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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331062/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-activation-improves-renal-oxygenation-and-mitochondrial-function-in-early-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Joanna L Thomas, Hai Pham, Ying Li, Elanore Hall, Guy A Perkins, Sameh S Ali, Hemal H Patel, Prabhleen Singh
Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is driven by alterations in surviving nephrons to sustain renal function with ongoing nephron loss. Oxygen supply-demand mismatch, due to hemodynamic adaptations, with resultant hypoxia, plays an important role in the pathophysiology in early CKD. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this mismatch. We utilized the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model of CKD to investigate the alterations in renal oxygenation linked to sodium (Na) transport and mitochondrial function in the surviving nephrons...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326557/analysis-of-blood-flow-characteristics-in-a-model-of-a-mature-side-to-side-arteriovenous-fistula
#2
Ashkan Javadzadegan, Nay Myo Lwin, Muhammad Asyraf, Anne Simmons, Tracie Barber
The creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common surgical procedure in hemodialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, several complications may occur after surgery, including thrombosis, stenosis, and aneurysm. These complications are attributed to hemodynamics perturbations including pathophysiological wall shear stress (WSS) and flow recirculation zones. In this study, we present a computational hemodynamic analysis in a model of a mature side-to-side AVF, which is then validated by experimental measurements...
March 21, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325445/nonlinear-model-on-pulsatile-flow-of-blood-through-a-porous-bifurcated-arterial-stenosis-in-the-presence-of-magnetic-field-and-periodic-body-acceleration
#3
R Ponalagusamy, S Priyadharshini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Background and Objective: The motivation of cardiovascular modeling is to understand the haemodynamic and mechanical factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Several investigations have been carried out by many authors to understand the flow properties of blood in modelling blood flows in the circulatory system. In the present article, the pulsatile flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid through a bifurcated arterial stenosis in a porous medium with magnetic field and periodic body acceleration has been investigated in view of understanding the role of rheological behaviour of blood, stenotic height, bifurcation angle, magnetic field and porosity of wall in the initiation and proliferation of cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323995/renin-phenotypes-characterize-vascular-disease-autonomous-aldosteronism-and-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activity
#4
Gregory L Hundemer, Rene Baudrand, Jenifer M Brown, Gary Curhan, Gordon H Williams, Anand Vaidya
Context: Mild cases of autonomous aldosterone secretion may go unrecognized using current diagnostic criteria for primary aldosteronism (PA). Objective: To investigate whether the inability to stimulate renin serves as a biomarker for unrecognized autonomous aldosterone secretion and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation. Participants: 663 normotensive and mildly hypertensive participants, who were confirmed to not have PA using current guideline criteria and were on no antihypertensive medications...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321055/the-relationships-between-the-differences-in-the-central-blood-pressure-and-brachial-blood-pressure-and-other-factors-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#5
Masaki Ryuzaki, Satoshi Morimoto, Michita Niiyama, Yasufumi Seki, Naohiro Yoshida, Yoichi Oshima, Yuki Mizuguchi, Daisuke Watanabe, Takashi Ando, Atsuhiro Ichihara
Objective The management of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients is the key to preventing a progression of organ damage. The brachial BP (bBP) has been used as the representative method for measuring the BP. The central BP (cBP), which is, different from the bBP due to the propagation and the reflection of the pulse wave in the arterial system, has recently received attention because it can now be estimated non-invasively. We examined the relationships between the difference in the central systolic BP (csBP) and the brachial systolic BP (bsBP) (Δ) and other factors in hypertensive patients...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315005/effect-of-nitric-oxide-on-renal-autoregulation-during-hypothermia-in-the-rat
#6
Lars Mikael Broman, Mattias Carlström, Örjan Källskog, Mats Wolgast
Hypothermia-induced reduction of metabolic rate is accompanied by depression of both glomerular perfusion and filtration. The present study investigated whether these changes are linked to changes in renal autoregulation and nitric oxide (NO) signalling. During hypothermia, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced and urine production was increased, and this was linked with reduced plasma cGMP levels and increased renal vascular resistance. Although stimulation of NO production decreased vascular resistance, blood pressure and urine flow, intravenous infusion of the NO precursor L-arginine or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside did not alter RBF or GFR...
March 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#7
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303482/extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-is-necessary-to-maintain-renal-blood-flow-during-sepsis-development
#8
Larissa Constantino, Letícia Selinger Galant, Francieli Vuolo, Karla Lorena Guarido, Luiza Wilges Kist, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de Oliveira, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Cláudio Teodoro de Souza, José Eduardo da Silva-Santos, Maurício Reis Bogo, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Cristiane Ritter, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
BACKGROUND: Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) protects nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by decreasing superoxide levels and preventing peroxynitrite generation, which is important in maintaining renal blood flow and in preventing acute kidney injury. However, the profile of ECSOD expression after sepsis is not fully understood. Therefore, we intended to evaluate the content and gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms in the renal artery and their relation to renal blood flow...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298663/lean-flow-optimizing-cardiopulmonary-bypass-equipment-and-flow-for-obese-patients-a-technique-article
#9
Joshua M Blessing, Jeffrey B Riley
The goal of this chart review was to investigate the use of down-sized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits for obese patients. The effects of transitioning from larger to smaller oxygenators, reservoirs, and arteriovenous tubing loops were evaluated through a retrospective review of 2,816 adult non-congenital procedure perfusion records. This technique report and case series is a continuation of our original prescriptive CPB circuit quality improvement project. An algorithm was derived to adjust body surface area (BSA) to lower body mass index (BMI) to provide down-sized extracorporeal circuit components capable of meeting the metabolic needs of the patient...
March 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298295/t-cell-mineralocorticoid-receptor-controls-blood-pressure-by-regulating-interferon-gamma
#10
Xue Nan Sun, Chao Li, Yuan Liu, Lin-Juan Du, Meng-Ru Zeng, Xiao Jun Zheng, Wu Chang Zhang, Yan Liu, Mingjiang Zhu, Deping Kong, Li Zhou, Limin Lu, Zhu-Xia Shen, Yi Yi, Lili Du, Mu Qin, Xu Liu, Zichun Hua, Shuyang Sun, Huiyong Yin, Bin Zhou, Ying Yu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Rationale: Hypertension remains to be a global public health burden and demands novel intervention strategies such as targeting T cells and T cell-derived cytokines. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have been clinically used to treat hypertension. However, the function of T cell MR in blood pressure (BP) regulation has not been elucidated. Objective: We aim to determine the role of T cell MR in BP regulation and to explore the mechanism. Methods and Results: Using T cell MR knockout (TMRKO) mouse in combination with angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertensive mouse model, we demonstrated that MR deficiency in T cells strikingly decreased both systolic and diastolic BP, and attenuated renal and vascular damage...
March 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297045/surgical-technique-determines-the-outcome-of-the-brescia-cimino-avf
#11
Surendra Shenoy
Over the past 50 years, since Dr. Appel performed the first internal vascular access procedure for hemodialysis, the distal radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula continues to be the access of choice. Over time, failure to maturation has evolved as a major problem associated with this procedure depriving its benefits to many patients with end-stage renal disease. A variable incidence of this problem within similar patients suggests that surgical technique may play an important role in the development of non-maturation...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289182/continuum-of-renin-independent-aldosteronism-in-normotension
#12
Rene Baudrand, Francisco J Guarda, Carlos Fardella, Gregory Hundemer, Jenifer Brown, Gordon Williams, Anand Vaidya
Primary aldosteronism is a severe form of autonomous aldosteronism. Milder forms of autonomous and renin-independent aldosteronism may be common, even in normotension. We characterized aldosterone secretion in 210 normotensives who had suppressed plasma renin activity (<1.0 ng/mL per hour), completed an oral sodium suppression test, received an infusion of angiotensin II, and had measurements of blood pressure and renal plasma flow. Continuous associations between urinary aldosterone excretion rate, renin, and potassium handling were investigated...
March 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284381/mechanisms-of-drug-induced-interstitial-nephritis
#13
REVIEW
Rajeev Raghavan, Saed Shawar
Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) is a drug hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) that manifests 7 to 10 days after exposure to the culprit drug. DHRs account for fewer than 15% of reported adverse drug reactions. The kidneys are susceptible to DHR because: (1) the high renal blood flow whereby antigens are filtered, secreted, or concentrated, and (2) it is a major site of excretion for drugs and drug metabolites. More than 250 different drugs from various classes have been incriminated as causative agents of DI-AIN, the third most common cause of acute kidney injury in the hospital...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280792/inhibition-of-interleukin-17-a-but-not-interleukin-17f-signaling-lowers-blood-pressure-and-reduces-end-organ-inflammation-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#14
Mohamed A Saleh, Allison E Norlander, Meena S Madhur
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the T cell subsets producing interleukin 17 (IL-17) isoforms A and F in hypertensive kidneys and vessels and determine whether inhibition of IL-17 signaling lowers blood pressure and end-organ damage in a mouse model of hypertension. BACKGROUND: T cell derived cytokines play a central role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and contribute to end-organ dysfunction. We previously showed that mice genetically deficient in IL-17A exhibited blunted hypertension and reduced renal and vascular dysfunction in response to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion...
December 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280397/pharmacokinetics-and-outcome-of-tazobactam-piperacillin-in-japanese-patients-undergoing-low-flow-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-dosage-considerations
#15
Hanako Kohama, Takeshi Ide, Kazuro Ikawa, Norifumi Morikawa, Shinichi Nishi
BACKGROUND: Tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), which is often combined with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), induces renal excretion and is thought to have a high component removal rate for blood purification. CRRT procedures vary depending on the country, region, and institution. It is not clear whether the dose of TAZ/PIPC for use in Japan can be determined based on studies conducted in other countries. Therefore, in this study, we examined the suitability of recommended dose in Japan...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273684/stress-sensitive-arterial-hypertension-hemodynamic-changes-and-brain-metabolites-in-hypertensive-isiah-rats-mri-investigation
#16
A A Seryapina, O B Shevelev, M P Moshkin, A L Markel, A E Akulov
The study of early development of the arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of etiolody and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. MRI technique was applied to evaluate the hemodynamic and brain metabolites changes in 1- and 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive WAG rats (8 male rats). In the 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, age-dependent increase in the blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of abdominal aorta...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270638/a-haemocompatible-and-scalable-nanoporous-adsorbent-monolith-synthesised-using-a-novel-lignin-binder-route-to-augment-the-adsorption-of-poorly-removed-uraemic-toxins-in-haemodialysis
#17
Susan R Sandeman, Yishan Zheng, Ganesh Ingavle, Carol Howell, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Kolitha Basnayake, Owen Boyd, Andrew Davenport, Nigel Beaton, Nathan Davies
Nanoporous adsorbents are promising materials to augment the efficacy of haemodialysis for the treatment of end stage renal disease where mortality rates remain unacceptably high despite improvements in membrane technology. Complications are linked in part to inefficient removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uremic toxins including key marker molecules albumin bound indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) and large inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The following study describes the assessment of a nanoporous activated carbon monolith produced using a novel binder synthesis route for scale up as an in line device to augment haemodialysis through adsorption of these toxins...
March 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270564/microsomal-and-cytosolic-scaling-factors-in-dog-and-human-kidney-cortex-and-application-for-in-vitro-in-vivo-extrapolation-of-renal-metabolic-clearance
#18
Daniel Scotcher, Sarah Billington, Jay Brown, Christopher Jones, Colin D A Brown, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Aleksandra Galetin
In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug metabolism data obtained in enriched preparations of sub-cellular fractions rely upon robust estimates of physiologically relevant scaling factors for prediction of clearance in vivo. The purpose of the current study was to measure the microsomal and cytosolic protein per gram of kidney (MPPGK and CPPGK) in dog and human kidney cortex using appropriate protein recovery markers, and evaluate functional activity of human cortex microsomes. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) content and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were used as microsomal protein markers, whereas glutathione-S-transferase activity was a cytosolic marker...
March 7, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268711/nanoporous-membrane-robustness-stability-in-small-form-factor-microfluidic-filtration-system
#19
Dean G Johnson, Sabrina Pan, Andrew Hayden, James L McGrath
The development of wearable hemodialysis (HD) devices that replace center-based HD holds the promise to improve both outcomes and quality-of-life for patients with end-stage-renal disease (ERD). A prerequisite for these devices is the development of highly efficient membranes that can achieve high toxin clearance in small footprints. The ultrathin nanoporous membrane material developed by our group is orders of magnitude more permeable than conventional HD membranes. We report on our progress making a prototype wearable dialysis unit...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259131/dysfunction-of-kidney-endothelium-after-ischemia-reperfusion-and-its-prevention-by-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant
#20
S S Jankauskas, N V Andrianova, I B Alieva, A N Prusov, D D Matsievsky, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, E S Savchenko, Y A Pirogov, D N Silachev, E Y Plotnikov, D B Zorov
One of the most important pathological consequences of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is kidney malfunctioning. I/R leads to oxidative stress, which affects not only nephron cells but also cells of the vascular wall, especially endothelium, resulting in its damage. Assessment of endothelial damage, its role in pathological changes in organ functioning, and approaches to normalization of endothelial and renal functions are vital problems that need to be resolved. The goal of this study was to examine functional and morphological impairments occurring in the endothelium of renal vessels after I/R and to explore the possibility of alleviation of the severity of these changes using mitochondria-targeted antioxidant 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine 19 (SkQR1)...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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