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sh sy5y cells

Seungwoo Kim, Hyosoon Cheon, Sam-Moon Kim, Young-Youl Kim
Background: Previous studies indicated that cadmium (Cd) increases PI3-kinase/Akt phosphorylation, resulting in an alteration in GSK-3β activity. However, the mechanism of Cd-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in neuronal cells has yet to be studied in needs further elucidation. We examined the role of GSK-3β in Cd-induced neuronal cell death and the related downstream signaling pathways. Methods: SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with 10 or 20 μM BAPTA-AM and 1 μM wortmannin for 30 min and then incubated with 25 μM Cd for 12 h...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Liang Ouyang, Lan Zhang, Shouyue Zhang, Dahong Yao, Yuqian Zhao, Guan Wang, Leilei Fu, Peng Lei, Bo Liu
UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), the yeast Atg1 ortholog, is the sole serine-threonine kinase and initiating enzyme in autophagy, which may be regarded as a target in Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, we discovered a small molecule 33i (BL-918) as a potent activator of ULK1 by structure-based drug design. Subsequently, some key amino acid residues (Arg18, Lys50, Asn86 and Tyr89) were found to be crucial to the binding pocket between ULK1 and 33i by site-directed mutagenesis. Moreover, we found that 33i induced autophagy via the ULK complex in SH-SY5Y cells...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Eva Ramos, Alejandro Romero, Javier Egea, José Marco-Contelles, Javier Del Pino, Cristóbal de Los Ríos
AIM: The 1,8-naphthyridine CR80 (ethyl 5-amino-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[b] [1,8]naphthyridine-3-carboxylate) has shown interesting neuroprotective properties in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. In spite of these promising outcomes, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying CR80 actions need to be further explored. MATERIALS & METHODS: We herein report the signal transduction pathways involved in developmental, neuroprotective and stress-activated processes, as well as the gene expression regulation by CR80 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
March 21, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Yan Xu, Ya-Wen Gao, Yu Yang
Oxidative stress could lead to dopaminergic neuronal cell death. SC79 is a novel, selective and highly-efficient Akt activator. The current study tested its effect in dopaminergic neurons with oxidative stress. In both SH-SY5Y cells and primary murine dopaminergic neurons, pre-treatment with SC79 largely inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced cell viability reduction, apoptosis and necrosis. SC79 activated Akt in the neuronal cells, which was required for its neuroprotection against H2 O2 . Inhibition of Akt activation (by MK-2206 or AT7867) or expression (by targeted short hairpin RNA) largely attenuated SC79-induced neuroprotection...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Ganesh B Shelke, Yu-Hsuan Lih, Ying-Ju Liao, Chih-Wu Liang, Tzer-Min Kuo, Ying-Chin Ko, Shun-Yuan Luo
In the search of a potent candidate for neurotherapy, we de-signed and synthesized various analogs of ganglioside Hp-s1. The modification includes the change in hydrophobicity by varying the carbon chain length, altering the number of hydro-gen bonds, and replacing the anomeric atom. The chemical synthesis was carried out by using various methods and dis-cussed in details. The neuritogenic activities of these analogs are confirmed in a human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. A higher activity of ganglioside Hp-s1 analogue on IL-17A tran-script up-regulation than ganglioside Hp-s1 was found...
March 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Gustavo Nieto-Alamilla, Juan Escamilla-Sánchez, María-Cristina López-Méndez, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Agustín Guerrero-Hernández, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
In stably-transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we have compared the effect of activating two isoforms of 445 and 365 amino acids of the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3 R445 and hH3 R365 ) on [35 S]-GTPγS binding, forskolin-induced cAMP formation, depolarization-induced increase in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions ([Ca2+ ]i) and depolarization-evoked [3  H]-dopamine release. Maximal specific binding (Bmax ) of [3  H]-N-methyl-histamine to cell membranes was 953 ± 204 and 555 ± 140 fmol/mg protein for SH-SY5Y-hH3 R445 and SH-SY5Y-hH3 R365 cells, respectively, with similar dissociation constants (Kd , 0...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
Xiangchun Zhang, Qing Yuan, Xueyun Gao
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed in most tumors and is believed to play a key role in the development, invasion and metastasis of tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a simple method to detect the MT1-MMP expression level on cells. In this current study, we demonstrated a red emission Au cluster probes with the specific targeting of MT1-MMP on human dopaminergic neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. More importantly, utilizing the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of the Au cluster probes, the expression level of MT1-MMP on the SH-SY5Y cells could be assessed by the naked eye without cell lysis and protein extraction process...
March 14, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Furong Zhang, Jie Li, Shufang Na, Juan Wu, Zheqiong Yang, Xianfei Xie, Yu Wan, Ke Li, Jiang Yue
Brain CYP2D is responsible for the synthesis of endogenous neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. This study is to investigate the effects of cerebral CYP2D on mouse behavior and the mechanism whereby growth hormone regulates brain CYP2D. The inhibition of cerebellar CYP2D significantly affected the spatial learning and exploratory behavior of mice. CYP2D expression was lower in the brain in GHR-/- mice than that in WT mice; however, hepatic CYP2D levels were similar. Brain PPARα expression in male GHR-/- mice were markedly higher than those in WT mice, while brain PPARγ levels were decreased or unchanged in different regions...
March 16, 2018: Neuroscience
Yi Guan, Yiping Li, Gang Zhao, Yunqian Li
Impaired autophagic clearance of aggregated α-synuclein is considered as one of key mechanisms underlining Parkinson disease (PD). High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has recently been demonstrated to mediate persistent neuroinflammation and consequent progressive neurodegeneration by promoting multiple inflammatory and neurotoxic factors. In this study, we examined the influence of the overexpression of wild-type (WT) and mutant-type (MT, A53T and A30P) α-synuclein on the autophagy in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under starvation, and then investigated the regulation of endogenous HMGB1 on the α-synuclein degradation and on the starvation-induced autophagy in the α-synuclein-overexpressed SH-SY5Y cells...
March 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Matthijs J van Haren, Martin G Thomas, Davide Sartini, David J Barlow, David B Ramsden, Monica Emanuelli, Fábio Klamt, Nathaniel I Martin, Richard B Parsons
The N-methylation of 4-phenylpyridine produces the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). We investigated the kinetics of 4-phenylpyridine N-methylation by nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) and its effect upon 4-phenylpyridine toxicity in vitro. Human recombinant NNMT possessed 4-phenylpyridine N-methyltransferase activity, with a specific activity of 1.7 ± 0.03 nmol MPP+ produced/h/mg NNMT. Although the Km for 4-phenylpyridine was similar to that reported for nicotinamide, its kcat of 9...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Naho Hirayama, Toshihiko Aki, Takeshi Funakoshi, Kanako Noritake, Kana Unuma, Koichi Uemura
Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide that was once used worldwide, but is now prohibited in many nations due to its high toxicity to humans. However, there are still rare cases of the fetal intoxication of PQ, which was purchased prior to the prohibition in Japan. In this study, several cell death pathways, the mitochondrial stress response, and autophagy were examined in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to PQ. The results reveal the decrease of a mitochondrial stress sensitive-BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3) protein, the suppression of autophagic flux, and the lack of apoptosis as well as other regulated forms of necrosis, such as necroptosis and ferroptosis...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Roshan Kumar, Raniki Kumari, Sanjay Kumar, Deepak Kumar Jangir, Tushar Kanti Maiti
α-Synuclein, a major constituent of proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy body, has been shown to be released and taken up by cells, which may facilitate its progressive pathological spreading and neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. However, the pathophysiological effect and signalling cascade initiated by extracellular α-synuclein in cellular milieu are not well understood. Herein we have investigated the perturbations induced by low molecular weight α-synuclein and different types of α-synuclein oligomers in the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Bhupinder Kumar, Mohit Kumar, Ashish Ranjan Dwivedi, Vinod Kumar
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors are potential drug candidates for the treatment of various neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease. A total of 20 new propargyl-containing 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and screened for MAO inhibition using Amplex Red assays. All the synthesized compounds were found to be reversible and selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform at sub-micromolar concentrations. MVB3 was the most potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0...
March 13, 2018: ChemMedChem
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-containing compounds are widely used in all aspects of industrial and consumer products. Recent studies indicated that PFOS is ubiquitous in environments and is considered to be a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). This has raised concerns regarding its adverse effects on human health. The nervous system is regarded as a sensitive target of environmental contaminants, including PFOS. Previous findings showed that PFOS can induce neurobehavioral deficits. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PFOS neurotoxicity remains obscure...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Apichaya Niyomchan, Daranee Visitnonthachai, Sumitra Suntararuks, Pronrumpa Ngamsiri, Piyajit Watcharasit, Jutamaad Satayavivad
A strong correlation between chronic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological disorders leads to a growing concern about a potential risk of arsenic related neurodegeneration. Evidently, brain insulin signaling contributes to physiological effects, including energy homeostasis, and learning and memory. Arsenic has been shown to impair insulin signaling in adipocytes and myocytes, however, this impairment has not yet been explored in neurons. Here we showed that NaAsO2 caused significant reduction in basal levels of glucose, plasma membrane glucose transporter, GLUT 3 and Akt phosphorylation in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
N L O'Brien, A Fiorentino, D Curtis, C Rayner, C Petrosellini, M Al Eissa, N J Bass, A McQuillin, S I Sharp
Recent results imply that rare variants contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. Exome sequence data from the UK10K project was used to identify three rare, amino acid changing variants in the ITGB4 gene which segregated with schizophrenia in two families: rs750367954, rs147480547 and rs145976111. Association analysis was carried out in the exome-sequenced Swedish schizophrenia study and in UCL schizophrenia and bipolar cases and controls genotyped for these variants. A gene-wise weighted burden test was performed on a trio sample of schizophrenia cases and their parents...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Tong Liu, Jian Zhao, Cristian Ibarra, Maxime U Garcia, Per Uhlén, Monica Nistér
The Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) is a membrane antiporter that has been identified in the plasma membrane, the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In humans, three genes have been identified, encoding unique NCX proteins. Although extensively studied, the NCX's sub-cellular localization and mechanisms regulating the activity of different subtypes are still ambiguous. Here we investigated the subcellular localization of the NCX subtype 3 (NCX3) and its impact on the cell cycle...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
A J McFarland, A K Davey, C M McDermott, G D Grant, J Lewohl, S Anoopkumar-Dukie
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been associated with conflicting effects within the central nervous system (CNS), with underlying mechanisms remaining unclear. Although differences between individual statins' CNS effects have been reported clinically, few studies to date have compared multiple statins' neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to compare six statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin; 0-100 μM) using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration...
March 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Yonatan Perez, Shay Menascu, Idan Cohen, Rotem Kadir, Omer Basha, Zamir Shorer, Hila Romi, Gal Meiri, Tatiana Rabinski, Rivka Ofir, Esti Yeger-Lotem, Ohad S Birk
RSRC1, whose polymorphism is associated with altered brain function in schizophrenia, is a member of the serine and arginine rich-related protein family. Through homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing we show that RSRC1 mutation causes an autosomal recessive syndrome of intellectual disability, aberrant behaviour, hypotonia and mild facial dysmorphism with normal brain MRI. Further, we show that RSRC1 is ubiquitously expressed, and that the RSRC1 mutation triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the RSRC1 transcript in patients' fibroblasts...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Rui Guo, Le Zhou, Peng Zhao, Xiao-Bo Wang, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Shao-Jiang Song
Two new sesquineolignans, hawthornsesquinins K and L (1 and 2), were isolated from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. All isolated compounds were tested for their β-amyloid aggregation inhibitory activity and neuroprotective effects against H2 O2 -induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that compound 1 showed prominent inhibition of Aβ1-42 aggregation and significant neuroprotective effect on H2 O2 -induced cellular damage in SH-SY5Y cells...
March 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
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