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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130190/the-immunologic-considerations-in-head-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Mark A Hardy, Allen Furr, Juan P Barret, John H Barker
The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, physiologic, anatomic, and ethical issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft)...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122008/compromised-neurotrophic-and-angiogenic-regenerative-capability-during-tendon-healing-in-a-rat-model-of-type-ii-diabetes
#2
Aisha S Ahmed, Jian Li, Alim M D Abdul, Mahmood Ahmed, Claes-Göran Östenson, Paul T Salo, Carolyn Hewitt, David A Hart, Paul W Ackermann
Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type-II (DM-II) may increase the risk of suffering painful connective tissue disorders and tendon ruptures. The pathomechanisms, however, by which diabetes adversely affects connective tissue matrix metabolism and regeneration, still need better definition. Our aim was to study the effect of DM-II on expressional changes of neuro- and angiotrophic mediators and receptors in intact and healing Achilles tendon. The right Achilles tendon was transected in 5 male DM-II Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and 4 age-matched Wistar control rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#3
J Ribeiro, A R Caseiro, T Pereira, Pas Armada-da-Silva, I Pires, J Prada, I Amorim, I Leal Reis, S Amado, J D Santos, S Bompasso, S Raimondo, Asp Varejão, S Geuna, A L Luís, A C Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5±0.5x10(-6) S/m, 579±0.6x10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5±0.7 x10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920668/getting-mirna-therapeutics-into-the-target-cells-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Ming Ming Wen
miRNAs play important roles in modulating gene expression in varying cellular processes and disease pathogenesis, including neurodegenerative diseases. Several miRNAs are expressed in the brain, control brain development and are identified as important biomarkers in the pathogenesis of motor-and neuro-cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These remarkable miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targeting potential for many stressful and untreatable progressive neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904478/neuro-rejuvenation-for-neuronal-function
#5
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Richard K Lee
Neurodegenerative eye diseases, such as glaucoma, cause irreversible vision loss in millions of patients worldwide, creating serious medical, economic and social issues. Like other mammalian central nervous system tracts, optic nerve intrinsically lacks the capacity for axonal growth and its surrounding environment is also non-permissive to regeneration. Any axonal damage also triggers a vicious cycle of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Exploring methods that can enhance RGCs survival and promote axonal regeneration will not only enable vision restoration for millions of patients, but also shed light on the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862115/pediatric-acute-liver-failure-of-undetermined-cause-a-research-workshop
#6
Estella M Alonso, Simon P Horslen, Edward M Behrens, Edward Doo
: Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is a potentially devastating condition that occurs in previously healthy children of all ages and frequently leads to a rapid clinical deterioration. An identified cause for liver injury is lacking in approximately 30% of cases. Children with undetermined diagnosis have lower spontaneous survival and higher rates of transplantation and death than other diagnostic groups. A single-day workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases brought together clinicians and basic scientists to integrate aligned research findings and develop a foundation for new mechanistic studies and future treatment trials...
March 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817105/neuro-regeneration-therapy-using-human-muse-cells-is-highly-effective-in-a-mouse-intracerebral-hemorrhage-model
#7
Norihito Shimamura, Kiyohide Kakuta, Liang Wang, Masato Naraoka, Hiroki Uchida, Shohei Wakao, Mari Dezawa, Hiroki Ohkuma
A novel type of non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cell, the Muse cell (multi-lineage, differentiating stress enduring cell), resides in the connective tissue and in cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is reported to differentiate into multiple cell types according to the microenvironment to repair tissue damage. We examined the efficiency of Muse cells in a mouse intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) model. Seventy μl of cardiac blood was stereotactically injected into the left putamen of immunodeficient mice...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669639/activation-of-npff2-receptor-stimulates-neurite-outgrowth-in-neuro-2a-cells-through-activation-of-erk-signaling-pathway
#8
Hong-Ping Yu, Nan Zhang, Ting Zhang, Zi-Long Wang, Ning Li, Hong-Hai Tang, Run Zhang, Meng-Na Zhang, Biao Xu, Quan Fang, Rui Wang
Neurite outgrowth is an important process in neural regeneration and plasticity, especially after neural injury, and recent evidence indicates that several Gαi/o protein-coupled receptors play an important role in neurite outgrowth. The neuropeptide (NP)FF system contains two Gαi/o protein-coupled receptors, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors, which are mainly distributed in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the NPFF system is involved in neurite outgrowth in Neuro 2A cells...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644129/differentiation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-into-functional-mature-neurons-characterized-with-differential-gene-expression
#9
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568467/association-between-apoptotic-neural-tissue-and-cell-proliferation-in-the-adult-teleost-brain
#10
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar
Injury to neuronal tissues in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals results in neural degeneration and sometime leads to loss of function, whereas fish retain a remarkable potential for neuro-regeneration throughout life. Thus, understanding the mechanism of neuro-regeneration in fish CNS would be useful to improve the poor neuro-regenerative capability in mammals. In the present study, we characterized a neuro-regenerative process in the brain of a cichlid, tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Morphological observations showed that the damaged brain region (habenula) successfully regrew and reinnervated axonal projections by 60 days post-damage...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535247/tendon-innervation
#11
Paul W Ackermann, Paul Salo, David A Hart
The regulation of tendon metabolism including the responses to loading is far from being well understood. During the last decade, however, accumulating data show that tendon innervation in addition to afferent functions, via efferent pathways has a regulatory role in tendon homeostasis via a wide range of neuromediators, which coordinate metabolic and neuro-inflammatory pathways.Innervation of intact healthy tendons is localized in the surrounding structures, i.e paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the tendon proper is practically devoid of neuronal supply...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503321/effect-of-combining-fk506-and-neurotrophins-on-neurite-branching-and-elongation
#12
Pratima Labroo, Jill Shea, Himanshu Sant, Bruce Gale, Jayant Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need to improve the outcomes of peripheral nerve regeneration and repair after injury. In addition to its immunosuppressive effects, FK506 (tacrolimus) has been shown to have neuroregenerative properties. To determine biologically relevant local FK506 and growth factor concentrations, we performed an in vitro bioassay using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from chicken embryos. METHODS: Neurite elongation and neurite branching were analyzed microscopically after addition of FK506, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), each alone and in combination...
August 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468987/dual-leucine-zipper-kinase-regulates-expression-of-axon-guidance-genes-in-mouse-neuronal-cells
#13
Andréanne Blondeau, Jean-François Lucier, Dominick Matteau, Lauralyne Dumont, Sébastien Rodrigue, Pierre-Étienne Jacques, Richard Blouin
BACKGROUND: Recent genetic studies in model organisms, such as Drosophila, C. elegans and mice, have highlighted a critical role for dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) in neural development and axonal responses to injury. However, exactly how DLK fulfills these functions remains to be determined. Using RNA-seq profiling, we evaluated the global changes in gene expression that are caused by shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous DLK in differentiated Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. RESULTS: Our analysis led to the identification of numerous up- and down-regulated genes, among which several were found to be associated with system development and axon guidance according to gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses, respectively...
2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465397/mark2-rescues-nogo-66-induced-inhibition-of-neurite-outgrowth-via-regulating-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-neurons-in-vitro
#14
Yu-Chao Zuo, Nan-Xiang Xiong, Jian-Ying Shen, Hua Yu, Yi-Zhi Huang, Hong-Yang Zhao
The ability of neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate after injury is limited by inhibitors in CNS myelin. Nogo-66 is the most important myelin inhibitor but the mechanisms of Nogo-66 inhibition of neurite outgrowth remain poorly understood. Particularly, the relationship between Nogo-66 and microtubule-affinity regulating kinase 2 (MARK2) has not been examined. This study investigated the role of MARK2 in Nogo-66 inhibition and the function of MARK2 in neurite elongation in neurons in vitro...
November 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427471/spred-2-expression-is-associated-with-neural-repair-of-injured-adult-zebrafish-brain
#15
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar
Sprouty-related protein-2 (Spred-2) is a negative regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, which is important for cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, plasticity and survival. Nevertheless, its general molecular characteristics such as gene expression patterns and potential role in neural repair in the brain remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the expression of spred-2 in the zebrafish brain. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridization showed spred-2 mRNA-expressing cells were mainly seen in the proliferative zones such as the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and the dorsal and ventral hypothalamus, and most of which were neuronal cells...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399457/178%C3%A2-high-abbreviated-injury-scale-grade-conversion-rate-following-neuro-spinal-scaffold-implantation-in-acute-thoracic-complete-abbreviated-injury-scale-a-spinal-cord-injury-potential-mechanisms
#16
Nicholas Theodore, Kee Duk Kim, Patrick C Hsieh, Wilson Zachary Ray, Maureen Barry, Rick Layer, Simon W Moore, Domagoj Coric
INTRODUCTION: In preclinical models, Neuro-Spinal Scaffold (NSS) implantation following spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes neural sparing and regeneration through internal decompression and tissue remodeling. Rather than typical postinjury cyst formation, the NSS acts through appositional healing to form neuropermissive remodeled tissue. A pilot study of the NSS enrolled 5 patients with complete thoracic SCI; 3 converted to incomplete. Neurological recovery in 2 patients was either sustained (beyond 12 months) or delayed by 6 months...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381717/neuro-immune-lessons-from-an-annelid-the-medicinal-leech
#17
Aurélie Tasiemski, Michel Salzet
An important question that remains unanswered is how the vertebrate neuroimmune system can be both friend and foe to the damaged nervous tissue. Some of the difficulty in obtaining responses in mammals probably lies in the conflation in the central nervous system (CNS), of the innate and adaptive immune responses, which makes the vertebrate neuroimmune response quite complex and difficult to dissect. An alternative strategy for understanding the relation between neural immunity and neural repair is to study an animal devoid of adaptive immunity and whose CNS is well described and regeneration competent...
July 2, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374227/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-through-activation-of-erk-mapk-signalling-pathway-in-n2a-cells
#18
Lei Chen, Peimin Feng, Xi Zhu, Shixu He, Jialan Duan, Dong Zhou
Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are playing critical roles in neurogenesis, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Neurite outgrowth is an early step in neuronal differentiation and regeneration. Using in vitro differentiation of neuroblastoma-derived Neuro-2a (N2a) cell as a model, we performed expression profiling to identify lncRNAs putatively relevant for neurite outgrowth. We identified that Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) was one of the most significantly up-regulated lncRNAs during N2a cell differentiation...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324124/urokinase-and-urokinase-receptor-participate-in-regulation-of-neuronal-migration-axon-growth-and-branching
#19
Ekaterina Semina, Kseniya Rubina, Veronika Sysoeva, Karina Rysenkova, Polina Klimovich, Olga Plekhanova, Vsevolod Tkachuk
PURPOSE: Recent findings indicate the significant contribution of urokinase and urokinase receptor (uPA and uPAR) in the processes of nerve regeneration, however, their role in axonal growth and branching is unclear. Using a 3D model of mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) explants, differentiated into neurons Neuro 2a cells and transgenic mice lacking the urokinase gene, we studied the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the neural cell migration, neurite outgrowth, elongation and branching...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279085/studies-on-regeneration-of-central-nervous-system-and-social-ability-of-the-earthworm-eudrilus-eugeniae
#20
Nino Gopi Daisy, Elaiya Raja Subramanian, Jackson Durairaj Selvan Christyraj, Dinesh Kumar Sudalai Mani, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel Selvan Christyraj, Kalidas Ramamoorthy, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Sudhakar Sivasubramaniam
Earthworms are segmented invertebrates that belong to the phylum Annelida. The segments can be divided into the anterior, clitellar and posterior parts. If the anterior part of the earthworm, which includes the brain, is amputated, the worm would essentially survive even in the absence of the brain. In these brain amputee-derived worms, the nerve cord serves as the primary control center for neurological function. In this current work, we studied changes in the expression levels of anti-acetylated tubulin and serotonin as the indicators of neuro-regenerative processes...
September 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
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