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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667909/losartan-does-not-decrease-renal-oxygenation-and-norepinephrine-effects-in-rats-after-resuscitated-haemorrhage
#1
Sofia Jönsson, Jacqueline M Melville, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Michael Hultström
Renin-angiotensin-system blockers are thought to increase the risk of acute kidney injury after surgery and haemorrhage. We found that Losartan does not cause renal cortical hypoxia after haemorrhage in rats because of decreased renal vascular resistance, but did not evaluate resuscitation. AIM: Study Losartan´s effect on renal cortical and medullary oxygenation, and norepinephrine´s vasopressor effect in a model of resuscitated haemorrhage. METHOD: After seven days Losartan (60 mg/kg/day) or control treatment, male Wistar rats were haemorrhaged 20 % of the blood volume and resuscitated with Ringer's Acetate...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663994/-predictive-value-of-early-phrase-echocardiography-and-cardiac-biological-markers-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-a-five-year-single-center-retrospective-study
#2
Xuefeng Zang, Wei Chen, Bo Sheng, Lei Zhao, Xuyun Gu, Jie Zhen, Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of severe septic patients (patients with acute coronary syndrome and end stage renal disease were excluded) in department of intensive care unit of Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 was conducted. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), creatine kinase (CK), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) within 6 hours after admission, and bedside echocardiography indexes [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio of the peak blood flow velocity in the early stage of the mitral valve and the peak blood flow rate of the mitral valve (E/A ratio)] within 6 hours after diagnosis were recorded...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661193/simulation-of-phase-contrast-angiography-for-renal-arterial-models
#3
Artur Klepaczko, Piotr Szczypiński, Michał Strzelecki, Ludomir Stefańczyk
BACKGROUND: With the development of versatile magnetic resonance acquisition techniques there arises a need for more advanced imaging simulation tools to enable adequate image appearance prediction, measurement sequence design and testing thereof. Recently, there is a growing interest in phase contrast angiography (PCA) sequence due to the capabilities of blood flow quantification that it offers. Moreover, as it is a non-contrast enhanced protocol, it has become an attractive option in areas, where usage of invasive contrast agents is not indifferent for the imaged tissue...
April 16, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658375/pharmacokinetic-alterations-in-poloxamer-407-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#4
Unji Lee, Mi Hye Kwon, Hee Eun Kang
1. Plasma lipid profile abnormalities in hyperlipidemia can potentially alter the pharmacokinetics of a drug in a complex manner. To evaluate these pharmacokinetic alterations in hyperlipidemia and to determine the underlying mechanism(s), poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemic rats (HL rats), a well-established animal model of hyperlipidemia have been used. 2. In this review, we summarize findings on the pathophysiological and gene expression changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in HL rats. We discuss pharmacokinetic changes in drugs metabolized primarily via hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in terms of alterations in hepatic intrinsic clearance (CL'int ), free fraction in plasma (fu ), and hepatic blood flow rate (QH ), depending on the hepatic excretion ratio, as well as drugs eliminated primarily by mechanisms other than hepatic CYPs...
April 16, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#5
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651418/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-its-modulation-in-renal-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644525/determination-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-rankl-levels-in-peripheral-blood-osteoclast-precursor-cells-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#7
Gülcan Güneş, Nil Doğruer Ünal, Gülçin Eskandari, Ahmet Kiykim, Özlem Bölgen Çimen, Gülhan Temel, Mehmet Burak Y Çimen
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition characterized by irreversible loss of functional nephron mass due to variety of causes; an inevitable complication of CKD is metabolic bone disease, and this pathology is called as renal osteodystrophy (ROD). In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of serum sRANKL and intracellular NF-κB levels in peripheral blood osteoclast precursor cells in patients with stage 3 CKD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one male patients aged 35-60 with CKD identified as stage 3 according to GFR calculated on the basis of creatinine values and 27 healthy male subjects with age ranging from 40 to 60 as control group were included in this study...
April 11, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629958/guanylyl-cyclase-a-in-both-renal-proximal-tubular-and-vascular-endothelial-cells-protects-the-kidney-against-acute-injury-in-rodent-experimental-endotoxemia-models
#8
Hiroaki Kitamura, Daisuke Nakano, Yoshiharu Sawanobori, Takehiko Asaga, Hideki Yokoi, Motoko Yanagita, Masashi Mukoyama, Takeshi Tokudome, Kenji Kangawa, Gotaro Shirakami, Akira Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are used, based on empirical observations, in intensive care units as antioliguric treatments. We hypothesized that natriuretic peptides prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced oliguria by activating guanylyl cyclase A, a receptor for natriuretic peptides, in proximal tubules and endothelial cells. METHODS: Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and mice lacking guanylyl cyclase A in either endothelial cells or proximal tubular cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and assessed for oliguria and intratubular flow rate by intravital imaging with multiphoton microscopy...
April 9, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629865/clinicopathological-significance-of-galectin-1-expression-and-percentage-of-galectin-1-expressing-t-cells-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Yajuan Su, Wentao Wang, Yongpeng Xu, Wei Liangjun, Yanjie Wang, Changfu Li, Lichen Teng
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates clinical significance of galectin-1 expression in carcinoma tissues, plasma, and lymphocytes of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Galectin-1 expression was investigated, using immunohistochemistry, in 91 clear-cell RCC tissue sections, five angioleiolipomas tissue sections, and three oncocytomas tissue sections. As controls, normal tissue sections adjacent to each tumour and six benign renal tumour sections were examined...
March 25, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626067/endothelial-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-acts-on-pericytes-to-regulate-microcirculatory-flow-and-blood-pressure
#10
Katarina Špiranec, Wen Chen, Franziska Werner, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Takashi Naruke, Franziska Koch, Andrea Werner, Petra Eder-Negrin, Rodrigo Diéguez-Hurtado, Ralf H Adams, Hideo A Baba, Hannes Schmidt, Kai Schuh, Boris V Skryabin, Kiavash Movahedi, Frank Schweda, Michaela Kuhn
Background -Peripheral vascular resistance has a major impact on arterial blood pressure levels. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) participates in the local regulation of vascular tone but the target cells remain controversial. The cGMP-producing guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B) receptor for CNP is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). However, whereas endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout mice are hypertensive, mice with deletion of GC-B in VSMC have unaltered blood pressure. Methods -We analyzed whether the vasodilating response to CNP changes along the vascular tree, i...
April 6, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623766/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-mixed-venous-oxygen-saturation-as-the-target-for-systemic-blood-flow-control-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#11
Staffan Svenmarker, Matias Hannuksela, Michael Haney
OBJECTIVES: The patient's body surface area serves as the traditional reference for the determination of systemic blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). New strategies refer to different algorithms of oxygen delivery. This study reports on the mixed venous oxygen saturation (Sv O2 ) as the target for systemic blood flow control. We hypothesise that an Sv O2 >75% (Sv O2 75) is associated with better preservation of renal function and improved short-term survival. METHODS: This retrospective, 10-year, observational study analysed 6945 consecutive cardiac surgical cases requiring CPB...
April 1, 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620605/captopril-attenuates-cardiovascular-and-renal-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#12
Eman M Salah, Sheldon I Bastacky, Edwin K Jackson, Stevan P Tofovic
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a prevalent form of heart failure, is frequently accompanied by the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease. Because current treatment options of HFpEF are limited, evaluation of therapies in experimental models of HFpEF with the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease is needed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of captopril, furosemide, and their combination in aged, obese ZSF1 rats, an animal model of HFpEF with the metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease as comorbidities...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611214/hydrogen-gas-does-not-ameliorate-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-preclinical-model
#13
Sarah A Hosgood, Tom Moore, Maria Qurashi, Tom Adams, Michael L Nicholson
In renal transplantation, ischemia reperfusion injury impairs early graft function and can reduce long term graft survival. Hydrogen has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce the effects of ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydrogen gas administered during reperfusion in a preclinical model of kidney ischemia reperfusion injury. Porcine kidneys underwent 15 min of warm ischemia followed by 22 h of cold ischemia. They were then reperfused for 6 h with whole autologous blood on an ex vivo reperfusion circuit...
April 2, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611144/treatment-dose-and-the-elimination-rates-of-electrolytes-vitamins-and-trace-elements-during-continuous-veno-venous-hemodialysis-cvvhd
#14
Thomas Datzmann, Karl Träger, Bernd Schröppel, Helmut Reinelt, Philipp von Freyberg
INTRODUCTION: During continuous renal replacement therapy, achievement of recommended treatment dose is important. However, relevant substrate loss may occur and recommended nutrition during critical illness could not be sufficient for higher dialysis doses. We investigated the correlation of dialysis dose and substrate loss for a broad range of dialysis doses. METHODS: Forty critically ill patients with acute kidney injury undergoing citrate CVVHD were included in this prospective study...
April 2, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609642/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-myocardial-and-vascular-phenotype-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-using-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Mun Hong Cheang, Nathaniel J Barber, Abbas Khushnood, Jakob A Hauser, Gregorz T Kowalik, Jennifer A Steeden, Michael A Quail, Kjell Tullus, Daljit Hothi, Vivek Muthurangu
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased cardiovascular mortality. Identifying high-risk children who may benefit from further therapeutic intervention is difficult as cardiovascular abnormalities are subtle. Although transthoracic echocardiography may be used to detect sub-clinical abnormalities, it has well-known problems with reproducibility that limit its ability to accurately detect these changes. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the reference standard method for assessing blood flow, cardiac structure and function...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606972/renal-vascular-response-to-angiotensin-1-7-in-rats-the-role-of-mas-receptor
#16
Mehdi Nematbakhsh, Azam Mansouri
Recently a cross talk between angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) receptor (MasR) and angiotensin II receptors types 1 and 2 (AT1R and AT2R) has been highlighted. The effects of MasR antagonist (A779) compared to the vehicle on the renal blood flow (RBF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang1-7 (300 ng/kg/min) infusion in the absence of Ang II receptors in male and female rats were determined at controlled renal perfusion pressure. Ang1-7 infusion did not alter mean arterial pressure in male and female rats...
April 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605028/pyruvate-as-a-novel-carrier-of-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-4-may-protect-kidney-in-rats-subjected-to-severe-burns
#17
Sen Hu, Yue-Long Dai, Ming-Juan Gao, Xiao-Na Wang, Hai-Bin Wang, Yong-Qi Dou, Xiao-Dong Bai, Fang-Qiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: The carrier of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) may play a critical role in kidney injury in fluid resuscitation. This study aimed mainly to compare effects of pyruvate-enriched saline with normal saline (NS) and acetate Ringer's (AR) solution as a carrier in HES130/0.4 on kidney function in rats subjected to severe burns. METHODS: Using a lethal burn model, 140 rats were randomly allocated in seven groups (n = 20): sham group (group S); no fluid after burn (group N); burn resuscitated with NS (group NS); burn resuscitated with pyruvate saline (group PS); burn resuscitated with AR plus pyruvate-HES (group SP); burn resuscitated with AR plus acetate-HES (group SA), and burn resuscitated with AR plus NS-HES (group SN)...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604956/berberine-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Liping Zhu, Jiakai Han, Rongrong Yuan, Lei Xue, Wuyan Pang
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, contributing to severe morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Berberine (BBR) has been well characterized to exert renoprotective effects in DN progression. However, the action mechanism of BBR in DN remains to be fully understood. METHODS: The DN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg body weight) while 30 mM high glucose (HG)-treated podocytes were used as an in vitro DN model...
March 31, 2018: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597215/evolution-of-vascular-access-and-anticoagulation
#19
Patrick M Honore, Herbert D Spapen
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important and widely used adjuvant treatment in critically ill patients. However, any CRRT protocol can be adhered to only when the technique is correctly installed and functioning properly. Within this context, an appropriate vascular access and a safe and effective circuit anticoagulation method are key requisites. The right internal jugular (RIJ) vein is the preferred route for insertion with the tip of the catheter placed in the right atrium. Both femoral veins offer a valuable alternative access, but catheters must be longer to avoid recirculation and circuit blood flow is lower as compared with that of the RIJ approach...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582964/-the-nephrology-outpatient-triage-an-organizational-model-for-the-ambulatory-care-of-patients-with-advanced-renal-disease
#20
Giorgio Soragna, Francesca Bermond, Laura Fabbrini, Amelia Rodofili, Aldo Soragna, Maggiorina Bauducco, Aspasia Panunzi, Ada Ramondetti, Cristiana Cerri, Corrado Vitale
The clinical course of outpatients with advanced chronic kidney disease requires a close monitoring by the nephrology team, in order to identify emerging clinical problems promptly and prevent subsequent complications. With the aim of improving the outpatient management in our clinic dedicated to advanced renal failure, we implemented the "Nephrology Clinic Triage" (NCT). This organizational model is coordinated by the nephrologist and supported by nurses. In case the outpatients, or their caregivers, have clinical problems or need advice, they can easily get in touch with a nephrology nurse by a dedicated telephone line...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
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