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salivary amylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126424/salivary-ph-calcium-phosphorus-and-selected-enzymes-in-healthy-dogs-a-pilot-study
#1
Ilaria Iacopetti, Anna Perazzi, Tamara Badon, Silvia Bedin, Barbara Contiero, Rebecca Ricci
BACKGROUND: Saliva in dogs, as in humans, is a complex fluid secreted by different salivary glands in the oral cavity to protect the oral mucosa and teeth. The use of saliva as a substitute for blood in diagnosing and prognosticating disease in humans is widely accepted. Salivary biochemistry has also been used as a marker for periodontal disease in humans. No studies have as yet investigated the relation between salivary biochemistry and periodontal disease in dogs, however; neither has the salivary composition of healthy dogs with no oral disease been assessed...
November 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093287/stilbene-glucoside-a-putative-sleep-promoting-constituent-from-polygonum-multiflorum-affects-sleep-homeostasis-by-affecting-the-activities-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-salivary-alpha-amylase
#2
Qian Wei, Guang Ta, Wenjing He, Wei Wang, Qiucheng Wu
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084240/a-sympathetic-nervous-system-evaluation-of-obesity-stigma
#3
Michael D Oliver, Subimal Datta, Debora R Baldwin
The portrayal of obesity in the media is often one of negativity. Consequently, it may generate an increase in stigma. Obesity stigma, a form of social discrimination, is responsible for many of the negative psychological and physiological effects on individual wellness. These effects not only impact individual health, but also affect the economy, and ultimately, societal wellness. In an attempt to examine the influence of the media on obesity stigma, this study tested the hypothesis that positive priming would lead to a reduction in obesity stigma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079225/digestive-enzymes-of-the-californian-two-spot-octopus-octopus-bimaculoides-pickford-and-mcconnaughey-1949
#4
Laura Elizabeth Ibarra-García, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Carlos Rosas, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui
Octopus bimaculoides is an important commercially fished species in the California Peninsula with aquaculture potential; however, to date limited information is available regarding its digestive physiology. The objective of this study was focused on biochemically characterizing the main enzymes involved in the digestion of O. bimaculoides. Optimum pH, temperature and thermostability were determined for amylases, lipases, trypsin and chymotrypsin; optimum pH and protease inhibitor effect were assessed for acidic and alkaline proteases, and the effect of divalent ions on trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was evaluated in enzymatic extracts from the digestive (DG) and salivary glands (SG) and crop gastric juices (GJ)...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066067/salivary-duct-cyst-of-accessory-parotid-gland-in-contact-with-the-temporomandibular-joint
#5
Atsushi-Doksa Lee, Takashi Mima, Yasunari Morimoto, Yoko Takigawa
A 60-year-old woman presented with a painless swelling in the right preauricular region. Physical examination revealed a soft, nontender, oval-shaped lump in this location. Computed tomography indicated an anterolateral cystic lesion that was attached to the condyle of the mandible and to the accessory parotid gland. Differential diagnoses included ganglion cyst, synovial cyst of the temporomandibular joint, and accessory parotid gland cyst. Surgical removal of the cyst was performed with the patient under general anesthesia...
September 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037115/low-subjective-social-status-in-the-police-is-linked-to-health-relevant-changes-in-diurnal-salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-in-swiss-police-officers
#6
Stéphanie Habersaat, Sid Abdellaoui, Ashley M Geiger, Sébastien Urben, Jutta M Wolf
The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment...
October 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019550/salivary-stress-biomarkers-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-children-with-and-without-temporomandibular-disorders
#7
Fernanda Yukie Kobayashi, Maria Beatriz Duarte Gavião, Maria Carolina Salomé Marquezin, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni Montes, Taís de Souza Barbosa, Paula Midori Castelo
The etiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), which are considered as a heterogeneous group of psychophysiological disturbances, remains a controversial issue in clinical dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate whether the salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol levels, and anxiety symptoms differ between children with and without TMD. Initially, 316 young subjects were screened in public schools (nonreferred sample); 76 subjects aged 7-14 years were selected and comprised the TMD and control groups with 38 subjects each matched by sex, age, and the presence/absence of sleep bruxism...
September 28, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981820/oral-digestion-and-perception-of-starch-effects-of-cooking-tasting-time-and-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-activity
#8
Trina J Lapis, Michael H Penner, Amy S Balto, Juyun Lim
Since starch is a significant part of human diet, its oral detection would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to determine whether starch or its degradation products can be tasted and what factors influence its perception. Subjects were asked 1) to taste 8% raw and cooked starch samples for 5, 15, and 35 s and rate perceived intensities of sweetness and "other" taste (i.e., other than sweet), 2) to donate saliva to obtain salivary flow rate (mg/s) and salivary α-amylase activity (per mg saliva), and 3) to fill out a carbohydrate consumption survey...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972598/evaluation-of-occupational-physical-load-during-6-month-international-crisis-management-operation
#9
Kai Pihlainen, Matti Santtila, Tommi Vasankari, Keijo Häkkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen
OBJECTIVES: Generally, operational military duties are associated with a variety of stressors, such as prolonged physical activity (PA). However, limited information is available on the occupational workload or changes in PA during international military operations. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the changes in body composition, stress biomarkers, PA, and heart rate (HR) responses of 79 male soldiers during a 6-month international crisis management operation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Measurements were conducted 3 times in South-Lebanon during the operation...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963883/acute-physical-exercise-in-humans-enhances-reconsolidation-of-emotional-memories
#10
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Increasing evidence suggests that when a memory is reactivated through retrieval, it becomes temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, which can consequently update or strengthen the memory. Physical exercise has been shown to modulate the maintenance of fear memories in animals following memory reactivation. This study investigated the effect of intense exercise in modulating the reconsolidation of trauma memories. Fifty-four undergraduate students watched a trauma film depicting the aftermath of a highway car crash...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948815/the-role-of-stress-hormones-in-dental-management-behavior-problems
#11
M Dušková, J Vašáková, J Dušková, J Kaiferová, Z Broukal, L Stárka
Dental management behavior problems are thought to be both multifactorial and multidimensional, consisting of physiological, behavioral and cognitive components. The stress response to pain or even the anticipation of distress initiates activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and causes an increase of cortisol and catecholamines. The literature on the role of hormones in dental management behavior problems comprises about one hundred papers, which have mainly been focused on this activation of the HPA axis in various situations in dental care...
September 26, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937902/comparing-dental-stress-in-new-child-patients-and-returning-patients-using-salivary-cortisol-immunoglobulin-a-and-alpha-amylase
#12
Sumer M Alaki, Ayman Safi, Soliman Ouda, Alaa Nadhreen
OBJECTIVES: this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. STUDY DESIGN: salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932148/correlation-of-environmental-tobacco-smoke-to-gingival-pigmentation-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-in-young-adults
#13
Deepa Ponnaiyan, Priyanka Chillara, Yuvasri Palani
OBJECTIVE: Passive smoking leads to melanin pigmentation on gingiva. However, documentation of gingival pigmentation and salivary amylase activity in passive smokers relative to the duration of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is incomplete and requires further investigation. Thus, this study aimed to assess effects of ETS exposure on gingival pigmentation in young adults. In addition, to correlate a number of years of exposure to an extent, the intensity of gingival pigmentation and salivary amylase activity...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928382/functional-effects-of-proinflammatory-factors-present-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-salivary-microenvironment-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-human-salivary-gland
#14
Mayte Arce-Franco, María Dominguez-Luis, Martina K Pec, Carlos Martínez-Gimeno, Pablo Miranda, Diego Alvarez de la Rosa, Teresa Giraldez, José María García-Verdugo, José David Machado, Federico Díaz-González
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy in which the role that the immune response plays in reducing exocrine gland function, including the glandular microenvironment of cytokines, has not been fully understood. Epithelial cells from biopsies of human parotid gland (HPG) were used to establish a model of human salivary gland in vitro. In this model, the functional consequences of several proinflammatory soluble factors present in the pSS glandular microenvironment were assessed. Stimulation with isoproterenol and calcium produced a significant increase in the basal activity of amylase in the HPG cell supernatants...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928228/salivary-alpha-amylase-in-on-call-from-home-fire-and-emergency-service-personnel
#15
Sarah J Hall, Brad Aisbett, Samuel J Robertson, Sally A Ferguson, Anne I Turner
The effect of working on-call from home on the sympatho-adrenal medullary system activity is currently unknown. This study had two aims, Aim 1: examine salivary alpha amylase awakening response (AAR) and diurnal salivary alpha amylase (sAA) profile in fire and emergency service workers who operate on-call from home following a night on-call with a call (NIGHT-CALL), a night on-call without a call (NO-CALL) and an off-call night (OFF-CALL), and Aim 2: explore whether there was an anticipatory effect of working on-call from home (ON) compared to when there was an off-call (OFF) on the diurnal sAA profile...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914590/canine-salivary-glands-analysis-of-rab-and-snare-protein-expression-and-snare-complex-formation-with-diverse-tissue-properties
#16
Hiroshi Gomi, Hiromi Osawa, Rie Uno, Tadashi Yasui, Masahiro Hosaka, Seiji Torii, Azuma Tsukise
The comparative structure and expression of salivary components and vesicular transport proteins in the canine major salivary glands were investigated. Histochemical analysis revealed that the morphology of the five major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, polystomatic sublingual, monostomatic sublingual, and zygomatic glands-was greatly diverse. Immunoblot analysis revealed that expression levels of α-amylase and antimicrobial proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, differed among the different glands...
November 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898715/cortisol-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-trajectories-following-a-group-social-evaluative-stressor-with-adolescents
#17
Deirdre A Katz, Melissa K Peckins
Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891758/effects-of-an-evidence-based-parenting-program-on-biobehavioral-stress-among-at-risk-mothers-for-child-maltreatment-a-pilot-study
#18
Ashwini Tiwari, Shannon Self-Brown, Betty S Lai, Colleen McCarty, Laura Carruth
Parental stress is an important risk factor for child maltreatment (CM) perpetration. Evidence-based, parent-training programs can decrease CM perpetration risk and reduce self-reported parental stress; however, little is known about how such programs impact physiological stress correlates. In this quasi-experimental pilot study, maternal biobehavioral responses were measured in response to SafeCare®, an evidence-based program targeting CM, often implemented by social workers in child welfare settings. Maternal participants (N = 18) were recruited to complete SafeCare and repeated within-subject assessments pre- and post-intervention...
September 11, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888992/associations-between-biological-markers-of-prenatal-stress-and-infant-negative-emotionality-are-specific-to-sex
#19
Elizabeth C Braithwaite, Susannah E Murphy, Paul G Ramchandani, Jonathan Hill
PURPOSE: Fetal programming is the idea that environmental stimuli can alter the development of the fetus, which may have a long-term effect on the child. We have recently reported that maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner: high prenatal cortisol was associated with increased negative emotionality in females, and decreased negative emotionality in males. This study aims to test for this sex-specific effect in a different cohort, and investigate whether sex differences in fetal programming may be specific to glucocorticoid mechanisms by also examining a maternal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) by sex interaction...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880151/salivary-markers-for-quantitative-dehydration-estimation-during-physical-exercise
#20
Matthias Ring, Clemens Lohmueller, Manfred Rauh, Joachim Mester, Bjoern M Eskofier
Salivary markers have been proposed as noninvasive and easy-to-collect indicators of dehydrations during physical exercise. It has been demonstrated that threshold-based classifications can distinguish dehydrated from euhydrated subjects. However, considerable challenges were reported simultaneously, for example, high intersubject variabilities in these markers. Therefore, we propose a machine-learning approach to handle the intersubject variabilities and to advance from binary classifications to quantitative estimations of total body water (TBW) loss...
September 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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