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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428757/circadian-rhythm-in-kidney-tissue-oxygenation-in-the-rat
#1
Tonja W Emans, Ben J Janssen, Jaap A Joles, C T Paul Krediet
Blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, electrolyte, and water excretion all display diurnal oscillation. Disturbance of these patterns is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Kidney oxygenation is dependent on oxygen delivery and consumption that in turn are determined by renal hemodynamics and metabolism. We hypothesized that kidney oxygenation also demonstrates 24-h periodicity. Telemetric oxygen-sensitive carbon paste electrodes were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g), either in renal medulla (n = 9) or cortex (n = 7)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426152/donor-specific-alloreactive-t-cells-can-be-quantified-from-whole-blood-and-may-predict-cellular-rejection-after-renal-transplantation
#2
Michaela Fischer, Sarah Leyking, Marco Schäfer, Julia Elsäßer, Martin Janssen, Janine Mihm, Kai van Bentum, Danilo Fliser, Martina Sester, Urban Sester
Preformed cellular alloreactivity can exist prior to transplantation and may contribute to rejection. Here, we used a rapid flow-cytometric whole-blood assay to characterize the extent of alloreactive T cells among 1491 stimulatory reactions from 61 renal transplant candidates and 75 controls. The role of preformed donor-specific alloreactive T cells in cellular rejection was prospectively analyzed in 21 renal transplant recipients. Alloreactive CD8(+) T cells were more frequent than respective CD4(+) T cells, and these levels were stable over time...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424208/architecture-of-the-rat-nephron-arterial-network-analysis-with-micro-computed-tomography
#3
Donald J Marsh, Dmitry D Postnov, Douglas Rowland, Anthony S Wexler, Olga V Sosnovtseva, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou
Among solid organs the kidney's vascular network stands out because each nephron has 2 distinct capillary structures in series, and because tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), one of the mechanisms responsible for blood flow autoregulation, is specific to renal tubules. TGF and the myogenic mechanism, acting jointly, autoregulate single nephron blood flow. Each generates a self-sustained periodic oscillation and an oscillating electrical signal that propagates upstream along arterioles. Similar electrical signals from other nephrons interact, allowing nephron synchronization...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422842/the-role-of-renoscintigraphy-and-surgery-in-the-management-of-page-kidney-a-case-report
#4
Yu-Li Chiu, Chin Hu, Sin-Di Lee, Po-Yin Chen, Cheng-Pin Wang
RATIONALE: Page kidney is an uncommon condition that hypertension occurs secondary to microvascular ischemia and alternation of small-vessel hemodynamics due to external compression of renal parenchyma and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. There are no specific guidelines for the management of Page kidney in the literatures. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 17-year-old teenager who had Fontan procedure for tricuspid and pulmonary atresia in early childhood suffered from sudden onset of severe left flank pain during cardiac catheterization procedure...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420029/interlobar-artery-resistive-index-predicts-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-syndrome-in-cirrhotic-patients-with%C3%A2-acute-decompensation
#5
Pablo A Solís-Muñoz, Christopher Willars, Julia Wendon, George Auzinger, Michael A Heneghan, Maria De la Flor-Robledo, José A Solís-Herruzo
Introduction Patients with acutely decompensated (AD) cirrhosis are at risk for developing acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) syndrome. This syndrome is associated with a high short-term mortality rate. The aim of our study was to identify reliable early predictors of developing ACLF in cirrhotic patients with AD. Patients and Methods We assessed 84 cirrhotic patients admitted for AD without ACLF on admission. We performed routine blood testing and detailed ultrasound Doppler studies of systemic arteries and mayor abdominal veins and arteries...
April 18, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417649/internal-dysregulation-of-the-renin-system-in-patients-with-stable-liver-cirrhosis
#6
Annette Dam Fialla, Helle C Thiesson, Peter Bie, Ove B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Aleksander Krag
Sodium retention in cirrhosis is associated with changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We hypothesized that in cirrhosis the acute reactions of RAAS and SNS to volume expansion are qualitatively intact, but occurring from elevated baseline levels. Acute cardiovascular, neurohumoral and renal responses to central blood volume changes were studied in cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. In patients, baseline plasma renin concentration (PRC) was elevated 5-fold compared to controls (p < ...
April 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414674/a-clot-possibly-due-to-loss-of-tnf-%C3%AE-supression
#7
J Broussard, M Berlinger, D Lauret
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation and venous thrombosis enjoy a close Relationship. We present a patient who had multiple DVTs following the discontinuation of anti- TNF-α therapy. CASE: A 34 year old African American female with a history of multiple DVT's, miscarriages, and reported Crohn's disease presented with shortness of breath. In the Emergency Department, CTA showed bilateral pulmonary emboli. The patient had been off adalimumab for one year and reported abdominal pain with 6-7 non-bloody bowel movements daily...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411915/surgical-techniques-in-the-management-of-small-renal-masses
#8
REVIEW
Michael Daugherty, Gennady Bratslavsky
This article provides a review and outline of the various surgical techniques for small renal masses. It covers surgical approaches and compares outcomes of open versus minimally invasive surgery. The article discusses renal nephrometry scoring and renal ischemia at time of resection. Techniques for controlling the renal hilum and controlling blood flow to the kidney are described. Extirpative techniques for small renal masses are reviewed along with a comparison of outcomes. With careful adherence to key oncologic and surgical principles, negative margins, no complications, and no or minimal decline in renal functional outcomes can be achieved...
May 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409034/increased-intracranial-pressure-during-hemodialysis-in-a-patient-with-anoxic-brain-injury
#9
Anton Lund, Mette B Damholt, Ditte G Strange, Jesper Kelsen, Hasse Møller-Sørensen, Kirsten Møller
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408434/renal-and-vascular-effects-of-uric-acid-lowering-in-normouricemic-patients-with-uncomplicated-type-1-diabetes
#10
Yuliya Lytvyn, Ronnie Har, Amy Locke, Vesta Lai, Derek Fong, Andrew Advani, Bruce A Perkins, David Z I Cherney
Higher plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with lower GFR and higher blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to determine the impact of PUA lowering on renal and vascular function in patients with uncomplicated T1D.T1D patients (n=49) were studied under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions at baseline and after PUA lowering with febuxostat (FBX) for 8 weeks. Healthy controls (HC) were studied under normoglycemic conditions (n=24). PUA, GFR (inulin), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, paraaminohippurate), BP and hemodynamic responses to an infusion of angiotensin II (assessment of intrarenal RAAS) were measured pre- and post-FBX...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404592/accounting-for-oxygen-in-the-renal-cortex-a-computational-study-of-factors-that-predispose-the-cortex-to-hypoxia
#11
Chang-Joon Lee, Bruce S Gardiner, Jennifer P Ngo, Saptarshi Kar, Roger G Evans, David W Smith
We develop a pseudo-3D model of oxygen transport for the renal cortex of the rat, incorporating both the axial and radial geometry of the pre-glomerular circulation and quantitative information regarding the surface areas and transport from the vasculature and renal corpuscles. The computational model was validated by simulating four sets of published experimental studies of renal oxygenation in rats. Under the control conditions, the predicted cortical tissue oxygen tension (PtO2) or microvascular oxygen tension (µPO2) were within ± 1 standard error of the mean value (SEM) observed experimentally...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395663/renal-function-and-oxygenation-are-impaired-early-after-liver-transplantation-despite-hyperdynamic-systemic-circulation
#12
Jenny Skytte Larsson, Gudrun Bragadottir, Bengt Redfors, Sven-Erik Ricksten
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after liver transplantation and is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease and increased mortality. There is a lack of data on renal blood flow (RBF), oxygen consumption, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal oxygenation, i.e. the renal oxygen supply/demand relationship, early after liver transplantation. Increased insight into the renal pathophysiology after liver transplantation is needed to improve the prevention and treatment of postoperative AKI...
April 11, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393184/hyperbaric-oxygen-inhibits-venous-neointimal-hyperplasia-following-arteriovenous-fistulization
#13
Zhui Li, Maoping Li, Xiangjie Li, Mao Zhang, Yu Zhao, Wei Ren, Jun Cheng, Xuehu Wang
Hypoxia following arteriovenous fistulization results in venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH), potentially causing early arteriovenous fistula (AVF) dysfunction. In this study, we used hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in a rabbit model of AVF to determine whether it could ameliorate early AVF failure. Chronic renal failure was induced by adenine in 96 adult rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (n=32 in each group). The sham + HBO group underwent sham operation and received HBO. The AVF alone group underwent fistulization, but did not receive HBO...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389378/sympathetic-regulation-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-volume-are-altered-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-back-pain
#14
Sara Touj, Sébastien Houle, Djamel Ramla, Renaud Jeffrey-Gauthier, Harumi Hotta, Gilles Bronchti, Maria-Grazia Martinoli, Mathieu Piché
Chronic pain is associated with autonomic disturbance. However, specific effects of chronic back pain on sympathetic regulation remain unknown. Chronic pain is also associated with structural changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may be linked to sympathetic dysregulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether sympathetic regulation and ACC surface and volume are affected in a rat model of chronic back pain, in which complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) is injected in back muscles. Sympathetic regulation was assessed with renal blood flow (RBF) changes induced by electrical stimulation of a hind paw, while ACC structure was examined by measuring cortical surface and volume...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387859/altered-expression-of-signalling-lymphocyte-activation-molecule-receptors-in-t-cells-from-lupus-nephritis-patients-a-potential-biomarker-of-disease-activity
#15
Victoria Stratigou, Anne F Doyle, Francesco Carlucci, Lauren Stephens, Valentina Foschi, Marco Castelli, Nicola McKenna, H Terence Cook, Liz Lightstone, Thomas D Cairns, Matthew C Pickering, Marina Botto
Objectives.: The aim was to investigate whether the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) signalling pathways contribute to LN and whether SLAM receptors could be valuable biomarkers of disease activity. Methods.: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30National Research Ethics Service SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN were analysed by flow cytometry. Clinical measures of disease activity were assessed. The expression of the SLAM family receptors on T-cell subpopulations [CD4, CD8 and double negative (DN) T cells] was measured and compared between lupus patients with active renal disease and those in remission...
April 5, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385297/renal-tubular-nhe3-is-required-in-the-maintenance-of-water-and-sodium-chloride-homeostasis
#16
Robert A Fenton, Søren B Poulsen, Samantha de la Mora Chavez, Manoocher Soleimani, Jessica A Dominguez Rieg, Timo Rieg
The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower...
April 3, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383796/arterial-spin-labeling-mri-is-able-to-detect-early-hemodynamic-changes-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
José María Mora-Gutiérrez, Nuria Garcia-Fernandez, M Fernanda Slon Roblero, Jose A Páramo, F Javier Escalada, Danny Jj Wang, Alberto Benito, María A Fernández-Seara
PURPOSE: To investigate whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI could detect renal hemodynamic impairment in diabetes mellitus (DM) along different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three Tesla (3T) ASL-MRI was performed to evaluate renal blood flow (RBF) in 91 subjects (46 healthy volunteers and 45 type 2 diabetic patients). Patients were classified according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as group I (eGFR > 60 mL/min/1...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381456/muscle-mechanoreflex-activation-via-passive-calf-stretch-causes-renal-vasoconstriction-in-healthy-humans
#18
Rachel C Drew, Cheryl A Blaha, Michael D Herr, Ruda Cui, Lawrence I Sinoway
Reflex renal vasoconstriction occurs during exercise, and renal vasoconstriction in response to upper-limb muscle mechanoreflex activation has been documented. However, the renal vasoconstrictor response to muscle mechanoreflex activation originating from lower limbs, with and without local metabolite accumulation, has not been assessed. Eleven healthy young subjects (26 ± 1y; 5 men) underwent two trials involving 3-min passive calf muscle stretch (mechanoreflex) during 7.5-min lower-limb circulatory occlusion (CO)...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380491/association-between-brain-and-kidney-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-early-postresuscitation-mortality-in-asphyxiated-newborn-piglets
#19
Anne Lee Solevåg, Georg M Schmölzer, Britt Nakstad, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Po-Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Early outcome predictors after delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of asphyxiated newborns are needed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if cerebral (rScO2) and renal (rSrO2) tissue oxygen saturation 30 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) are different between surviving versus nonsurviving piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest and CPR. Further, to investigate the relationship of rScO2 and rSrO2 to cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP), and biochemical variables 30 min and 4 h after ROSC...
April 6, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379486/creatinine-generation-from-kinetic-modeling-with-or-without-postdialysis-serum-creatinine-measurement-results-from-the-hemo-study
#20
John T Daugirdas, Thomas A Depner
Background: A convenient method to estimate the creatinine generation rate and measures of creatinine clearance in hemodialysis patients using formal kinetic modeling and standard pre- and postdialysis blood samples has not been described. Methods: We used data from 366 dialysis sessions characterized during follow-up month 4 of the HEMO study, during which cross-dialyzer clearances for both urea and creatinine were available. Blood samples taken at 1 h into dialysis and 30 min and 60 min after dialysis were used to determine how well a two-pool kinetic model could predict creatinine concentrations and other kinetic parameters, including the creatinine generation rate...
March 31, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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