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Myocardial Oxygenation

Attila Kiss, Huaqing Shu, Ouafa Hamza, David Santer, Eva Verena Tretter, Shanglong Yao, Klaus Markstaller, Seth Hallström, Bruno K Podesser, Klaus Ulrich Klein
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies demonstrated that preconditioning with argon gas provided a marked reduction in inflammation and apoptosis and increased myocardial contractility in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). There is substantial evidence that myocardial IR injury following cardioplegic arrest is associated with the enhancement of apoptosis and inflammation, which is considered to play a role in cardiac functional impairment. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify whether preconditioning with argon gas enhances recovery of cardiac function following cardioplegic arrest...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Kexin Wang, Yang Xu, Qiong Sun, Jiangang Long, Jiankang Liu, Jian Ding
The multipurpose organelle mitochondria play an essential role(s) in controlling cardiac muscle contraction. Mitochondria, not only function as the powerhouses and the energy source of myocytes, but also modulate intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, the production of intermediary metabolites/reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other cellular processes. Those molecular events can substantially influence myocardial contraction. Mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with cardiac remodeling, and is the causal factor of heart contraction defects in many cases...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Arnold Groehler, Stefan Kren, Qinglu Li, Maggie Robledo-Villafane, Joshua Schmidt, Mary Garry, Natalia Tretyakova
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening condition that can occur when blood flow to the heart is interrupted due to a blockage in one or more of the coronary vessels. Current treatments of MI rapidly restore blood flow to the affected myocardium using thrombolytic agents or angioplasty. Adverse effects including inflammation, tissue necrosis, and ventricular dysfunction are, however, not uncommon following reperfusion therapy. These conditions are thought to be caused by a sudden influx of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the affected myocardium...
March 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ying-Chun Shih, Chao-Ling Chen, Yan Zhang, Rebecca L Mellor, Evelyn M Kanter, Yun Fang, Hua-Chi Wang, Chen-Ting Hung, Jing-Yi Nong, Hui-Ju Chen, Tzu-Han Lee, Yi-Shuan Tseng, Chiung-Nien Chen, Chau-Chung Wu, Shuei-Liong Lin, Kathryn A Yamada, Jeanne M Nerbonne, Kai-Chien Yang
<u>Rationale:</u> Cardiac fibrosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting from cardiac fibrosis impairs cardiac contractile function and increases arrhythmogenicity. Current treatment options for cardiac fibrosis, however, are limited and there is a clear need to identify novel mediators of cardiac fibrosis to facilitate the development of better therapeutics. Exploiting co-expression gene network analysis on RNA sequencing data from failing human heart, we identified thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5), a cardiac fibroblast (CF)-enriched endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein, as a potential novel mediator of cardiac fibrosis and we completed experiments to test this hypothesis directly...
March 13, 2018: Circulation Research
José V Subiela, Sonia H Torres, Juan B De Sanctis, Noelina Hernández
There is evidence that myocardial infarction (MI) patients have an inflammatory process that includes skeletal muscles, and exercise has been reported to reduce some inflammatory markers. The aim of this work was to study NO and some inflammatory markers in quadriceps muscle of MI patients before and after cardiac rehabilitation. Muscle biopsy was obtained in17 MI patients before and after CR and only once in 11 healthy subjects. Several cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters were evaluated and skeletal muscle levels of nitric oxide synthases, nitrate, nitrite, nitrotyrosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and CD154...
March 10, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
James B Leonard, Kashif M Munir, Hong K Kim
Metoclopramide (MCP) is a commonly used anti-emetic in the emergency department (ED). Its use is generally well tolerated; although infrequent adverse reactions such as extrapyramidal reactions or tardive dyskinesia are reported. However, many ED providers are not familiar with the potentially life-threatening hypertensive emergency that can be precipitated by MCP administration in patients with pheochromocytoma. A previously healthy 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with headache and nausea. She developed acute hypertensive emergency (acute agitation, worsening headache, chest pain and wide complex tachycardia) when her blood pressure (BP) increased to 223/102mmHg (initial BP, 134/86mmHg) after receiving intravenous MCP...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chunyan Wang, Haobo Li, Sheng Wang, Xiaowen Mao, Dan Yan, Stanley S Wong, Zhengyuan Xia, Michael G Irwin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Protein kinase C(PKC)-ε activation is a mechanism of preconditioning cardioprotection but its role in repeated non-invasive limb ischemic preconditioning (rNLIP) mediated cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetes is unknown. METHODS: Eight-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to I/R without or with rNLIP. In vitro, H9C2 cells were cultured with high glucose (HG) and subjected to hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) without or with PKC-ε or STAT3 gene knock-down in the absence or presence of remote time hypoxia preconditioning (HPC)...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Qixiang Zhao, Zhiwei Liu, Bing Huang, Yanliang Yuan, Xiucheng Liu, Hu Zhang, Fan Qiu, Yiqian Zhang, Yufeng Li, Haoran Miao, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
The prevention and management of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is an essential part of coronary heart disease surgery and is becoming a major clinical problem in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that pigment epithelium‑derived factor (PEDF) improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction and reduces hypoxia‑induced cell injury. However, the protective function and mechanisms underlying the effect of PEDF in MI/R injury remain to be fully understood...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Nehat Baftiu, Islam Krasniqi, Kastriot Haxhirexha, Rudin Domi
BACKGROUND: Tracheal extubations may be performed before or after awakening from anaesthesia. The advantage of extubation during anaesthesia may avoid all the unpleasant effects of fully awake extubation such as severe hypertension and tachycardia, malignant dysrhythmias, myocardial ischemia laryngospasm, and cough induced high intraocular and intracranial pressure. AIM: To show the current practice of performing extubations in Kosovo, as well as the advantage and disadvantage in performing this procedure in an awake patient or inpatient in light anaesthesia...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Tokiko Suzuki, Mari Sakai, Shigeyuki Yamashita, Kengo Tomita, Yuichi Hattori
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients, and its incidence continues to rise. Sepsis was defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with an identifiable focus of infection, but therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating the inflammatory response have only modest clinical benefit. The development of a failure of one or more organs poses a major threat to the survival of patients with sepsis, and mortality in sepsis is most often attributed to multiple organ dysfunction. Accordingly, sepsis has been recently redefined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Xu Chen, Xuan Li, Wenyan Zhang, Jie He, Bo Xu, Bin Lei, Zhenhua Wang, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Ji Li
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-κB signaling pathway...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Kristina K Durham, Kevin M Chathely, Bernardo L Trigatti
The cardioprotective lipoprotein HDL prevents myocardial infarction , and cardiomyocyte death due to ischemia/reperfusion injury .  The scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1) is a high affinity HDL receptor and has been shown to mediate HDL dependent lipid transport as well as signaling in a variety of different cell types.  The contribution of SR-B1 in cardiomyocytes to the protective effects of HDL on cardiomyocyte survival following ischemia has not yet been studied.  Here we use a model of simulated ischemia (oxygen and glucose deprivation; OGD), to assess the mechanistic involvement of SR-B1, PI3K, and AKT in HDL mediated protection of cardiomyocytes from cell death...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
John Henry McDermott, Charles Reynard, Jonathan Perry, James W Dear, Fran Child, Rachel Jenner
BACKGROUND: Recent public health strategies have contributed towards a significant reduction in the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings. When events do occur, symptoms can vary dramatically depending on the carboxyhaemoglobin level and individual factors. Most reports to date focus on individual cases or larger retrospective reviews of diverse cohorts. There are very few reports of CO exposure related to scuba diving activities. METHODS: We describe the clinical sequelae experienced by 10 children who were exposed to CO during a scuba diving lesson...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Bin Yang, Ping Yan, Guang-Zhao Yang, Hui-Li Cao, Fei Wang, Bao Li
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces cardiac cell injury; however, the mechanism underlying cardiac damage remains unclear. A previous study demonstrated that triptolide (TP) exerts protective effects against I/R in cerebral cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of TP on cardiac cells, and investigated the potential mechanisms involved in I/R‑induced damage. Rats and cardiac H9C2 cells undergoing I/R were pretreated with TP, and cell damage was assessed in vivo and in vitro...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Eun-Hye Seo, Ga-Yun Song, Ji Hyeon Namgung, Chung-Sik Oh, Seung Hyun Lee, Seong-Hyop Kim
Background : The study examined the difference in the expression of the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) between anaesthesia with propofol and isoflurane in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine 20 µg/g by intraperitoneal injection and maintained with propofol or isoflurane. Myocardial IRI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), cardiomyocyte apoptosis, the expression of RACK1 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the heart injury score were compared between the two groups...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
D Wang, T-Y Chen, F-J Liu
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of myocardial infarction. Che-1 has been reported as an anti-apoptotic gene in response to various cellular stresses. However, whether Che-1 regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis in myocardial infarction remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Che-1 in regulating H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of mRNA and protein was detected by Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Thomas Moller, Harald Lindberg, May Brit Lund, Henrik Holmstrom, Gaute Dohlen, Erik Thaulow
We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography...
March 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Sebastian Voicu, Georgios Sideris, Jean-Guillaume Dillinger, Demetris Yannopoulos, Nicolas Deye, Chantal Kang, Michel Bonneau, Jason Bartos, Antoni Kedra, Sophie Bailliart, Adrien Pasteur-Rousseau, Guy Amah, Philippe Bonnin, Jacques Callebert, Patrick Henry, Bruno Megarbane
Circulatory failure following cardiac arrest (CA) requires catecholamine support and occasionally veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vaECMO). VaECMO-generated blood flow is continuous and retrograde, increasing ventricular stroke work. Our aim was to assess the benefit of a device generating a pulsatile vaECMO flow synchronized with the heart rhythm lowering systolic vaECMO output on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) after CA. This experimental randomized study in pigs compared standard nonpulsatile vaECMO (control) with pulsatile synchronized vaECMO (study) group using a pulsatility-generating device...
March 6, 2018: Artificial Organs
Tae Soo Kang, Byung Soo Ko, Stavros G Drakos, Josef Stehlik, Steven I Bott, Antigone Koliopoulou, Joseph E Tonna, Megan E Bowen, Kathleen Stoddard, Craig H Selzman, Stephen H McKellar
BACKGROUND: Acute mechanical circulatory support (aMCS) can be a lifesaving therapy for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. As device safety and technology improve, so will the ability to extend aMCS to patients at remote hospitals. The Intermountain West is unique because of the large geographical area, making transport of critically ill patients a logistical challenge. METHODS: We reviewed our experience of transporting patients in cardiogenic shock over long distances who had already been placed on aMCS: Impella and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator devices...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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