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Şükrü Kartalcı, Lale Gönenir Erbay, Esra Porgalı Zayman, Önder Otlu, Aysun Bay Karabulut, Gülşen Kartalcı
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder in which genetics and environmental factors such as infection and the corresponding immune response play a role in the etiopathogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare some immune factors such as nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activation, myeloperoxidase (MPO), the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), and regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor- (TGF-) in schizophrenia patients and an age- and gender-matched control group...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Holland C Detke, Melissa P DelBello, John Landry, Vicki Poole Hoffmann, Alexandra Heinloth, Ralf W Dittmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the 52-week safety/tolerability of oral olanzapine for adolescents with schizophrenia or bipolar mania and compare effectiveness of a standard versus intense behavioral weight intervention in mitigating risk of weight gain. METHODS: Patients 13-17 years old with schizophrenia (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children [BPRS-C] total score >30; item score ≥3 for hallucinations, delusions, or peculiar fantasies) or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episode; Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] total score ≥15) received open-label olanzapine (2...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Valentina Del Bello, Giulia Menculini, Patrizia Moretti, Alfonso Tortorella
Only few studies have compared the psychopathological features in first episode psychosis (FEP) and chronic schizophrenia (CS) patients. The aim of our study was to compare sociodemographic and clinical aspects of FEP and CS inpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to better characterize FEP. We did not find significant socio-demographic differences between the two groups apart from age and nationality. About PANSS we found that conceptual disorganization, poor rapport and lack of insight items scores were significantly higher in patients with FEP...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Saeko Ikai, Takefumi Suzuki, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
INTRODUCTION: Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy levels needed for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia remain to be elucidated. We examined 3-year clinical outcomes of patients with schizophrenia who received long-acting injectable risperidone (LAI risperidone) at baseline and investigated their dopamine D2 receptor occupancy levels, estimated from plasma drug concentrations. METHODS: A chart review of 52 outpatients with schizophrenia who participated in the original cross-sectional study was conducted to examine their 3-year clinical outcomes between April and September 2015...
September 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Kassahun Habtamu, Atalay Alem, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu, Martin Prince, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Most measures of functioning in people with severe mental disorders (SMD) have been developed in Western societies. Many of the questions in these scales are culture-bound, fail to capture differentiation of tasks by gender and are difficult to adapt to other contexts. The aim of this study was to develop a measure of functioning for people with SMD which is contextually appropriate for a rural African setting. METHODS: A review of existing scales, a qualitative study, free listing and pile sorting exercises, and expert consensus were used to establish a pool of items...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Awatef Esshili, Sihem Thabet, Achraf Jemli, Fatma Trifa, Anouar Mechri, Ferid Zaafrane, Lotfi Gaha, Georg Juckel, Hamouda Babba, Besma Bel Hadj Jrad
The belief that latent toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic has been questioned, in particular due to the repeated highlighted link between the Toxoplasma gondii infection and an increased incidence of schizophrenia. However, to understand this relationship, the effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii on the severity of schizophrenia has been poorly studied. Our work focused on comparing the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, as well as comparing the clinical features and the demographic characteristics between Toxoplasma-seronegative and Toxoplasma-seropositive patients with schizophrenia...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Molly Howland, Jennifer Levin, Carol Blixen, Curtis Tatsuoka, Martha Sajatovic
BACKGROUND: Internalized stigma, which occurs when stigmatized individuals accept society's assessment and incorporate this assessment into their sense of self, is prevalent in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). This study explored the correlates of internalized stigma in a research sample of patients with BD who were poorly adherent to their medications. METHODS: Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Scores of 115 individuals with BD on the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale were correlated with scores on the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Merih Altintas, Leman Inanc, Gamze Akcay Oruc, Selim Arpacioglu, Huseyin Gulec
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate synthetic cannabinoid (SC)-induced psychosis in terms of patient profile and clinical characteristics with reference to concurrently hospitalized schizophrenic patients. METHODS: A total of 81 male patients diagnosed with psychotic disorder induced by the use of SCs (n=50; mean (standard deviation [SD]) age: 25.9 (5.5) years) or with schizophrenia (n=31, mean (SD) age: 42.9 (11.6) years) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnosis criteria who were concurrently hospitalized at Erenköy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in this cross-sectional study...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Richard A Van Dorn, Sarah L Desmarais, Kevin J Grimm, Stephen J Tueller, Kiersten L Johnson, Brian G Sellers, Marvin S Swartz
Raw data were used from five studies of adults with mental illnesses (N=4,480) in an attempt to identify a psychiatric symptoms factor structure, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, that was generalizable across participant characteristics. First, the fit of four extant models was tested via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), then exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted with a 50% random sample, followed by a CFA with the remaining 50% to confirm the EFA factor structure...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Federico Dazzi, Alan Shafer, Marco Lauriola
The factor structure of the 24 item BPRS-E was examined to determine the effect of additional items on consensus scales derived primarily from the 18 item BPRS. A meta-analysis (k = 32, n = 10,084) of previous factor analyses of the BPRS-E was conducted using both a co-occurrence similarity matrix and reproduced correlations. Components generally supporting the consensus scales were found suggesting four relatively invariant subscales: Affect (defined by the core items: anxiety, guilt, depression, suicidality), Positive Symptoms (hallucinations, unusual thought content, suspiciousness, grandiosity), Negative Symptoms (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, motor retardation) and Activation (excitement, motor hyperactivity, elevated mood, distractibility)...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Anoop Sankaranarayanan, Vanessa Clark, Amanda Baker, Kerrin Palazzi, Terry J Lewin, Robyn Richmond, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Sacha Filia, David Castle, Jill M Williams
This study sought to explore the impact of smoking reduction on suicidality (suicide ideation and behaviour) among people with a psychotic disorder (n=235) who participated in a randomized trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention trial. Suicidality, measured by item -4 of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was the main variable of interest. Measures were collected by research assistants blind to treatment allocation at baseline, at 15 weeks (mid-intervention) and 12 months after baseline. Mediation analysis, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine the relationship between smoking reduction and suicidality and to explore whether this was mediated through depression...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Fay Y Womer, Yanqing Tang, Michael P Harms, Chuan Bai, Miao Chang, Xiaowei Jiang, Shengnan Wei, Fei Wang, Deanna M Barch
Converging lines of evidence implicate structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum in schizophrenia (SCZ). The cerebellar vermis is of particular interest given its association with clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits in SCZ and its known connections with cortical regions such as the prefrontal cortex. Prior neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional abnormalities in the vermis in SCZ. In this study, we examined the cerebellar vermis in 50 individuals with SCZ and 54 healthy controls (HC) using a quantitative volumetric approach...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Marti Rice, Anne Turner-Henson, Na-Jin Park, Andres Azuero, Azita Amiri, Christine A Feeley, Ann Johnson, Thuy Lam, Luz Huntington-Moskos, Jeannie Rodriguez, Susan Williams
PURPOSE: Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults and children and has its origins in childhood. While the prevalence of hypertension in children is estimated to be 2 to 5%, instance elevations in blood pressure readings (BPRs) in school-age children and adolescents are more common, track to adulthood, and are an independent risk factor for CVD. Less information is available about BPR in the preschool period and what child factors could influence those BPR...
August 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
E J Brandl, T A Lett, N I Chowdhury, A K Tiwari, G Bakanidze, H Y Meltzer, S G Potkin, J A Lieberman, J L Kennedy, D J Müller
INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence that schizophrenia risk variants influence response to antipsychotic medication. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 (ITIH3) gene have been repeatedly associated with schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in genome-wide association studies. Here, we provide the first study to assess the relevance of the ITIH3 rs2535629 SNP in response to antipsychotic medication. METHODS: The rs2535629 SNP was genotyped in N=256 patients receiving various antipsychotics for up to 26weeks...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Stefanie Marczok, Birgit Bortz, Chong Wang, Heike Pospisil
Carcinogenesis is a complex multifactorial, multistage process, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the copy number variation (CNV), breakpoint region (BPR) and fragile sites in 2,737 tumor samples from eight tumor entities and in 432 normal samples. CNV detection and BPR identification revealed that BPRs tended to accumulate in specific genomic regions in tumor samples whereas being dispersed genome-wide in the normal samples. Hotspots were observed, at which segments with similar alteration in copy number were overlapped along with BPRs adjacently clustered...
2016: PloS One
Hiroshi Kimura, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Tsuyoshi Sasaki, Naoya Komatsu, Minoru Ishige, Katsumasa Muneoka, Hidetoshi Ino, Kazuyuki Yoshimura, Hiroshi Yamanaka, Tomotaka Suzuki, Hideki Komatsu, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Eiji Shimizu, Masaomi Iyo
UNLABELLED: Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) resulting from antipsychotic treatment is related to treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), and its treatment has not been established to date. Maintaining thoroughly stable occupancy of the dopamine D2 receptor by risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is one strategy for treatment. In this study, RLAI was given as an adjunctive medication to oral antipsychotic(s), which were switched partially and gradually to RLAI in 108 treatment-resistant patients for an additional 1-year follow-up in a 2-year study, and to compare the effects in 72 patients with a DSP history (DSP group) and 36 patients without this history (NonDSP group)...
August 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
James R Sampford, Stephanie Sampson, Bao Guo Li, Sai Zhao, Jun Xia, Vivek A Furtado
BACKGROUND: Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic drug from the phenothiazine group of antipsychotics. It has been commonly used in the treatment of schizophrenia, however, with the advent of atypical antipsychotic medications, use has declined over the years. OBJECTIVES: To measure the outcomes (both beneficial and harmful) of the clinical effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral fluphenazine versus atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (25 April 2013)...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sagar Lavania, Samir Kumar Praharaj, Hariender Singh Bains, Vishal Sinha, Abhinav Kumar
BACKGROUND: Injectable antipsychotics are frequently required for controlling agitation and aggression in acute psychosis. No study has examined the use of injectable levosulpiride for this indication. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of injectable levosulpiride and haloperidol in patients with acute psychosis. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in which 60 drug-naive patients having acute psychosis were randomly assigned to receive either intramuscular haloperidol (10-20 mg/d) or levosulpiride (25-50 mg/d) for 5 days...
July 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Hiroshi Kimura, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masayuki Takase, Taisuke Yoshida, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masaomi Iyo
Chronic auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in patients with schizophrenia are sometimes resistant to standard pharmacotherapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be a promising treatment modality for AVHs, but the best protocol has yet to be identified. We used a double-blind randomized sham-controlled design aimed at 30 patients (active group N=16 vs. sham group N=14) with chronic AVHs that persisted regardless of adequate pharmacotherapy. The protocol was a total of four sessions of high-frequency (20-Hz) rTMS targeting the left temporoparietal cortex over 2 days (total 10,400 stimulations) administered to each patient...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Sean A Rasmussen, Patricia I Rosebush, Rebecca E Anglin, Michael F Mazurek
Early antipsychotic response predicts outcomes for psychotic patients, but recent evidence suggests that this may not be true for patients treated with olanzapine. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of early response to olanzapine or haloperidol in 75 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode psychosis inpatients. Patients were assessed weekly using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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