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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634653/assessing-the-combined-toxicity-of-bmaa-and-its-isomers-2-4-dab-and-aeg-in-vitro-using-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#1
Brendan J Main, Kenneth J Rodgers
The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634568/sirtuin-2-protects-neural-cells-from-oxidative-stress-and-is-elevated-in-neurodegeneration
#2
Preeti Singh, Peter S Hanson, Christopher M Morris
Sirtuins are highly conserved lysine deacetylases involved in ageing, energy production, and lifespan extension. The mammalian SIRT2 has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) where studies suggest SIRT2 promotes neurodegeneration. We therefore evaluated the effects of SIRT2 manipulation in toxin treated SH-SY5Y cells and determined the expression and activity of SIRT2 in postmortem brain tissue from patients with PD. SH-SY5Y viability in response to oxidative stress induced by diquat or rotenone was measured following SIRT2 overexpression or inhibition of deacetylase activity, along with α-synuclein aggregation...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630416/hif-1-mediated-suppression-of-mitochondria-electron-transport-chain-function-confers-resistance-to-lidocaine-induced-cell-death
#3
Akihisa Okamoto, Chisato Sumi, Hiromasa Tanaka, Munenori Kusunoki, Teppei Iwai, Kenichiro Nishi, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Hiroshi Harada, Keizo Takenaga, Hidemasa Bono, Kiichi Hirota
The local anesthetic lidocaine induces cell death by altering reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial electron transport chain function. Because hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is involved in determining oxygen metabolism and mitochondria function, we investigated the involvement of HIF-1 activity in lidocaine-induced cell death. We investigated the role of HIF activation on lidocaine-induced caspase activation and cell death in renal cell-derived RCC4 cells lacking functional von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627368/photoactivation-of-erk-creb-vmat2-pathway-attenuates-mpp-induced-neuronal-injury-in-a-cellular-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Xiaotong Gu, Lei Liu, Qi Shen, Da Xing
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) pumps dopamine from cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles for subsequent release, and the deficits of VMAT2 has been implicated in the dopaminergic neuronal cell loss which is considered as a typical pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI), a potent noninvasive physiotherapy approach, is capable of penetrating into nerve tissue to exert beneficial effects such as promoting nerve regeneration and ATP production. In the present study, we demonstrated that LPLI protects against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via upregulation of VMAT2 in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells...
June 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627344/-protective-effect-of-bag-1l-mediated-by-lentivirus-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-induced-by-hypoxia
#5
Yun Wang, Qingshu Li, Chao Jia, Chunyu Xie, Yankun Song, Nan Zhang, Yan Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of lentivirus mediated Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1L (BAG-1L) over-expression on human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) induced by hypoxia/re-oxygenation, and to study its effect on the phosphoinositide 3 kinase serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathway. METHODS: SH-SY5Y cells were cultured in vitro, and the cells at logarithmic phase were collected, and they were divided into recombined lentiviral infection group [infected by lentivirus containing BAG-1L and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene], vector control group (infected by lentivirus containing GFP without BAG-1L gene) and cell control group (non-infection)...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626163/lower-serum-levels-of-mir-29c-3p-and-mir-19b-3p-as-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Yuquan Wu, Juan Xu, Jing Xu, Jun Cheng, Demin Jiao, Chun Zhou, Yi Dai, Qingyong Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA that participate in posttranscriptional gene regulation. However, little is understood about the roles of miRNAs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used next-generation sequencing on RNA extracted from the serum samples of 20 AD patients and 20 controls, yielding a total of 72 miRNAs with significantly changed expression levels. Among these candidates, we selected 9 miRNAs with most significant alteration in disease, and validated their expression levels using RT-qPCR analysis on serum samples from 45 AD patients and 40 control subjects...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624490/bioenergetics-dysfunction-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-opening-and-lipid-peroxidation-induced-by-hydrogen-sulfide-as-relevant-pathomechanisms-underlying-the-neurological-dysfunction-characteristic-of-ethylmalonic-encephalopathy
#7
Gabriela Miranda Fernandez Cardoso, Julia Tauana Pletsch, Belisa Parmeggiani, Mateus Grings, Nícolas Manzke Glanzel, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide) accumulates at high levels in the brains of patients with ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE). In the present study, we evaluated whether sulfide could disturb energy and redox homeostasis, and induce mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in rat brain aiming to better clarify the neuropathophysiology of EE. Sulfide decreased the activities of citrate synthase and aconitase in rat cerebral cortex mitochondria, and of creatine kinase (CK) in rat cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus supernatants...
June 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622603/probing-supramolecular-protein-assembly-using-covalently-attached-fluorescent-molecular-rotors
#8
Markéta Kubánková, Ismael López-Duarte, James A Bull, Devkee M Vadukul, Louise C Serpell, Marie de Saint Victor, Eleanor Stride, Marina K Kuimova
Changes in microscopic viscosity and macromolecular crowding accompany the transition of proteins from their monomeric forms into highly organised fibrillar states. Previously, we have demonstrated that viscosity sensitive fluorophores termed 'molecular rotors', when freely mixed with monomers of interest, are able to report on changes in microrheology accompanying amyloid formation, and measured an increase in rigidity of approximately three orders of magnitude during aggregation of lysozyme and insulin. Here we extend this strategy by covalently attaching molecular rotors to several proteins capable of assembly into fibrils, namely lysozyme, fibrinogen and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ(1-42))...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622577/hyperoside-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-microglial-cells-via-p38-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#9
Hui-Hui Fan, Lan-Bing Zhu, Ting Li, Hui Zhu, Ya-Nan Wang, Xiao-Li Ren, Bei-Lei Hu, Chen-Ping Huang, Jian-Hong Zhu, Xiong Zhang
Hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside) is an active compound isolated from herbs. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism involved in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potentiality of hyperoside in inhibiting microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with hyperoside and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that hyperoside significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase...
June 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620580/the-human-nadph-oxidase-nox4-regulates-cytoskeletal-organization-in-two-cancer-cell-lines-hepg2-and-sh-sy5y
#10
Simon Auer, Mark Rinnerthaler, Johannes Bischof, Maria Karolin Streubel, Hannelore Breitenbach-Koller, Roland Geisberger, Elmar Aigner, Janne Cadamuro, Klaus Richter, Mentor Sopjani, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Thomas Klaus Felder, Michael Breitenbach
NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase), where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619513/myricetin-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice-via-inhibiting-acetylcholinesterase-and-down-regulating-brain-iron
#11
Beiyun Wang, Yuan Zhong, Chengjie Gao, Jingbo Li
The aim of our study was to investigate to investigate the effect of myricetin on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its underlying mechanisms. In our study, Myricetin effectively attenuated Fe(2+)-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. In a mouse model of AD, myricetin treatment significantly reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits deriving from a novel action of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and down-regulating brain iron. Furthermore, Myricetin treatment reduced oxidative damage and increased antioxidant enzymes activity in mice...
June 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619113/mechanisms-underlying-extensive-ser129-phosphorylation-in-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregates
#12
Shigeki Arawaka, Hiroyasu Sato, Asuka Sasaki, Shingo Koyama, Takeo Kato
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized neuropathologically by intracellular aggregates of fibrillar α-synuclein, termed Lewy bodies (LBs). Approximately 90% of α-synuclein deposited as LBs is phosphorylated at Ser129 in brains with PD. In contrast, only 4% of total α-synuclein is phosphorylated at Ser129 in brains with normal individuals. It is unclear why extensive phosphorylation occurs in the pathological process of PD. To address this issue, we investigated a mechanism and role of Ser129-phosphorylation in regulating accumulation of α-synuclein...
June 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618976/bromelain-decorated-hybrid-nanoparticles-based-on-lactobionic-acid-conjugated-chitosan-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-anti-tumor-study
#13
Bing Wei, Le He, Xin Wang, Guo Qing Yan, Jun Wang, Rupei Tang
In this work, lactobionic acid-modified chitosan (CLA) was chosen as an initial material to prepare tumor-targeted nanoparticles (CLA NPs). To improve the nanoparticles' tumor penetration ability, bromelain was then decorated on the surface of CLA NPs to give CLAB NPs. The micromorphology of CLA and CLAB NPs was observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stability of CLA and CLAB NPs was then investigated at different pH values (4.0-9.0) and physiological environment by dynamic light scattering...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611589/mitochondrial-effects-of-pgc-1alpha-silencing-in-mpp-treated-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#14
Qinyong Ye, Chun Chen, Erwang Si, Yousheng Cai, Juhua Wang, Wanling Huang, Dongzhu Li, Yingqing Wang, Xiaochun Chen
The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611418/arrestins-contribute-to-amyloid-beta-induced-cell-death-via-modulation-of-autophagy-and-the-%C3%AE-7nach-receptor-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
Yi-Qing Liu, Meng-Qi Jia, Zhao-Hong Xie, Xiao-Fei Liu, Hui-Yang, Xiao-Lei Zheng, Hui-Qing Yuan, Jian-Zhong Bi
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is believed to contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we showed that Aβ25-35 rapidly caused activation of autophagy, subsequently leading to reduction of autophagy associated with cellular apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that the accumulation of β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1) caused by Aβ25-35 contributed to the induction of autophagic flux. The depletion of ARRB1 led to decreases in the expression of LC3B, Atg7, and Beclin-1, which are essential for the initiation of autophagy...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611284/activation-of-the-atf2-creb-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-by-metformin-leads-to-dopaminergic-neuroprotection
#16
Hojin Kang, Rin Khang, Sangwoo Ham, Ga Ram Jeong, Hyojung Kim, Minkyung Jo, Byoung Dae Lee, Yun Il Lee, Areum Jo, Chi Hu Park, Hyein Kim, Jeongkon Seo, Sun Ha Paek, Yun-Song Lee, Jeong-Yun Choi, Yunjong Lee, Joo-Ho Shin
Progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration is responsible for the canonical motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). The widely prescribed anti-diabetic medicine metformin is effective in preventing neurodegeneration in animal models; however, despite the significant potential of metformin for treating PD, the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuroprotection by metformin are largely unknown.In this study, we found that metformin induced substantial proteomic changes, especially in metabolic and mitochondrial pathways in the substantia nigra (SN)...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608291/iron-induced-generation-of-mitochondrial-ros-depends-on-ampk-activity
#17
Hui Huang, Jun Chen, Huiru Lu, Mengxue Zhou, Zhifang Chai, Yi Hu
Deregulated iron homeostasis is generally believed to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood how iron overload can elicit neuronal cell damage. Here we examined mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells upon iron exposure. A relatively high concentration of iron could significantly increase mitochondrial ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) almost completely inhibited the effect of iron on mitochondrial ROS...
June 12, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608000/crhr1-mediates-the-up-regulation-of-synapsin-i-induced-by-nesfatin-1-through-erk-1-2-signaling-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#18
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
The anorexigenic molecule nesfatin-1 has recently been taken as a potential mood regulator, but the potential mechanisms remain unknown. Results of our previous study have demonstrated that nesfatin-1 could induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, accompanied by the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the imbalanced mRNA expression of synaptic vesicle proteins. To explore the potential neurobiological mechanism underlying the effect of nesfatin-1 on the synaptic plasticity, the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of nesfatin-1 in the present study...
June 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606766/medicinal-species-as-mtdls-turnera-diffusa-willd-ex-schult-inhibits-cns-enzymes-and-delays-glutamate-excitotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells-via-oxidative-damage
#19
João Bernardo, Federico Ferreres, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade
One of the most promising approaches to confront the complexity of central nervous system disorders are new multi-target directed ligands (MTDLs). Five medicinal species (Cereus grandiflorus (L.) Mill., Hyssopus officinalis L., Acorus calamus L., Silybum marianum L. Gaertn. and Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult), selected for their ethnopharmacological relevance, were object for in vitro screening. The aqueous extract of T. diffusa revealed the strongest neuroactive potential, inhibiting monoamine oxidase-A (IC50 = 129...
June 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604593/melatonin-modulates-neuronal-cell-death-induced-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-under-insulin-resistance-condition
#20
Juhyun Song, Oh Yoen Kim
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important stress factor in the central nervous system, thereby aggravating neuropathogenesis and triggering cognitive decline. Melatonin, which is an antioxidant phytochemical and synthesized by the pineal gland, has multiple functions in cellular responses such as apoptosis and survival against stress. This study investigated whether melatonin modulates the signaling of neuronal cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress under IR condition using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
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