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salivary amylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775877/communication-and-social-interaction-anxiety-enhance-interleukin-1-beta-and-cortisol-reactivity-during-high-stakes-public-speaking
#1
Brandon J Auer, Jessica L Calvi, Nicolas M Jordan, David Schrader, Jennifer Byrd-Craven
BACKGROUND: Worry or fear related to speaking in front of others, or more broadly, communicating and interacting with others, is common. At elevated levels, however, it may contribute to heightened stress reactivity during acute speaking challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine multi-system physiological stress reactivity in the context of high-stakes public speaking while considering the impact of hypothesized individual difference risk factors. METHODS: University student participants (n = 95) delivering speeches as a heavily-weighted component of their final grade had saliva samples collected immediately prior to speaking, immediately after, and 20 min after speech completion...
May 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762381/13c-labeled-starch-breath-test-in-congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency
#2
Claudia C Robayo-Torres, Marisela Diaz-Sotomayor, Bruce R Hamaker, Susan S Baker, Bruno P Chumpitazi, Antone R Opekun, Buford L Nichols
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Human starch digestion is a multienzyme process involving 6 different enzymes: salivary and pancreatic α-amylase; sucrase and isomaltase (from sucrose-isomaltase [SI]), and maltase and glucoamylase (from maltase-glucoamylase [MGAM]). Together these enzymes cleave starch to smaller molecules ultimately resulting in the absorbable monosaccharide glucose. Approximately 80% of all mucosal maltase activity is accounted for by SI and the reminder by MGAM. Clinical studies suggest that starch may be poorly digested in those with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761905/stress-related-salivary-proteins-affect-the-production-of-volatile-sulfur-compounds-by-oral-bacteria
#3
Patricia Oliveira de Lima, Bruno Dias Nani, Barbara Almeida, Fernanda Klein Marcondes, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Antonio Bento Alves de Moraes, Michelle Franz-Montan, Karina Cogo-Müller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stress-related substances and sex hormones influence the growth and in vitro production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by Solobacterium moorei and Fusobacterium nucleatum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacteria growth and VSCs production were evaluated in the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-defensin-2, mucin, estradiol, and progesterone. Growth was evaluated by colony counting, and the production of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH) was measured using the Oral Chroma™ instrument...
May 15, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747642/salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-and-cortisol-in-horses-with-acute-abdominal-disease-a-pilot-study
#4
María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Damián Escribano, María Martín-Cuervo, Fernando Tecles, Jose Joaquín Cerón
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), considered a non-invasive biomarker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, and salivary cortisol as possible pain-induced stress biomarker, in horses with acute abdominal disease. Therefore, a prospective observational study was performed in which both biomarkers were analyzed in a group of horses with acute abdomen syndrome, and compared with a group of healthy control horses by an unpaired Student's t-test...
May 10, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740273/childhood-emotional-abuse-moderates-associations-among-corticomotor-white-matter-structure-and-stress-neuromodulators-in-women-with-and-without-depression
#5
Carlton P Frost, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Rasmus M Birn, Roxanne M Hoks, Erin C Walsh, Heather C Abercrombie
Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740073/stress-associated-changes-in-salivary-micrornas-can-be-detected-in-response-to-the-trier-social-stress-test-an-exploratory-study
#6
Conrad Wiegand, Peter Heusser, Claudia Klinger, Dirk Cysarz, Arndt Büssing, Thomas Ostermann, Andreas Savelsbergh
Stress is an important co-factor for the genesis and maintenance of many diseases and is known to have an effect on gene expression via epigenetic regulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) appear to function as one of the key factors of this regulation. This is the first study to investigate the response of 11 stress-associated miRNAs in human saliva - as a non-invasive source - in an experimental condition of acute psychological stress, and also their correlation with established psychological (subjective stress perception), physiological (heart rate and heart rate variability) and biochemical stress parameters (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718221/salivary-function-and-oral-health-problems-in-crohn-s-disease-patients
#7
Silvia A G de Vries, Christopher X W Tan, Gerd Bouma, Tim Forouzanfar, Henk S Brand, Nanne K de Boer
Background: In Crohn's disease (CD) patients, many oral complaints have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether salivary function is contributing to reduced oral health in CD. Oral and dental complaints in patients were explored. The prevalence of xerostomia in conjunction with salivary flow rates and biochemical saliva composition was studied. Methods: The Xerostomia Inventory score (XI-score), the salivary flow rates, the concentrations of salivary amylase and mucin 5B, and the type of oral and dental complaints were evaluated...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712842/less-immune-activation-following-social-stress-in-rural-vs-urban-participants-raised-with-regular-or-no-animal-contact-respectively
#8
Till S Böbel, Sascha B Hackl, Dominik Langgartner, Marc N Jarczok, Nicolas Rohleder, Graham A Rook, Christopher A Lowry, Harald Gündel, Christiane Waller, Stefan O Reber
Urbanization is on the rise, and environments offering a narrow range of microbial exposures are linked to an increased prevalence of both physical and mental disorders. Human and animal studies suggest that an overreactive immune system not only accompanies stress-associated disorders but might even be causally involved in their pathogenesis. Here, we show in young [mean age, years (SD): rural, 25.1 (0.78); urban, 24.5 (0.88)] healthy human volunteers that urban upbringing in the absence of pets ( n = 20), relative to rural upbringing in the presence of farm animals ( n = 20), was associated with a more pronounced increase in the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations following acute psychosocial stress induced by the Trier social stress test (TSST)...
May 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694317/psychophysiological-response-to-social-stressors-relevance-of-sex-and-age
#9
Matias M Pulopulos, Vanesa Hidalgo, Sara Puig-Pérez, Alicia Salvador
BACKGROUND: Understanding the factors involved in the psychophysiological response of people in acute stressful situations is crucial to the prevention and treatment of stress-related health problems. We aim to integrate the results of studies investigating the role of sex and age in the inter-individual variability in several biomarkers of the stress response. METHODS: We summarize the main findings of our research group and other laboratories regarding sex and age-related differences in the psychophysiological response to psychosocial stress...
May 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692808/effects-of-tibetan-music-on-neuroendocrine-and-autonomic-functions-in-patients-waiting-for-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Antonella Cotoia, Floriana Dibello, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Alberto Sciusco, Pietro Polito, Alberto Modolo, Crescenzio Gallo, Giuseppe Cibelli, Gilda Cinnella
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening to Tibetan music on anxiety and endocrine, autonomic, cognitive responses in patients waiting for urologic surgery. Methods: Sixty patients waiting for surgery were enrolled to the study. They were randomized in music (M) and control (C) groups. The M group listened to a low-frequency Tibetan music for 30 min (T0 -T30 ) through headphones, and the C group wore headphones with no sound...
2018: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686875/nivolumab-induced-sialadenitis
#11
Saeko Takahashi, Xu Chieko, Tetsuya Sakai, Shigemichi Hirose, Morio Nakamura
Nivolumab has been increasingly used for a range of malignancies, and a variety of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported with its use. Nivolumab-induced sialadenitis (inflammation of salivary glands) and xerostomia (dry mouth) have been reported to occur in 0.03% and 0.05% respectively, but there have been no case reports published about these side effects. Sialadenitis is not a life-threatening irAEs, but xerostomia can become irreversible if not recognized and treated as it can otherwise lower quality of life and result in susceptibility to infection...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681710/possible-link-between-stress-related-factors-and-altered-body-composition-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#12
Barnali Ray Basu, Olivia Chowdhury, Sudip Kumar Saha
Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered...
January 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614832/ixeris-dentata-extract-increases-salivary-secretion-through-the-regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-a-diabetes-induced-xerostomia-rat-model
#13
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Hwa-Young Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603693/assessment-of-salivary-catalase-a-amylase-and-cotinine-levels-in-chronic-smokers-a-comparative-study
#14
Satvinder Singh, Mamta Sharma, Nitika Rohilla, Varun Salgotra, Varun Kumar, Rahul K Sharma
INTRODUCTION: One of the common practices observed in many parts of the world is smoking, of which tobacco forms an important constituent which is burned and inhaled. Smoking is known to have potential effect on body's immune system, antioxidants level, and salivary cotinine levels. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoke on salivary anti-oxidant levels and cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included assessment of salivary parameters of smokers and nonsmokers...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550536/salivary-alpha-amylase-and-cortisol-responsiveness-to-stress-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-panic-disorder
#15
Mario Altamura, Salvatore Iuso, Angela Balzotti, Girolamo Francavilla, Andrea Dimitri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonello Bellomo, Annamaria Petito
Reported findings on reactivity to stress of the sympathetic-adreno-medullar (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems in panic disorder (PD) are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by differences in treatment exposure, illness duration and emotion regulation strategies. The present study examined the reactivity to mental stress of the SAM and HPA axes in a sample of first episode, drug naïve patients with PD which avoids confounds of medications exposure and illness chronicity...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547968/biological-response-to-stress-during-battlefield-trauma-training-live-tissue-versus-high-fidelity-patient-simulator
#16
Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533149/examining-the-effects-of-a-service-trained-facility-dog-on-stress-in-children-undergoing-forensic-interview-for-allegations-of-child-sexual-abuse
#17
Cheryl A Krause-Parello, Michele Thames, Colleen M Ray, John Kolassa
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be a stressful experience for the child. Gaining a better understanding of how best to serve the child, while preserving the quality of their disclosure, is an ever-evolving process. The data to answer this question come from 51 children aged 4-16 (M = 9.1, SD = 3.5), who were referred to a child advocacy center in Virginia for a forensic interview (FI) following allegations of sexual abuse. A repeated measures design was conducted to examine how the presence of a service-trained facility dog (e...
April 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529990/gender-differences-in-the-psychophysiological-effects-induced-by-vocs-emitted-from-japanese-cedar-cryptomeria-japonica
#18
Eri Matsubara, Shuichi Kawai
BACKGROUND: Wood is a valuable material for interiors, and the psychophysiological relaxation effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood chips and essential oils have been reported. However, few studies have identified the odors in full-scale wooden environment, and also, differences in gender have not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effects of VOCs emitted from interior wood walls in both human male and female participants. METHODS: We used Japanese cedar timber and analyzed VOCs in the experimental rooms with and without Japanese cedar timber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521885/the-use-of-smartphones-as-a-digital-security-blanket-the-influence-of-phone-use-and-availability-on-psychological-and-physiological-responses-to-social-exclusion
#19
John F Hunter, Emily D Hooker, Nicolas Rohleder, Sarah D Pressman
OBJECTIVE: Mobile phones are increasingly becoming a part of the social environment, and when individuals feels excluded during a socially stressful situation, they often retreat to the comfort of their phone to ameliorate the negativity. This study tests whether smartphone presence does, in fact, alter psychological and physiological responses to social stress. METHODS: Participants (N = 148, 84% female, mean age = 20.4) were subjected to a peer, social-exclusion stressor...
May 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520469/reduced-salivary-amylase-activity-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients-with-obesity-could-be-improved-by-treatment-with-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitor
#20
Jitjiroj Ittichaicharoen, Arintaya Phrommintikul, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn Chattipakorn
OBJECTIVES: The present study is to investigate the salivary gland function of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, as indicated by salivary flow rate, amylase activity, and salivary oxidative stress, by measuring MDA level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one MetS patients from Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were enrolled onto this study. The metabolic parameters of each patient were collected and evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was also collected for 5 min...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
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