediated-endothelial-dysfunction-during-ischemia-in-diabetes-induced-canine-coronary-collateral-microcirculation-in-vivo
#7
Toyotaka Yada, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Hiroyuki Tachibana
OBJECTIVES: It has been previously demonstrated that endothelial caveolin-1 plays crucial roles to produce an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in mouse mesenteric arteries. We examined whether this mechanism is involved in the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing-mediated responses to compensate reduced NO-mediated responses in diabetes mellitus during coronary occlusion in dogs in vivo. METHODS: Canine subepicardial collateral coronary small arteries (≥100 μm) and arterioles (<100 μm) were observed by an intravital microscope...
April 17, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622520/coronary-microcirculation-in-acute-myocardial-ischaemia-from-non-invasive-to-invasive-absolute-flow-assessment
#8
REVIEW
Julien Adjedj, Fabien Picard, Guillaume Durand-Viel, Anne Sigal-Cinqualbre, Doumit Daou, Benoit Diebold, Olivier Varenne
Although substantial progress has been made in recent decades in reducing mortality and performing optimal revascularization in patients with myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease, including acute coronary syndrome, remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the remaining challenges is to better detect, prevent and treat extended myocardial damage despite angiographically optimal revascularization. Several indices are available in clinical practice to evaluate myocardial damage, infarct size and potential myocardial recovery...
April 2, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593802/oxygen-dependence-of-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-importance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Stefanie Keymel, Benedikt Schueller, Roberto Sansone, Rabea Wagstaff, Stephan Steiner, Malte Kelm, Christian Heiss
Introduction: Epidemiological studies have shown increased morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to characterize the oxygen dependence of endothelial function in patients with CAD and coexisting COPD. Material and methods: In CAD patients with and without COPD ( n = 33), we non-invasively measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the brachial artery (BA), forearm blood flow (FBF), and perfusion of the cutaneous microcirculation with laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI)...
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515047/exploring-deep-into-the-coronary-microcirculation-of-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#10
Masami Goto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509883/a-mystery-of-the-myocardial-microcirculation-during-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#11
Marcin Hellmann, Jakub Piotrowski, Lech Anisimowicz, Jean-Luc Cracowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498367/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-in-a-young-male-with-lung-cancer-and-neoplastic-embolization-of-the-coronary-microcirculation
#12
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Stanisław Łazowski, Magdalena Zawodna, Natalia Fertała, Maciej Bryl
The associations between stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) and cancer or its therapy have been studied with increasing interest in recent years. Different mechanisms of TC development in neoplastic disease are suggested, including a decreased threshold for stress stimuli or aggravated heart adrenoreceptors sensitivity. The action of cytokines and reactive oxygen species on the myocardium, on the epicardial arteries as well as on the coronary microcirculation is also taken into consideration. The authors describe a case of a 30-year-old male with lung cancer, after immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors followed by two lines of chemotherapy and after pericardial and pleural drainage...
February 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478047/arterial-stiffness-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
Gerard M London
Accelerated ageing is observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)/end-stage renal disease. Premature vascular aging and arterial stiffening are the most characteristic features of this "progeria" that is already observed in those with the early stages of CKD. Aortic stiffening is associated with high characteristic impedance, left ventricular hypertrophy, decreased coronary perfusion, and is a strong prognostic marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. With aging, the arterial stiffening is more pronounced in the aorta and central arteries than in peripheral conduit arteries...
2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429637/coronary-microembolization-and-microvascular-dysfunction
#14
Gerd Heusch, Andreas Skyschally, Petra Kleinbongard
Plaque erosion, fissuring or rupture occurs spontaneously or during coronary interventions. At some residual blood flow, the atherothrombotic debris is washed into the coronary microcirculation, causing physical obstruction, vasoconstriction, inflammation and ultimately microinfarction. Coronary microembolization also contributes to microvascular obstruction in reperfused acute myocardial infarction. Patients with microvascular obstruction after reperfused myocardial infarction have worse prognosis. Cardioprotective strategies to avoid acute coronary microembolization and rescue myocardium from microvascular obstruction have not yet been established in clinical practice...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423944/impact-of-mon2-monocyte-platelet-aggregates-on-human-coronary-artery-disease
#15
Richard A Brown, Gregory Y H Lip, Chetan Varma, Eduard Shantsila
BACKGROUND: Monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) form when Mon1, Mon2 or Mon3 monocyte subsets adhere to platelets. They are pathophysiologically linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their individual roles in the occurrence of diffuse CAD remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood from 50 patients with diffuse CAD, 40 patients with focal CAD and 50 age-matched patients with normal coronary arteries was analysed by flow cytometry to quantify MPAs associated with individual monocyte subsets...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419573/important-role-of-endothelial-caveolin-1-in-the-protective-role-of-endothelium-dependent-hyperpolarization-against-nitric-oxide-mediated-nitrative-stress-in-microcirculation-in-mice
#16
Hiroki Saito, Shigeo Godo, Saori Sato, Akiyo Ito, Yosuke Ikumi, Shuhei Tanaka, Tomoaki Ida, Shigemoto Fujii, Takaaki Akaike, Hiroaki Shimokawa
AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) play important roles in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. We have previously demonstrated that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays diverse roles depending on vessel size, as a NO generating system in conduit arteries and an EDH-mediated system in resistance arteries, for which caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is involved. However, the physiological role of endothelial Cav-1 in microvessels remains to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We newly generated endothelium-specific Cav-1-knockout (eCav-1-KO) mice...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398384/ultra-short-acting-%C3%AE-blockers-esmolol-and-landiolol-in-the-perioperative-period-and-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
REVIEW
Ricardo Poveda-Jaramillo, Fabrizio Monaco, Alberto Zangrillo, Giovanni Landoni
β-Blockers are useful drugs in several clinical cardiologic scenarios. Their use in the perioperative period and in critically ill patients is increasing, but their effect on clinically relevant outcomes remains controversial. Long-acting β-blockers can have detrimental effects that are difficult to be counteracted in these settings. The authors describe the possible clinical uses of ultra-short-acting β-blockers (esmolol and landiolol) in the perioperative period and in critically ill patients because these drugs have the beneficial effects of β-blockers, but do not have the detrimental effects of long-acting agents...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344840/design-and-rationale-for-comparison-between-ticagrelor-and-clopidogrel-on-microcirculation-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-pleio-trial
#18
Kyungil Park, Young-Rak Cho, Jong-Sung Park, Tae-Ho Park, Moo-Hyun Kim, Young-Dae Kim
It has been previously demonstrated that ticagrelor can reduce mortality compared to clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, the mechanism for this mortality reduction remains uncertain. The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of chronic ticagrelor treatment on microvascular circulation. A total of 120 participants aged 20-85 years with clinical diagnosis of ACS will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the following two groups: ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily; clopidogrel 75 mg once daily...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339697/the-value-of-real-time-myocardial-contrast-echocardiography-for-detecting-coronary-microcirculation-function-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#19
Lulu Sun, Zilong Wang, Tongda Xu, Defeng Pan, Li Liang, Ji Hao, Xiaoping Wang, Dongye Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RT-MCE) for detecting coronary microcirculation (CM) function in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS: Sixty-five consecutive patients were divided into CAD (n=52) and no-CAD (n=13) groups using coronary angiography (CAG). All patients underwent RT-MCE at rest and CAG within 1 week after RT-MCE. The ventricular segments in CAD patients were divided semi-quantitatively into ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial groups based on RT-MCE images...
January 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327562/development-of-a-porcine-beating-heart-model-of-self-myocardial-retroperfusion-evaluation-of-hemodynamic-and-cardiac-responses-to-ischemia-and-clinical-applications
#20
Daniel Grandmougin, Jean-Mathieu Casse, Antoine Chalon, Yun Luo, Aude Falanga, Vanessa Marie, Fréderique Groubatch-Joineau, Brice Mourer, Marie Grandmougin, David Grandmougin, Guillaume Gauchotte, Juan-Pablo Maureira, Nguyen Tran
BACKGROUND: Retrograde perfusion into the coronary sinus is used to deliver cardioplegia. We developed an in-vivo porcine beating-heart model of self-myocardial retroperfusion (SMR) using the venous route to supply myocardial oxygenation and sought to assess hemodynamic and cardiac responses triggered by SMR before and after a prolonged occlusion of the LAD. METHODS: A bypass-line between the ascending aorta and the coronary sinus was made to perform a selective retrograde perfusion of the great cardiac vein with oxygenated blood (SMR)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
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