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salivary amylase

Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Cheryl A Krause-Parello, Michele Thames, Colleen M Ray, John Kolassa
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be a stressful experience for the child. Gaining a better understanding of how best to serve the child, while preserving the quality of their disclosure, is an ever-evolving process. The data to answer this question come from 51 children aged 4-16 (M = 9.1, SD = 3.5), who were referred to a child advocacy center in Virginia for a forensic interview (FI) following allegations of sexual abuse. A repeated measures design was conducted to examine how the presence of a service-trained facility dog (e...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Eri Matsubara, Shuichi Kawai
BACKGROUND: Wood is a valuable material for interiors, and the psychophysiological relaxation effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood chips and essential oils have been reported. However, few studies have identified the odors in full-scale wooden environment, and also, differences in gender have not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effects of VOCs emitted from interior wood walls in both human male and female participants. METHODS: We used Japanese cedar timber and analyzed VOCs in the experimental rooms with and without Japanese cedar timber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
John F Hunter, Emily D Hooker, Nicolas Rohleder, Sarah D Pressman
OBJECTIVE: Mobile phones are increasingly becoming a part of the social environment, and when an individual feels excluded during a socially stressful situation, they often retreat to the comfort of their phone to ameliorate the negativity. This study tests whether smartphone presence does, in fact, alter psychological and physiological responses to social stress. METHODS: Participants (N=148, 84% female, mean age=20.4) were subjected to a peer, social-exclusion stressor...
March 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Jitjiroj Ittichaicharoen, Arintaya Phrommintikul, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn Chattipakorn
OBJECTIVES: The present study is to investigate the salivary gland function of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, as indicated by salivary flow rate, amylase activity, and salivary oxidative stress, by measuring MDA level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one MetS patients from Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were enrolled onto this study. The metabolic parameters of each patient were collected and evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was also collected for 5 min...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Sebastian Cozma, Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc, Lisandra Damian, Vittorio Pasquali, Angelo Saponaro, Elena Catalina Lupusoru, Francesca Romana Patacchioli, Lucia Corina Dima-Cozma
INTRODUCTION: The vestibular acute stress induces reversible alert-like reactions that involve the sympathetic adrenal-medullar system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. The present study aimed to evaluate salivary α-amylase and salivary cortisol production in relation with cardiovascular reactivity induced by acute stress in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight young healthy male volunteers were examined under basal conditions and at various times after reaching the maximal nystagmic reaction following air caloric vestibular test...
2018: PloS One
Eleni Angeli, Terpsichori Korpa, Elizabeth O Johnson, Filia Apostolakou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Panagiota Pervanidou
There is growing evidence for dysregulation of the stress system in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The stress system includes neuroanatomical and functional components that function in concert to maintain homeostasis and its main effectors are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic/adrenomedullary nervous system (SNS). As stress system activity demonstrates a distinct circadian variation, we aimed to describe simultaneously, diurnal rhythms of both the HPA axis and the SNS in children with ADHD and a comparison group...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Daniel V Zuj, Matthew A Palmer, Gin S Malhi, Richard A Bryant, Kim L Felmingham
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated noradrenergic signaling, which has an impact on emotional learning and memory. Fear extinction is thought to underlie the processes of exposure therapy, however the relationship between noradrenaline and extinction in PTSD is unclear. Participants with PTSD (n = 21), trauma-exposure without PTSD (TC; n = 36), and non-trauma-exposed controls (NTC; n = 27) completed a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, and conditioned fear was indexed by skin conductance response (SCR)...
February 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Courtney D Lynch, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis
STUDY QUESTION: Are biomarkers of preconception stress associated with pregnancy loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Preconception stress, as measured by basal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations, is not associated with pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Many studies, most of which have been retrospective, have identified an association between stressful life events and perceived stress and miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective pregnancy study with preconception enrollment was conducted between 2005 and 2009...
February 27, 2018: Human Reproduction
Akio Tada
Background: In recent years, there have been an increasing number of older adults who suffer from mental disorders globally. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention that consisted of an exercise program to improve the mental health of community-dwelling older adults. Participants and methods: The recruited participants of this study were community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years who participated in a comprehensive health promotion program in Kakogawa, Japan...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Longyan Zhao, Yujing Qin, Ruowei Guan, Wenqi Zheng, Jikai Liu, Jinhua Zhao
The digestibility of fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) and its effects on digestive enzymes were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. Results showed that the molecular weight and the reducing sugar content of FG were not significantly changed, and no free monosaccharides released from FG were detected after the salivary, gastric and intestinal digestion, indicating that both the backbone and the sulfated fucose branches of FG are resistant to be cleaved in the saliva and gastrointestinal tract environments...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Samilly Evangelista Souza, Aline Araújo Sampaio, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti, Antônio Pedro Ricomini Filho, Jaime Aparecido Cury
Since there is no consensus about whether starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose, we used a validated 3-species biofilm model to evaluate if starch combined with sucrose provokes higher root dentine demineralization than sucrose alone. Biofilms (n = 18) composed by Streptococcus mutans (the most cariogenic bacteria), Actinomces naeslundii (which has amylolytic activity), and Streptococcus gordonii (which binds salivary amylase) were formed on root dentine slabs under exposure 8 ×/day to one of the following treatments: 0...
February 14, 2018: Caries Research
Zhifa Wang, Hongyan Xing, Hanqing Hu, Taiqiang Dai, Yan Wang, Zhijin Li, Ran An, Haiyan Xu, Yanpu Liu, Bin Liu
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) combined with heterologous platelet-rich fibrin extract (PRFe) on irradiation-induced salivary gland (SG) damage. ADSCs were isolated from C3H mice, whereas PRFe was obtained from New Zealand rabbits. Twelve weeks post irradiation, the ADSCs or PRFe or their combination were transplanted into the submandibular glands of C3H mice with irradiation-induced damage. The salivary flow rate (SFR) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed at 12 weeks post transplantation...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ademir Felipe Schultz de Arruda, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, Ana Carolina Paludo, Gustavo Drago, Alexandre Moreira
This study examined the effects of competition stage on the salivary concentration of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), alpha-amylase (sAA), and IL-1ß cytokine, perceived performance (PP) and session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) in elite youth basketball players (age, 15.8 ± 0.8 yrs.; stature, 190.9 ± 7.9 cm; body mass, 90.0 ± 16.9 kg) from two age-categories (U16; n = 7; U17; n = 7). Two winning playoff matches (FM; playing for the championship; 1 for each age-category) and two winning regular stage matches (RM; 1 for each age category, played against opponents ranked 2nd place), were assessed in the current study...
February 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ligen Chen, Wei Xu, Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Junwei Liu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Rong Shao, Hongjun Zhu
Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit various bioactivities with potential benefits for human health and well-being. In this study, the in vitro digestibility and fermentability of polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (AnPs) were examined, and the effects of AnPs on gut microbiota were determined using high-throughput sequencing technology. Salivary amylase, artificial gastric juice, and intestinal juice had no effect on AnPs, but the molecular weight of AnPs and reducing sugar decreased significantly after fermentation by gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kenta Sawazaki, Hidetoshi Hoshikawa
Objective: The use of noninvasive skin stimulation with microcones for constipation is promising. However, no double-blinded study has assessed the effects of this approach on constipation. The goal of this research was to assess the effects on constipation when using noninvasive skin stimulation with microcones. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded, controlled study included 44 subjects, each with a score of 5 points or higher on the Japanese version of the Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS-J). The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: (1) a stimulation group (skin-stimulation device with microcones; n = 23; group S) and (2) a placebo group (identical device without microcones; n = 21; group P)...
February 1, 2018: Medical Acupuncture
Celine M Ko, Fran Grace, Gilbert N Chavez, Sarah J Grimleya, Emily R Dalrymple, Lisa E Olson
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to have psychological benefits in college students. We explored the effects of an academic seminar on compassion on student psychological health. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one participants (14 male, 27 female, mean age 19.8 ±1.4 years) were assessed pre- and post- spring semesters 2013 and 2014. METHODS: Students were randomized to the seminar on compassion or a wait-list control group...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Maja Pajcin, Jason M White, Siobhan Banks, Jill Dorrian, Gemma M Paech, Crystal L Grant, Kayla Johnson, Katie Tooley, Eugene Aidman, Justin Fidock, Gary H Kamimori, Chris B Della Vedova
Self-assessment is the most common method for monitoring performance and safety in the workplace. However, discrepancies between subjective and objective measures have increased interest in physiological assessment of performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 23 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 11; 5 F, 6 M) or caffeine condition (n = 12; 4 F, 8 M) while undergoing 50 h (i.e. two days) of total sleep deprivation. In previous work, higher salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were associated with improved psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance in the placebo condition...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Johanna M Doerr, Urs M Nater, Ulrike Ehlert, Beate Ditzen
OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge about how fatigue develops and worsens and what influences fluctuations in daily fatigue. Stress was found to influence fatigue, and being in a relationship seems to either increase or decrease stress depending on the couple interaction. In this study, co-variation of fatigue, self-reported stress, and biological stress markers in couples' everyday lives was investigated. Specifically, we examined a) whether momentary couple interactions moderated dyadic outcomes and b) whether and how stress and relationship measures influenced individual momentary fatigue...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
M Kavitha, K Mubeen, K R Vijayalakshmi
Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy is an ideal treatment modality largely used for oral cancers, which precipitates many side effects, of which the most challenging and debilitating side effect is xerostomia. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of bethanechol in patients with xerostomia following chemoradiation therapy for oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with xerostomia postchemoradiation therapy, aged between 30 and 65 years, were selected based on selection criteria...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
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