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diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy

Satomi Sonoda, Yosuke Okada, Hiroko Mori, Fumi Uemura, Kei Sugai, Maiko Hajime, Kenichi Tanaka, Akira Kurozumi, Manabu Narisawa, Keiichi Torimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka
The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the association between glucose profile using the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The subjects were 160 inpatients with T2DM. The mean blood glucose (MBG) level, percentage of time in a 24-hour period spent with blood glucose level higher than 180 mg/dl (time at >180 mg/dl), standard deviation (SD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were measured continuously over 48 hours using the CGMS...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Abiola Mohammed Adeosun, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
Glycemic homeostasis refers to glucose balance or control within circulation in living organisms. It is normally and largely compromised in diabetes. The compromise when exacerbated, leads to several complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy which are collectively known as diabetic complications and are the principal actors in co-morbidity and eventual mortality often associated with diabetes. The ability of therapeutic compounds including medicinal plants to restore glycemic balance or homeostasis in hyperglycemic condition is an index of their antidiabetic function and relevance...
February 27, 2018: Medicina
Michael Mendler, Stefan Kopf, Jan B Groener, Christin Riedinger, Thomas H Fleming, Peter P Nawroth, Jürgen G Okun
AIMS: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is an endogenous activator of AMPK, a central regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss and/or reduction of AMPK signaling plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The loss of AMPK in diabetes could be due to a loss of AICAR. The aim of this study was to characterize urine levels of AICAR in diabetes and determine whether an association exists with respect to late complications, e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Fukashi Ishibashi, Mitra Tavakoli
Aims: Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the reduction of the levels of HbA1c by tight glycemic control (GC) decreases the rate of microvascular complications and improves the neurological measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Detailed clinical and neurological examinations including corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) were performed in 141 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and 60 age-matched control subjects at baseline and follow-up with GC for 4 years...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Masaki Kobayashi, Douglas W Zochodne
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, may be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of mRNA changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein (HSP), increases in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), declines in growth factor signaling and other changes...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Katrine Laura Rasmussen, Børge Grønne Nordestgaard, Sune Fallgaard Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Whether the complement system is involved in the development of diabetic microvascular disease is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of complement C3 are associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in individuals from the general population. METHODS: We studied 95202 individuals from the general population with baseline measurements of complement C3, genotyped for rs1065489, rs429608, and rs448260 determining concentrations of complement C3, and enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study from 2003 through 2013, following them until April 10, 2013...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Reema Abdelkareem Abu Khalaf, Dima Sabbah, Eveen Al-Shalabi, Iyad Al-Sheikh, Ghadeer Albadawi, Ghassan Abu Sheikha
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a major worldwide health concern that has several serious complications including retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and macrovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, gliptins, are a new class of antidiabetic agents that potentiates the action of incretins in decreasing the blood glucose levels. METHODS: In the present study, synthesis and characterization of a series of ten N4-sulfonamido-acrylic and phthalamic acid methyl esters (3a-e and 5a-e) were achieved...
March 8, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Guang-Jiang Shi, Guang-Rui Shi, Jia-Yin Zhou, Wen-Jin Zhang, Chen-Ying Gao, Ya-Ping Jiang, Zhen-Guo Zi, Hai-Hong Zhao, Yong Yang, Jian-Qiang Yu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major endocrine metabolic disease and is marked by a lack of insulin. The complication of DM is one of the most difficult problems in medicine. The initial translational studies revealed that growth factors have a major role in integrating tissue physiology and in embryology as well as in growth, maturation and tissue repair. In some tissues affected by diabetes, growth factors are induced by a relative deficit or excess. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a promising regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism with multiple beneficial effects including hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shinje Moon, Hyung-Joon Yoo, You-Hern Ahn, Gheun-Ho Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Joon-Sung Park
The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine)...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kamlesh Khunti, Sudesna Chatterjee, Hertzel C Gerstein, Sophia Zoungas, Melanie J Davies
Sulphonylureas have been commercially available since the 1950s, but their use continues to be associated with controversy. Although adverse cardiovascular outcomes in some observational studies have raised concerns about sulphonylureas, findings from relatively recent, robust, and high-quality systematic reviews have indicated no increased risk of all-cause mortality associated with sulphonylureas compared with other active treatments. Results from large, multicentre, randomised controlled trials such as the UK Prospective Diabetes Study and ADVANCE have confirmed the microvascular benefits of sulphonylureas, a reduction in the incidence or worsening of nephropathy and retinopathy, and no increase in all-cause mortality, although whether these benefits were due to sulphonylurea therapy and not an overall glucose-lowering effect could not be confirmed...
February 28, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
David Karásek, Helena Vaverková
Diabetic dyslipidemia is one of the main risk factors for atherosclerosis. Although its participation in diabetic microvascular complications is not that dominant, dyslipidemia may play an important role in formation and progression of these complications. Pathophysiological mechanisms by which diabetic dyslipidemia affects the etiopathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and diabetic foot are presented. The data from clinical studies and treatment possibilities for particular microvascular complications using lipid-lowering therapy are discussed...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Liang-Zhen You, Yi-Xuan Lin, Zhao-Hui Fang, Guo-Ming Shen, Jin-Dong Zhao, Ting-Ting Wang
Diabetes has become a global public health problem that seriously threatens human health. Traditional Chinese medicine, the characteristics of the role of multiple targets, has a unique advantage in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Astragaloside-Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ), one of the main activities of Astragalus membranaceus, has a series of pharmacological effects including improvement in the function of endothelial cells and neovascularization, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, regulating energy metabolism, protectionnervous, anti-cancer and so on...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Inam-U-Llah, Fengyuan Piao, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Raheel Suleman, Kaixin Li, Mengren Zhang, Pingan Wu, Muhammad Shahbaz, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control...
February 28, 2018: Amino Acids
Anna Pękala-Wojciechowska, Michał Poznański, Kamil Szyszow, Adam Antczak
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes is an insulin deficiency-based chronic disease. It leads to the development of hyperglycaemia, which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of tissue damage in patients with diabetes. This mostly results from oxidative stress, whose increased severity is observed in this group of patients. Increased levels of 8-isoprostanes are seen in many inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. These diseases demonstrated the usefulness of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for extracting material for markers of oxidative stress, including 8-isoprostanes...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Yong-Chao Qiao, Yan-Hong Pan, Yan Xu, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Hai-Lu Zhao
Background: The objective of this research was to investigate the interaction of RAS gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyping for the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene M/T polymorphisms was performed using the polymerase chain reaction method. 311 T1DM patients were recruited for the assessment of ACE and AGT polymorphisms relating to DR...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Lori Berard, Noreen Antonishyn, Kathryn Arcudi, Sarah Blunden, Alice Cheng, Ronald Goldenberg, Stewart Harris, Shelley Jones, Upender Mehan, James Morrell, Robert Roscoe, Rick Siemens, Michael Vallis, Jean-François Yale
It is currently estimated that 11 million Canadians are living with diabetes or prediabetes. Although hyperglycemia is associated with serious complications, it is well established that improved glycemic control reduces the risk of microvascular complications and can also reduce cardiovascular (CV) complications over the long term. The UKPDS and ADVANCE landmark trials have resulted in diabetes guidelines recommending an A1C target of ≤ 7.0% for most patients or a target of ≤ 6.5% to further reduce the risk of nephropathy and retinopathy in those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), if it can be achieved safely...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Emi Arimura, Hideaki Okatani, Tomoaki Araki, Miharu Ushikai, Miwa Nakakuma, Masaharu Abe, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Izumi, Masahisa Horiuchi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Diabetic nephropathy is aggravated by a higher intake of total protein. The effects of diets with different proportions of protein and carbohydrate on diabetic retinopathy in db mice, a type-2 diabetes animal model, were examined, as well as diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and db mice at 5 weeks of age were fed the diets (% energy of protein/carbohydrate/fat; L-diet: 12/71/17; H-diet: 24/59/17) under ad libitum conditions and pair-feeding conditions for 6 weeks, respectively...
March 2018: In Vivo
Sidse Kjærhus Nørgaard, Marianne Jenlev Vestgaard, Isabella Lindegaard Jørgensen, Björg Ásbjörnsdóttir, Lene Ringholm, Harold David McIntyre, Peter Damm, Elisabeth Reinhardt Mathiesen
AIMS: To identify early clinical, modifiable risk factors for preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit and assess the prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders in women with pre-existing diabetes treated with tight glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of 494 women with pre-existing diabetes (307 and 187 women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively), included at their first antenatal visit from 2012-16...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Syed Bilal Shah, Tahir Rasheed, Hafiz M N Iqbal
BACKGROUND: The naturally inspired treatment options for several disease conditions and human-health related disorders such as diabetes mellitus have gained considerable research interest. In this context, naturally occurring plants and herbs with medicinal functionalities have gained special place than ever before in the current medicinal world. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to extend the current knowledge in the clinical field related to the diabetic complications...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
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