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salivary amylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068575/examining-habituation-and-sensitization-across-repetitive-laboratory-stress-inductions-using-the-mast
#1
C W E M Quaedflieg, T Meyer, P van Ruitenbeek, T Smeets
Reliably eliciting acute stress repeatedly over time is of indispensable value for research into stress vulnerability and for developing interventions aimed at increasing stress resiliency. Here, we evaluated whether the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST), a potent stress protocol that combines physical and psychosocial stress components, can be used to reliably elicit subjective and neuroendocrine stress responses multiple times. Sixty healthy undergraduate participants were exposed to the MAST on three occasions, with intervals of three-weeks and one-month in between sessions...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068524/enzyme-activities-in-parotid-saliva-of-patients-with-the-restrictive-type-of-anorexia-nervosa
#2
Elzbieta Paszynska, Agnieszka Slopien, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Christian Hannig
OBJECTIVE: In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) specific signs may occur in the oral cavity, but there are conflicting reports about their significance, especially concerning changes in salivary composition. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the resting parotid flow rate (PFR) and the activity of the following enzymes in parotid saliva: amylase, aspartate amino transferase (AST), lysozyme, peroxidase, serine and acidic proteases in the acute phase of the restrictive type of AN and to compare the findings with those in healthy controls...
December 29, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055279/salivary-protein-changes-in-response-to-acute-stress-in-medical-residents-performing-advanced-clinical-simulations-a-pilot-proteomics-study
#3
Rachel K Marvin, Muncharie B Saepoo, Simiao Ye, Donald B White, Rong Liu, Kenneth Hensley, Paul Rega, Viviane Kazan, David R Giovannucci, Dragan Isailovic
CONTEXT: Quantitative changes of salivary proteins due to acute stress were detected. OBJECTIVE: To explore protein markers of stress in saliva of eight medical residents who performed emergency medicine simulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva was collected before the simulations, after the simulations, and following morning upon waking. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, identified by MS, and relatively quantified by densitometry. RESULTS: Salivary alpha-amylase and S-type cystatins significantly increased, while the ∼26 kDa and low-molecular weight (<10 kDa) SDS-PAGE bands exhibited changes after stress...
January 5, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054256/salivary-alpha-amylase-not-chromogranin-a-reflects-sympathetic-activity-exercise-responses-in-elite-male-wheelchair-athletes-with-or-without-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Christof A Leicht, Thomas A W Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Nicolette C Bishop
BACKGROUND: Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) have both been suggested as non-invasive markers for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. A complete cervical spinal cord injury leading to tetraplegia is accompanied with sympathetic dysfunction; the aim of this study was to establish the exercise response of these markers in this in vivo model. METHODS: Twenty-six elite male wheelchair athletes (C6-C7 tetraplegia: N = 8, T6-L1 paraplegia: N = 10 and non-spinal cord injured controls: N = 8) performed treadmill exercise to exhaustion...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048945/organotypic-spheroid-culture-to-mimic-radiation-induced-salivary-hypofunction
#5
H S Shin, H Y An, J S Choi, H J Kim, J Y Lim
Radiation treatment often leads to irreversible damage to normal salivary glands (SGs) because of their proximity to head and neck cancers. Optimization of the in vitro model of irradiation (IR)-induced SG damage is warranted to investigate pathophysiology and monitor treatment outcome. Here, we present an organotypic spheroid culture model to investigate the impact of IR on SGs and the mechanisms underlying IR-induced structural and functional changes. Human parotid epithelial cells were obtained from human parotid glands and plated on either plastic plates or Matrigel...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039425/activities-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-omnivorous-pest-apolygus-lucorum-hemiptera-miridae
#6
Wenjing Li, Xincheng Zhao, Wei Yuan, Kongming Wu
The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür, 1843, an omnivorous species that feeds on plants and animals, has become a major pest in China as production of Bt-cotton has grown to such a large scale. Its omnivory is likely to be critical for its success, but the digestive mechanism(s) underlying processing and adsorption of such diverse foods is relatively unknown. Here, we examined the activities of digestive enzymes of A. lucorum in the salivary gland complex and midgut and the effect of sex, age, and food source on these activities...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002486/levels-of-salivary-enzymes-of-apolygus-lucorum-hemiptera-miridae-from-1st-instar-nymph-to-adult-and-their-potential-relation-to-bug-feeding
#7
Xiumei Tan, Xiuping Xu, Yong Gao, Qinmin Yang, Yunsheng Zhu, Jiqing Wang, Fanghao Wan, Hongxu Zhou
In recent years, Apolygus lucorum has caused increasing damage to cotton and fruit trees in China. The salivary enzymes secreted by A. lucorum when sucking on host plants induce a series of biochemical reactions in plants, and the pre-oral digestion benefits the bug feeding. In this study, the food intake of A. lucorum from 1st instar nymphs to adults was measured, and the corresponding salivary activity of pectinase, amylase, cellulase, protease, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase was determined. Daily food intake varied with developmental stage, peaking in 3rd and 4th instar nymphs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982510/stress-system-dysregulation-in-pediatric-generalized-anxiety-disorder-associated-with-comorbid-depression
#8
R Funke, A Eichler, J Distler, Y Golub, O Kratz, G H Moll
Because chronic stress is an important risk factor for anxiety states and depressive disorders, we studied hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic system activity via changes in cortisol and alpha amylase activity levels in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients (n = 26) with comorbid depression and a healthy comparison group (n = 26). Morning plasma cortisol and diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity were assessed, also reactivity of HPA-axis, sAA activity, and heart rate following a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test for children)...
December 16, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966720/chewing-bread-impact-on-alpha-amylase-secretion-and-oral-digestion
#9
Marianne Joubert, Chantal Septier, Hélène Brignot, Christian Salles, Maud Panouillé, Gilles Feron, Carole Tournier
During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown...
December 14, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925794/endocrine-and-emotional-response-to-exclusion-among-women-and-men-cortisol-salivary-alpha-amylase-and-mood
#10
Liat Helpman, Julia Penso, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social exclusion is ubiquitous and painful. Evolutionary models indicate sex differences in coping with social stress. Recent empirical data suggest different sex patterns in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) reactivity. The present study sought to test this hypothesis. DESIGN: We examined differences in endocrine and emotional response to exclusion by using a virtual ball tossing paradigm (Cyberball)...
December 20, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918737/influence-of-bethanechol-on-salivary-parameters-in-irradiated-patients
#11
C Cotomacio, L Campos, A Simões, G Jaguar, E-M Crosato, F Abreu-Alves
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown evidence that the prophylactic use of bethanechol chloride (BC) may be useful in preventing the incidence and/or severity of xerostomia (XT). However, the indication of BC in irradiated patients with XT needs to be better characterized. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of BC on XT, salivary flow rate, and salivary composition in patients previously submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty five irradiated patients complaining of XT used 50 mg/day of BC for 3 months, and the salivary parameters were evaluated in 4 Phases (Before BC therapy, after one month of BC, 2 months of BC, and 3 months of BC)...
January 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907037/reliability-of-potential-pain-biomarkers-in-the-saliva-of-healthy-subjects-inter-individual-differences-and-intersession-variability
#12
Eva M Sobas, Roberto Reinoso, Rubén Cuadrado-Asensio, Itziar Fernández, Miguel J Maldonado, José C Pastor
AIM: Salivary cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), secretory IgA (sIgA), testosterone, and soluble fraction of receptor II of TNFα (sTNFαRII) could serve as objective pain measures, but the normal variability of these potential biomarkers is unknown. PATIENTS & METHODS: Saliva was collected with the passive secretion method from 34, pain-free subjects in two single samples at least 24 hours apart. Biomarker variation and intersession reliability were assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895853/expression-of-liver-alpha-amylase-in-obese-mouse-hepatocytes
#13
Zohreh Afsartala, Sanaz Savabkar, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Vahideh Assadollahi, Shima Tanha, Khosro Bijangi, Mohammadreza Gholami
AIM: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relation between the expression of liver alpha-amylase and obesity. BACKGROUND: Alpha-amylase catalyses the hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides and has three main subtypes, including: salivary, pancreatic, and hepatic. Hepatic alpha-amylase is involved in glycogen metabolism, and has a role in obesity and its management. In this study, we aimed to analyze the expression of liver alpha-amylase in overweight and obese mouse...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895150/effects-of-va-facility-dog-on-hospitalized-veterans-seen-by-a-palliative-care-psychologist-an-innovative-approach-to-impacting-stress-indicators
#14
Cheryl A Krause-Parello, Cari Levy, Elizabeth Holman, John E Kolassa
The United States is home to 23 million veterans. In many instances, veterans with serious illness who seek healthcare at the VA receive care from a palliative care service. Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) is gaining attention as a therapeutic stress reducing modality; however, its effects have not been well studied in veterans receiving palliative care in an acute care setting. A crossover repeated-measures study was conducted to examine the effects of an animal-assisted intervention (AAI) in the form of a therapy dog on stress indicators in 25 veterans on the palliative care service at the VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System in Denver, CO...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892761/autonomic-markers-associated-with-generalized-social-phobia-symptoms-heart-rate-variability-and-salivary-alpha-amylase
#15
María J García-Rubio, Laura Espín, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador, Jesús Gómez-Amor
The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state...
December 21, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876406/adenotonsillectomy-can-decrease-enuresis-and-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#16
Hao Ding, Mengmei Wang, Ke Hu, Jing Kang, Si Tang, Wen Lu, Lifang Xu
BACKGROUND: The nocturnal intermittent hypoxia caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) can provoke the sympathetic nervous activity (SNA). Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a sensitive, non-invasive biomarker for reflecting the SNA, and a useful marker for pediatric OSAS subjects. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) is the most commonly identified risk factor in OSAS childhood, therefore, several studies showed that the adenotonsillectomy (T&A) may alleviate nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children with OSAS...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875756/patterns-of-cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-reactivity-to-psychosocial-stress-in-maltreated-women
#17
Alyssa S Mielock, Matthew C Morris, Uma Rao
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. METHOD: This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867700/mental-stress-assessment-using-simultaneous-measurement-of-eeg-and-fnirs
#18
Fares Al-Shargie, Masashi Kiguchi, Nasreen Badruddin, Sarat C Dass, Ahmad Fadzil Mohammad Hani, Tong Boon Tang
Previous studies reported mental stress as one of the major contributing factors leading to various diseases such as heart attack, depression and stroke. An accurate stress assessment method may thus be of importance to clinical intervention and disease prevention. We propose a joint independent component analysis (jICA) based approach to fuse simultaneous measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a means of stress assessment...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854320/the-effect-of-exercise-on-salivary-viscosity
#19
Antoon J M Ligtenberg, Erwin H S Liem, Henk S Brand, Enno C I Veerman
A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130-140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery...
November 16, 2016: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816275/relationship-between-salivary-biomarkers-and-postoperative-swelling-after-the-extraction-of-impacted-lower-third-molars
#20
A Gutiérrez-Corrales, E Campano-Cuevas, G Castillo-Dalí, M-Á Serrera-Figallo, D Torres-Lagares, J-L Gutiérrez-Pérez
Many authors have studied various different parameters in relation to postoperative anxiety after the extraction of third molars. However, the effect that the acute inflammatory process occurring post extraction could have on these parameters has not been studied. Certain salivary biomarkers, although not specifically inflammatory, may be affected by the acute inflammatory process occurring following the extraction of a retained lower third molar. Three biomarkers were assessed in this study: total protein, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and alpha-amylase...
February 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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