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Neuro regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396009/molecular-mechanisms-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-neuro-protection-recent-developments
#1
REVIEW
Hailin Zhao, Azeem Alam, Chun-Yin San, Shiori Eguchi, Qian Chen, Qingquan Lian, Daqing Ma
Neuronal cell injury, as a consequence of acute or chronic neurological trauma, is a significant cause of mortality around the world. On a molecular level, the condition is characterized by widespread cell death and poor regeneration, which can result in severe morbidity in survivors. Potential therapeutics are of major interest, with a promising candidate being brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a ubiquitous agent in the brain which has been associated with neural development and may facilitate protective and regenerative effects following injury...
April 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386125/guangxi-cobra-venom-derived-ngf-promotes-the-osteogenic-and-therapeutic-effects-of-porous-bcp-ceramic
#2
Pan Jin, Fuqiang Yin, Li Huang, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao, Xingdong Zhang
Neuro-osteological interactions have an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism and regeneration. Neuropeptides combined with porous biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) using protein adsorption may contribute to the acceleration of bone formation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BCP combined with nerve growth factor (NGF) on the growth of osteoblasts in vitro and the combinational therapeutic effect on the repair of calvarial defects in vivo. NGF was separated and purified from Chinese cobra venom using a simplified three-step chromatography method...
April 7, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359314/alpinia-oxyphylla-miq-fruit-extract-activates-igfr-pi3k-akt-signaling-to-induce-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#3
Yung-Ming Chang, Hen-Hong Chang, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Hung-Jen Lin, Tsung-Jung Ho, Chi-Xin Ye, Ping-Ling Chiu, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Chih-Yang Huang, Chien-Chung Lin
BACKGROUND: It is known that the medicinal herb Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. is widely used as a remedy for diarrhea as well as the symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. Moreover, it has also been reported that Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has beneficial effects on anti-senescence and neuro-protection. This study focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which the Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. fruits promote neuron regeneration. METHODS: A piece of silicone rubber was guided across a 15 mm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat...
March 31, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356028/the-application-of-nanomaterials-in-stem-cell-therapy-for-some-neurological-diseases
#4
Guilong Zhang, Ahsan Ali Khan, Hao Wu, Lukui Chen, Yuchun Gu, Ning Gu
Stem cell therapy provides great promising therapeutic benefits for various neurological disorders. Cell transplantation has emerged as cell replacement application for nerve damage. Recently, nanomaterials obtain wide development in various industrial and medical fields, and nanoparticles have been applied to neuro-medical field for tracking and treating nervous system diseases. Combining stem cell with nanotechnology has raised more and more attentions; and it has demonstrated that it has huge effects on clinical diagnosis and therapeutics in multiple central nervous system diseases, meanwhile, improving prognosis...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349952/nerve-regeneration-by-human-corneal-stromal-keratocytes-and-stromal-fibroblasts
#5
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Geraint P Williams, Melina Setiawan, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Xiao-Wen Lee, Hla Myint Htoon, Lei Zhou, Matthias Fuest, Jodhbir S Mehta
Laser refractive surgeries reshape corneal stroma to correct refractive errors, but unavoidably affect corneal nerves. Slow nerve regeneration and atypical neurite morphology cause desensitization and neuro-epitheliopathy. Following injury, surviving corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) are activated to stromal fibroblasts (SFs). How these two different cell types influence nerve regeneration is elusive. Our study evaluated the neuro-regulatory effects of human SFs versus CSKs derived from the same corneal stroma using an in vitro chick dorsal root ganglion model...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130190/the-immunologic-considerations-in-human-head-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Mark A Hardy, Allen Furr, Juan P Barret, John H Barker
The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft)...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122008/compromised-neurotrophic-and-angiogenic-regenerative-capability-during-tendon-healing-in-a-rat-model-of-type-ii-diabetes
#7
Aisha S Ahmed, Jian Li, Alim M D Abdul, Mahmood Ahmed, Claes-Göran Östenson, Paul T Salo, Carolyn Hewitt, David A Hart, Paul W Ackermann
Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type-II (DM-II) may increase the risk of suffering painful connective tissue disorders and tendon ruptures. The pathomechanisms, however, by which diabetes adversely affects connective tissue matrix metabolism and regeneration, still need better definition. Our aim was to study the effect of DM-II on expressional changes of neuro- and angiotrophic mediators and receptors in intact and healing Achilles tendon. The right Achilles tendon was transected in 5 male DM-II Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and 4 age-matched Wistar control rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#8
Jorge Ribeiro, Ana Rita Caseiro, Tiago Pereira, Paulo Alexandre Armada-da-Silva, Isabel Pires, Justina Prada, Irina Amorim, Inês Leal Reis, Sandra Amado, José Domingos Santos, Simone Bompasso, Stefania Raimondo, Artur Severo Proença Varejão, Stefano Geuna, Ana Lúcia Luís, Ana Colette Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) S/m, 579 ± 0.6 × 10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
May 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920668/getting-mirna-therapeutics-into-the-target-cells-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Ming Ming Wen
miRNAs play important roles in modulating gene expression in varying cellular processes and disease pathogenesis, including neurodegenerative diseases. Several miRNAs are expressed in the brain, control brain development and are identified as important biomarkers in the pathogenesis of motor-and neuro-cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These remarkable miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targeting potential for many stressful and untreatable progressive neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904478/neuro-rejuvenation-for-neuronal-function
#10
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Richard K Lee
Neurodegenerative eye diseases, such as glaucoma, cause irreversible vision loss in millions of patients worldwide, creating serious medical, economic and social issues. Like other mammalian central nervous system tracts, optic nerve intrinsically lacks the capacity for axonal growth and its surrounding environment is also non-permissive to regeneration. Any axonal damage also triggers a vicious cycle of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Exploring methods that can enhance RGCs survival and promote axonal regeneration will not only enable vision restoration for millions of patients, but also shed light on the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862115/pediatric-acute-liver-failure-of-undetermined-cause-a-research-workshop
#11
Estella M Alonso, Simon P Horslen, Edward M Behrens, Edward Doo
Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is a potentially devastating condition that occurs in previously healthy children of all ages and frequently leads to a rapid clinical deterioration. An identified cause for liver injury is lacking in approximately 30% of cases. Children with undetermined diagnosis have lower spontaneous survival and higher rates of transplantation and death than other diagnostic groups. A single-day workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases brought together clinicians and basic scientists to integrate aligned research findings and develop a foundation for new mechanistic studies and future treatment trials...
March 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817105/neuro-regeneration-therapy-using-human-muse-cells-is-highly-effective-in-a-mouse-intracerebral-hemorrhage-model
#12
Norihito Shimamura, Kiyohide Kakuta, Liang Wang, Masato Naraoka, Hiroki Uchida, Shohei Wakao, Mari Dezawa, Hiroki Ohkuma
A novel type of non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cell, the Muse cell (multi-lineage, differentiating stress enduring cell), resides in the connective tissue and in cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is reported to differentiate into multiple cell types according to the microenvironment to repair tissue damage. We examined the efficiency of Muse cells in a mouse intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) model. Seventy μl of cardiac blood was stereotactically injected into the left putamen of immunodeficient mice...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669639/activation-of-npff2-receptor-stimulates-neurite-outgrowth-in-neuro-2a-cells-through-activation-of-erk-signaling-pathway
#13
Hong-Ping Yu, Nan Zhang, Ting Zhang, Zi-Long Wang, Ning Li, Hong-Hai Tang, Run Zhang, Meng-Na Zhang, Biao Xu, Quan Fang, Rui Wang
Neurite outgrowth is an important process in neural regeneration and plasticity, especially after neural injury, and recent evidence indicates that several Gαi/o protein-coupled receptors play an important role in neurite outgrowth. The neuropeptide (NP)FF system contains two Gαi/o protein-coupled receptors, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors, which are mainly distributed in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the NPFF system is involved in neurite outgrowth in Neuro 2A cells...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644129/differentiation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-into-functional-mature-neurons-characterized-with-differential-gene-expression
#14
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568467/association-between-apoptotic-neural-tissue-and-cell-proliferation-in-the-adult-teleost-brain
#15
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar
Injury to neuronal tissues in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals results in neural degeneration and sometime leads to loss of function, whereas fish retain a remarkable potential for neuro-regeneration throughout life. Thus, understanding the mechanism of neuro-regeneration in fish CNS would be useful to improve the poor neuro-regenerative capability in mammals. In the present study, we characterized a neuro-regenerative process in the brain of a cichlid, tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Morphological observations showed that the damaged brain region (habenula) successfully regrew and reinnervated axonal projections by 60 days post-damage...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535247/tendon-innervation
#16
Paul W Ackermann, Paul Salo, David A Hart
The regulation of tendon metabolism including the responses to loading is far from being well understood. During the last decade, however, accumulating data show that tendon innervation in addition to afferent functions, via efferent pathways has a regulatory role in tendon homeostasis via a wide range of neuromediators, which coordinate metabolic and neuro-inflammatory pathways.Innervation of intact healthy tendons is localized in the surrounding structures, i.e paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the tendon proper is practically devoid of neuronal supply...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503321/effect-of-combining-fk506-and-neurotrophins-on-neurite-branching-and-elongation
#17
Pratima Labroo, Jill Shea, Himanshu Sant, Bruce Gale, Jayant Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need to improve the outcomes of peripheral nerve regeneration and repair after injury. In addition to its immunosuppressive effects, FK506 (tacrolimus) has been shown to have neuroregenerative properties. To determine biologically relevant local FK506 and growth factor concentrations, we performed an in vitro bioassay using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from chicken embryos. METHODS: Neurite elongation and neurite branching were analyzed microscopically after addition of FK506, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), each alone and in combination...
April 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468987/dual-leucine-zipper-kinase-regulates-expression-of-axon-guidance-genes-in-mouse-neuronal-cells
#18
Andréanne Blondeau, Jean-François Lucier, Dominick Matteau, Lauralyne Dumont, Sébastien Rodrigue, Pierre-Étienne Jacques, Richard Blouin
BACKGROUND: Recent genetic studies in model organisms, such as Drosophila, C. elegans and mice, have highlighted a critical role for dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) in neural development and axonal responses to injury. However, exactly how DLK fulfills these functions remains to be determined. Using RNA-seq profiling, we evaluated the global changes in gene expression that are caused by shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous DLK in differentiated Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. RESULTS: Our analysis led to the identification of numerous up- and down-regulated genes, among which several were found to be associated with system development and axon guidance according to gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses, respectively...
2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465397/mark2-rescues-nogo-66-induced-inhibition-of-neurite-outgrowth-via-regulating-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-neurons-in-vitro
#19
Yu-Chao Zuo, Nan-Xiang Xiong, Jian-Ying Shen, Hua Yu, Yi-Zhi Huang, Hong-Yang Zhao
The ability of neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate after injury is limited by inhibitors in CNS myelin. Nogo-66 is the most important myelin inhibitor but the mechanisms of Nogo-66 inhibition of neurite outgrowth remain poorly understood. Particularly, the relationship between Nogo-66 and microtubule-affinity regulating kinase 2 (MARK2) has not been examined. This study investigated the role of MARK2 in Nogo-66 inhibition and the function of MARK2 in neurite elongation in neurons in vitro...
November 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427471/spred-2-expression-is-associated-with-neural-repair-of-injured-adult-zebrafish-brain
#20
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar
Sprouty-related protein-2 (Spred-2) is a negative regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, which is important for cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, plasticity and survival. Nevertheless, its general molecular characteristics such as gene expression patterns and potential role in neural repair in the brain remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the expression of spred-2 in the zebrafish brain. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridization showed spred-2 mRNA-expressing cells were mainly seen in the proliferative zones such as the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and the dorsal and ventral hypothalamus, and most of which were neuronal cells...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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