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Rainer R Schoch
Rupert Riedl's concept of burden forms a causal hypothesis on organismic integration and evolutionary constraints. Defined as the hierarchically nested interdependence of characters within the organism, burden was seen as (1) defining and conserving body plans and (2) constraining and directing evolutionary trajectories. A review of the components of the burden concept reveals important consistencies with the modern tenets of evo-devo. This concept differs from the current consensus of evolutionary theory in that it (1) grants evolution less options for changing tightly integrated, "locked-in" characters and (2) in deducing from this an ever decreasing freedom for evolution, with cyclism and typostrophism as resulting macroevolutionary phenomena...
January 15, 2010: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
G Banfi, M Del Fabbro, G Lippi
AIM: The authors aimed at studying creatinine concentrations in elite male athletes of rugby, alpine ski and cyclism, characterized from different Body Mass Index (BMI) to evaluate modifications during the competitions season. METHODS: Creatinine was measured by Jaffe method in 44 top-level athletes (18 rugbyists, 13 skiers, and 13 cyclists) before the start of training and competitions and during the competitions season, three times for rugbyists and skiers, and two times for cyclists...
December 2008: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
G Banfi, M Del Fabbro
The role of reticulocytes (Ret) in sports medicine became important when the count of immature erythrocytes has been introduced in protocols used and officially approved for antidoping purposes. The use of modern automated analysers, which allow the easy count and the description of characteristics of reticulocytes, increased the possible use of these parameters in sports medicine. We studied the behaviour of Ret and immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) in top-level athletes practising rugby, ski, soccer and cyclism, throughout a competitive season...
April 2007: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 1958: Minerva Medica
Y Jammes, S Arbogast, M Faucher, A Montmayeur, F Tagliarini, C Robinet
We studied surface electromyogram (SEMG) changes during 1-h endurance cycling in 12 healthy subjects of whom five were involved in mountain bike training programme. The work load was set at 50% of the predicted maximal heart rate. The surface EMG and the compound evoked muscle action potential (M-wave) from the vastus lateralis muscle were recorded at rest, during the 1-h cycling period, and the 20-min recovery period. The root mean square (RMS) and the median frequency (MF) of SEMG power spectrum were computed...
September 2001: Clinical Physiology
F Vercruyssen, C Hausswirth, D Smith, J Brisswalter
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an exercise duration similar to triathlon's cyclism event (approximately 1 hr), on factors determining the freely chosen cadence. Nine trained triathletes completed a cycling track session conducted at a speed corresponding to 75% of maximal heart rate. This session was composed of five submaximal rides performed at five cadences presented in a random order (65, 80, 95, 110 rpm and freely chosen cadence) realized before and after a 1-hr exercise at the freely chosen cadence...
February 2001: Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, Revue Canadienne de Physiologie Appliquée
J F Lesesve, S Andolfatto, M Guinot, M A Gelot, P Franck, M C Béné, F V Lierde, Y Rehn, G Dine
We report data about 50 caucasian top-level cyclists (45 males, 5 women, aged between 16 and 36 years, mean 25 +/- 4.5). Recruitment was by controlling top-level athletes in order to follow their blood cell counts to detect variation in haemoglobin concentration and hematocrit level (prevention of erythropoietin abuse). All samples were drawn in the morning, when the cyclists were at rest, according to a standardized protocol. Erythroblastic serie was abnormal in several cases (4 anaemias, 3 macrocytosis, 6 low haematocrit level, 10 mean cell haemoglobin higher than 32 pg, low reticulocyte count)...
July 2000: Annales de Biologie Clinique
F T Delbeke
Unannounced doping control in cyclism, the most favourite sport in Flanders, resulted in 7.8% positive cases in 4374 analysed samples during the period 1987-1994. Ephedrines, amphetamine and nandrolone were frequently misused and polydrug abuse including ephedrines and amphetamine seemed to be very popular. The abuse of methamphetamine, methylphenidate and pemoline, formerly favourite drugs in cyclists is decreasing while prolintane, codeine and the anabolic steroids nandrolone and testosterone were more frequently detected...
August 1996: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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