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Myocardial Oxygenation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547175/influence-of-body-mass-index-and-type-of-low-level-exercise-on-the-side-effect-profile-of-regadenoson
#1
Carlos Salgado-Garcia, Amelia Jimenez-Heffernan, Juana Lopez-Martin, Manuela Molina-Mora, Tarik Aroui, Elena Sanchez de Mora, Carlos Ramos-Font, Francisco Rivera de Los Santos, Carlos Ruiz-Frutos
PURPOSE: Regadenoson, an A2A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542130/activation-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-involves-in-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-in-cardiomyocytes
#2
Qiong-Feng Wu, Cheng Qian, Ning Zhao, Qian Dong, Jing Li, Bin-Bin Wang, Lei Chen, Lixiu Yu, Bing Han, Yi-Mei Du, Yu-Hua Liao
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is highly expressed in heart and vessels and can be activated during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Recently, we found that treatment with a selective TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 significantly reduced infarct size, decreased troponin T levels and improved cardiac function in murine model myocardial I/R. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism underlying TRPV4-mediated myocardial I/R injury. To mimic myocardial I/R injury, we established a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model in H9C2 cells and neonatal rat ventricle myocytes (NRVMs) in vitro...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534086/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-modulation-of-intracellular-ca-2-handling-overrides-fatty-acid-potentiation-of-cardiac-inotropy-in-hypertensive-rats
#3
Chun Li Jin, Ming Zhe Yin, Jin Chul Paeng, Seunggyun Ha, Jeong Hoon Lee, Peng Jin, Chun Zi Jin, Zai Hao Zhao, Yue Wang, Keon Wook Kang, Chae Hun Leem, Jong-Wan Park, Sung Joon Kim, Yin Hua Zhang
Cardiac neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important molecule that regulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contractility of healthy and diseased hearts. Here, we examined the effects of nNOS on fatty acid (FA) regulation of left ventricular (LV) myocyte contraction in sham and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive (HTN) rats. Our results showed that palmitic acid (PA, 100 μM) increased the amplitudes of sarcomere shortening and intracellular ATP in sham but not in HTN despite oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was increased by PA in both groups...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532425/combined-pulmonary-and-left-ventricular-support-with-veno-pulmonary-ecmo-and-impella-5-0-for-cardiogenic-shock-after-coronary-surgery
#4
Sameh Sayed, Christoph Schimmer, Ina Shade, Rainer Leyh, Ivan Aleksic
BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support is a common practice nowadays in the management of patients after cardiogenic shock due to myocardial infarction. The single or combined use of one or more devices for mechanical support depends not only on the advantage or disadvantage of these devices but also on the timing of use of these devices before the development of multi organ failure. In our case we used more than one tool for mechanical circulatory support during the prolonged and complicated course of our patient with postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock after coronary artery bypass surgery...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526181/empa-reg-outcome-the-cardiologist-s-point-of%C3%A2-view
#5
Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
Cardiologists could view empagliflozin as a cardiovascular drug that also has a beneficial effect on reducing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of empagliflozin in lowering the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in T2DM patients with high cardiovascular risk during the recent Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial may be explained principally in terms of changes to cardiovascular physiology; namely, by the potential ability of empagliflozin to reduce cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen consumption by lowering blood pressure, improving aortic compliance, and improving ventricular arterial coupling...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526033/effects-of-exenatide-on-cardiac-function-perfusion-and-energetics-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-cardiomyopathy-a-randomized-controlled-trial-against-insulin-glargine
#6
Weena J Y Chen, Michaela Diamant, Karin de Boer, Hendrik J Harms, Lourens F H J Robbers, Albert C van Rossum, Mark H H Kramer, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Paul Knaapen
BACKGROUND: Multiple bloodglucose-lowering agents have been linked to cardiovascular events. Preliminary studies showed improvement in left ventricular (LV) function during glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist administration. Underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and oxidative metabolism in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with LV systolic dysfunction as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, effects of 26-weeks of exenatide versus insulin glargine administration on cardiac function, perfusion and oxidative metabolism in T2DM patients with LV dysfunction were explored...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523609/cardiorespiratory-responses-and-myocardial-function-within-incremental-exercise-in-healthy-unmedicated-older-vs-young-men-and-women
#7
Paulo Farinatti, Walace Monteiro, Ricardo Oliveira, Antonio Crisafulli
BACKGROUND: Age-related differences concerning cardiorespiratory responses and myocardial function during exercise have not been extensively investigated in healthy populations. AIMS: To compare cardiorespiratory performance and myocardial function during maximal exercise in healthy/unmedicated men (older, n = 24, 63-75 years; young, n = 22, 19-25 years) and women (older, n = 18, age = 63-74 years; young, n = 23, 19-25 years). METHODS: Oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation minute (V E), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), O2 pulse (O2p), preejection period (PEP), and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were assessed during cycle incremental exercise...
May 18, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509889/the-role-of-nitrates-in-the-management-of-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-and-guidelines
#8
Mehul A Pragani, Karan P Desai, Doralisa Morrone, Mandeep S Sidhu, William E Boden
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and can result in significant morbidity. In particular, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that affects nearly 9 million individuals in the United States alone, with substantial annual health care costs related to recurrent medical visits and chronic disease management. Nitrates form a cornerstone of SIHD management by reducing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing exercise capacity by several mechanisms, including increasing epicardial blood flow through vasodilation and decreased vascular resistance, blunting coronary steal, and reducing preload...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508960/impairment-of-ph-gradient-and-membrane-potential-mediates-redox-dysfunction-in-the-mitochondria-of-the-post-ischemic-heart
#9
Patrick T Kang, Chwen-Lih Chen, Paul Lin, William M Chilian, Yeong-Renn Chen
The mitochondrial electrochemical gradient (Δp), which comprises the pH gradient (ΔpH) and the membrane potential (ΔΨ), is crucial in controlling energy transduction. During myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR), mitochondrial dysfunction mediates superoxide ((·)O2(-)) and H2O2 overproduction leading to oxidative injury. However, the role of ΔpH and ΔΨ in post-ischemic injury is not fully established. Here we studied mitochondria from the risk region of rat hearts subjected to 30 min of coronary ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508270/the-impact-of-combined-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-spect-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-on-downstream-evaluation-and-management
#10
Georgios Christopoulos, John Bois, Thomas G Allison, Martin Rodriguez-Porcel, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee
OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic yield of combined cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients referred for stress testing has received limited study. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive patients who underwent combined CPET-MPI at a single tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2015. An abnormal CPET was defined as any of the following: reduced oxygen consumption, cardiac output impairment, or pulmonary impairment. Normal MPI was defined as the absence of resting or stress perfusion defect...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506542/coronary-sinus-isoflurane-concentration-in-cardiac-surgery
#11
Ka Ting Ng, R Peter Alston, George Just, Chris McKenzie
OBJECTIVE: Volatile anesthetic agents such as isoflurane may be associated with fewer adverse myocardial events compared with total intravenous anesthesia in cardiac surgery. The authors aimed to determine whether reasonable isoflurane concentrations at tissue level were being achieved to protect the myocardium using this agent. The isoflurane concentration in myocardium has never been measured. The primary aim was to sample coronary sinus (CS) blood and measure its isoflurane concentration...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503736/hydrogen-sulfide-pretreatment-improves-mitochondrial-function-in-myocardial-hypertrophy-via-a-sirt3-dependent-manner
#12
Guoliang Meng, Jieqiong Liu, Shangmin Liu, Qiuyi Song, Lulu Liu, Liping Xie, Yi Han, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous signal molecule with anti-oxidative ability. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is closely associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. The study was to investigate whether and how H2 S improved myocardial hypertrophy via a SIRT3-dependent manner. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with NaHS (50 μM) for 4 h followed by angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nM) for 24 h. SIRT3 was silenced with siRNA technology. SIRT 3 promoter activity and expression, cell surface, hypertrophic gene mRNA expression, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and membrane potential were measured...
May 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501910/targeting-the-dominant-mechanism-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-with-intracoronary-physiology-tests
#13
REVIEW
Hernán Mejía-Rentería, Nina van der Hoeven, Tim P van de Hoef, Julius Heemelaar, Nicola Ryan, Amir Lerman, Niels van Royen, Javier Escaned
The coronary microcirculation plays a key role in modulating blood supply to the myocardium. Several factors like myocardial oxygen demands, endothelial and neurogenic conditions determine its function. Although there is available evidence supporting microvascular dysfunction as an important cause of myocardial ischaemia, with both prognostic and symptomatic implications, its diagnosis and management in clinical practice is still relegated to a second plane. Both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are hampered by the broadness of the concept of microvascular dysfunction, which fails addressing the plurality of mechanisms leading to dysfunction...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499942/metformin-ameliorates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-based-on-the-sirt3-signaling-pathway
#14
Yanyan Du, Jingjing Zhang, Fang Fang, Xiqing Wei, Hongsheng Zhang, Hongyong Tan, Jinguo Zhang
Myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. However, a limited number of therapies are available to minimize the detrimental effects of this injury. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that metformin exerts direct cardioprotective effects against H/R. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of how metformin affects myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. In our study, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured...
May 9, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498411/mitochondrial-activity-and-oxidative-stress-functions-are-influenced-by-the-activation-of-ahr-induced-cyp1a1-overexpression-in-cardiomyocytes
#15
Bing Zhou, Xi Wang, Feng Li, Yingting Wang, Lei Yang, Xiaolong Zhen, Wuhong Tan
There is an endemic cardiomyopathy currently occurring in China, termed, Keshan disease (KD). The authors previously compared mitochondrial‑associated gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from KD patients and normal controls, using mitochondria‑focused cDNA microarray technology. The results detected an upregulation of the enzyme‑associated CYP1A1 gene, (ratios ≥2.0). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates the expression of numerous cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes including members of the CYP1 family; CYP1A1 and CYP1A2...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497496/percutaneous-left-atrial-decompression-in-adults-with-refractory-cardiogenic-shock-supported-with-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#16
Mosaad Alhussein, Mark Osten, Eric Horlick, Heather Ross, Eddy Fan, Vivek Rao, Filio Billia
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Left ventricular (LV) distention, a recognized complication in patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for refractory cardiogenic shock, can lead to pulmonary edema, increased myocardial oxygen consumption, and LV thrombus formation. Atrial septostomy was examined as a management strategy for LV distension. METHODS: Of 72 patients supported with VA-ECMO, seven patients underwent atrial septostomy through a trans-septal approach...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497164/metformin-prevents-ischaemic-ventricular-fibrillation-in-metabolically-normal-pigs
#17
Li Lu, Shuyu Ye, Rebecca L Scalzo, Jane E B Reusch, Clifford R Greyson, Gregory G Schwartz
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is the drug most often used to treat type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that metformin may reduce mortality of individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of such an effect is unknown and outcomes of metformin treatment in people without diabetes have not been determined. If metformin favourably affected mortality of non-diabetic individuals, it might have even broader therapeutic utility. We evaluated the effect of metformin on myocardial energetics and ischaemic ventricular fibrillation (VF) in metabolically normal pigs...
May 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496031/atrial-septostomy-for-left-atrial-decompression-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-by-inoue-balloon-catheter
#18
Yen-Nien Lin, Yin-Huei Chen, Huang-Joe Wang, Jui-Sung Hung, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Ping-Han Lo
BACKGROUND: Refractory pulmonary edema is an infrequent but serious complication in patients receiving venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for myocardial failure. Left atrial (LA) decompression in this setting is important. Although a few methods have been reported, the experience is mostly limited to children. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of Inoue balloon catheter in percutaneous trans-septal LA decompression in adult cardiogenic patients.Methods and Results:We retrospectively analyzed 16 procedures of trans-septal LA decompression by Inoue balloon catheter in 15 VA-ECMO patients (aged 22-65 years, 6 men) with refractory pulmonary edema from May 2012 to December 2014...
May 11, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495447/characterization-of-gene-expression-associated-with-the-adaptation-of-the-nematode-c-elegans-to-hypoxia-and-reoxygenation-stress-reveals-an-unexpected-function-of-the-neuroglobin-glb-5-in-innate-immunity
#19
Binyamin Zuckerman, Zohar Abergel, Veronica Zelmanovich, Leonor Romero, Rachel Abergel, Leonid Livshits, Yoav Smith, Einav Gross
Oxygen (O2) is a double-edged sword to cells, for while it is vital for energy production in all aerobic animals and insufficient O2 (hypoxia) can lead to cell death, the reoxygenation of hypoxic tissues may trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can destroy any biological molecule. Indeed, both hypoxia and hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) stress are harmful, and may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases, such as myocardial ischemia and stroke. Therefore, understanding how animals adapt to hypoxia and H/R stress is critical for developing better treatments for these diseases...
May 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487363/modeling-oxygen-requirements-in-ischemic-cardiomyocytes
#20
Anthony D McDougal, C Forbes Dewey
Heart disease remains the leading cause of death globally. Although reperfusion following myocardial ischemia can prevent death by restoring nutrient flow, ischemia/reperfusion injury can cause significant heart damage. The mechanisms that drive ischemia/reperfusion injury are not well understood; currently, few methods can predict the state of the cardiac muscle cell and its metabolic conditions during ischemia. Here, we explored the energetic sustainability of cardiomyocytes, using a model for cellular metabolism to predict the levels of ATP following hypoxia...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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