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Neuro regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700345/3d-bio-printed-scaffold-free-nerve-constructs-with-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-rat-facial-nerve-regeneration
#1
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong D Nguyen, Shihong Shi, Justin C Burrell, D Kacy Cullen, Anh D Le
Despite the promising neuro-regenerative capacities of stem cells, there is currently no licensed stem cell-based product in the repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. Here, we explored the potential use of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as the only cellular component in 3D bio-printed scaffold-free neural constructs that were transplantable to bridge facial nerve defects in rats. We showed that GMSCs have the propensity to aggregate into compact 3D-spheroids that could produce their own matrix...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693489/new-perspectives-on-the-roles-of-pyrimidines-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
M Löffler, E A Carrey, E Zameitat
Since 1956, when exogenous uridine and cytidine were found to be necessary for the maintenance of perfused rat brain function, the co-existence of de novo synthesis, salvage pathways and removal of pyrimidine bases in the CNS has been a controversial subject. Here, we review studies on metabolites and enzymes of pyrimidine metabolism through more than 60 years. In view of known and newly-described inherited pyrimidine and purine disorders - some with complex clinical profiles of neurological impairments - we underline the necessity to investigate how the different pathways work together in the developing brain and then sustain plasticity, regeneration and neuro-transmission in the adult CNS...
April 25, 2018: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680669/exposing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-chondroitin-sulphated-proteoglycans-reduces-their-angiogenic-and-neuro-adhesive-paracrine-activity
#3
Chelsea R Wood, Ibtesam R T Al Delfi, John F Innes, Peter Myint, William E B Johnson
The multifactorial complexity of spinal cord injuries includes the formation of a glial scar, of which chondroitin sulphated proteoglycans (CSPG) are an integral component. Previous studies have shown CSPG to have inhibitory effects on endothelial and neuronal cell growth, highlighting the difficulty of spinal cord regeneration. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are widely used a cell therapy, and there is mounting evidence for their angiogenic and neurotrophic paracrine properties. However, in vivo studies have observed poor engraftment and survival of MSC when injected into SCI...
April 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674963/a-bivalent-securinine-compound-sn3-l6-induces-neuronal-differentiation-via-translational-upregulation-of-neurogenic-transcription-factors
#4
Yumei Liao, Xiaoji Zhuang, Xiaojie Huang, Yinghui Peng, Xuanyue Ma, Zhi-Xing Huang, Feng Liu, Junyu Xu, Ying Wang, Wei-Min Chen, Wen-Cai Ye, Lei Shi
Developing therapeutic approaches that target neuronal differentiation will be greatly beneficial for the regeneration of neurons and synaptic networks in neurological diseases. Protein synthesis (mRNA translation) has recently been shown to regulate neurogenesis of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). However, it has remained unknown whether engineering translational machinery is a valid approach for manipulating neuronal differentiation. The present study identifies that a bivalent securinine compound SN3-L6, previously designed and synthesized by our group, induces potent neuronal differentiation through a novel translation-dependent mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643068/hydrogen-peroxide-is-a-neuronal-alarmin-that-triggers-specific-rnas-local-translation-of-annexin-a2-and-cytoskeletal-remodeling-in-schwann-cells
#5
Samuele Negro, Marco Stazi, Marta Marchioretto, Toma Tebaldi, Umberto Rodella, Elisa Duregotti, Volker Gerke, Alessandro Quattrone, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni, Gabriella Viero
Schwann cells are key players in neuro-regeneration: they sense alarm signals released by degenerating nerve terminals and differentiate toward a pro-regenerative phenotype, with phagocytosis of nerve debris and nerve guidance. At the murine neuromuscular junction, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signal of Schwann cells activation in response to a variety of nerve injuries. Here we report that Schwann cells exposed to low doses of H2 O2 rewire the expression of several RNAs at both transcriptional and translational levels...
April 11, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594947/a-neuro-comparative-study-between-single-successive-thorium-dose-intoxication-and-alginate-treatment
#6
Mohamed M Rezk
The adult male albino rats were grouped into five groups (control group and four variably treated groups with thorium (Th) in single or successive with or without alginate treatment). The IP administration of thorium nitrate (13.6 mg/kg b.wt.) induced a regional distribution and accumulation ordered as cerebellum > cerebral cortex > brain stem > hippocampus > hypothalamus > striatum. Also, it induces a significant increase in Na+ , Ca2+ , and Fe3+ ion content and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while K+ ions and glutathione (GSH) level were significantly decreased...
March 29, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580168/photocrosslinkable-gelatin-tropoelastin-hydrogel-adhesives-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#7
Jonathan R Soucy, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Roberto Portillo Lara, David Diaz, Felipe Dias, Anthony S Weiss, Abigail N Koppes, Ryan Koppes, Nasim Annabi
Suturing peripheral nerve transections is the predominant therapeutic strategy for nerve repair. However, the use of sutures lead to scar tissue formation, hinder nerve regeneration, and prevent functional recovery. Fibrin-based adhesives have been widely used for nerve reconstruction, but their limited adhesive and mechanical strength, and inability to promote nerve regeneration hampers their utility as a stand-alone intervention. To overcome these challenges, we engineered composite hydrogels that are neuro-supportive and possess strong tissue adhesion...
March 27, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517994/fatty-acids-dietary-supplements-exert-anti-inflammatory-action-and-limit-ganglion-cell-degeneration-in-the-retina-of-the-eae-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Massimo Dal Monte, Maurizio Cammalleri, Filippo Locri, Rosario Amato, Stefania Marsili, Dario Rusciano, Paola Bagnoli
Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve (ON) and is an initial symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Optic neuritis is characterized by ON degeneration and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss that contributes to permanent visual disability and lacks a reliable treatment. Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS, a well-established model also for optic neuritis. In this model, C57BL6 mice, intraperitoneally injected with a fragment of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), were found to develop inflammation, Müller cell gliosis, and infiltration of macrophages with increased production of oncomodulin (OCM), a calcium binding protein that acts as an atypical trophic factor for neurons enabling RGC axon regeneration...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493520/neuropathy-damage-to-peripheral-nerves-in-diseases-and-injuries-of-the-musculoskeletal-system
#9
Wiesław Tomaszewski, Katarzyna Malinowska
The musculoskeletal diseases and injuries affect not only the musculoskeletal system itself, but also the closely related structures, such as blood vessels and nerves (both within the central and the peripheral nervous system). If these relationships are neglected or the directed neuroprotective and neuro-regeneration therapy is delayed, the final effect of the treatment is compromised. The aim if this paper is describing the important medical and social problem of peripheral neuropathies from the point of view of epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, imaging diagnostics and complex medical procedures using modern approaches and techniques, based on the available literature...
December 30, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463007/new-insights-into-the-role-of-neuron-specific-enolase-in-neuro-inflammation-neurodegeneration-and-neuroprotection
#10
REVIEW
Azizul Haque, Rachel Polcyn, Denise Matzelle, Naren L Banik
Neurodegeneration is a complex process that leads to irreversible neuronal damage and death in spinal cord injury (SCI) and various neurodegenerative diseases, which are serious, debilitating conditions. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal damage in these degenerative disorders is not completely understood. Elevation of cell surface α-enolase activates various inflammatory pathways, including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and some growth factors that are detrimental to neuronal cells...
February 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402798/transplanted-dental-pulp-stem-cells-migrate-to-injured-area-and-express-neural-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Xuemei Zhang, Yinglian Zhou, Hulun Li, Rui Wang, Dan Yang, Bing Li, Xiaofang Cao, Jin Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. METHODS: The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382609/role-of-proteoglycans-in-neuro-inflammation-and-central-nervous-system-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Femke Heindryckx, Jin-Ping Li
Fibrosis is defined as the thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually as a consequence of tissue damage. The central nervous system (CNS) is special in the sense that fibrogenic cells are restricted to vascular and meningeal areas. Inflammation and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier can lead to the infiltration of fibroblasts and trigger fibrotic response. While the initial function of the fibrotic tissue is to restore the blood-brain barrier and to limit the site of injury, it also demolishes the structure of extracellular matrix and impedes the healing process by producing inhibitory molecules and forming a physical and biochemical barrier that prevents axon regeneration...
January 31, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370308/semaphorin3a-induces-nerve-regeneration-in-the-adult-cornea-a-switch-from-its-repulsive-role-in-development
#13
Min Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Yuncin Luo, Tara Nguyen, Mark I Rosenblatt, Victor H Guaiquil
The peripheral sensory nerves that innervate the cornea can be easily damaged by trauma, surgery, infection or diabetes. Several growth factors and axon guidance molecules, such as Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) are upregulated upon cornea injury. Nerves can regenerate after injury but do not recover their original density and patterning. Sema3A is a well known axon guidance and growth cone repellent protein during development, however its role in adult cornea nerve regeneration remains undetermined. Here we investigated the neuro-regenerative potential of Sema3A on adult peripheral nervous system neurons such as those that innervate the cornea...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305292/corneal-nerve-regeneration-after-herpes-simplex-keratitis-a-longitudinal-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-study
#14
Hamid-Reza Moein, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Rodrigo T Muller, Andrea C Cruzat, Deborah Pavan-Langston, Pedram Hamrah
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term alterations of corneal nerves in patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, cross sectional. METHODS: This study included 16 patients with a history of HSV keratitis and 15 age-matched normal controls. Slit-scanning IVCM was performed in all subjects at baseline and then after a mean follow-up of 37.3 ± 1.7 months in the patient group...
April 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288684/the-octapetide-nap-alleviates-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-anti-inflammatory-sequelae-of-acute-experimental-colitis
#15
Markus M Heimesaat, Eliezer Giladi, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Illana Gozes
The octapeptide NAP has been shown to exert neuroprotective properties and reduce neuro-inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate if NAP provides anti-inflammatory effects in acute murine colitis. To address this, C57BL/6 j mice were challenged with 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium from day 0 until day 6 to induce colitis, either treated intraperitoneally with NAP or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) from day 1 until day 6 post-induction (p.i.) and subjected to in depth macroscopic, microscopic and immunological evaluations...
March 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171434/nischarin-sirna-delivered-by-polyethylenimine-alginate-nanoparticles-accelerates-motor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Yue-Min Ding, Yu-Ying Li, Chu Wang, Hao Huang, Chen-Chen Zheng, Shao-Han Huang, Yang Xuan, Xiao-Yi Sun, Xiong Zhang
A previous study by our group found that inhibition of nischarin promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration in Neuro-2a cells and primary cortical neurons. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that nanomaterials have good prospects in treatment of spinal cord injury. We proposed that small interfering RNA targeting nischarin (Nis-siRNA) delivered by polyethyleneimine-alginate (PEI-ALG) nanoparticles promoted motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury. Direct microinjection of 5 μL PEI-ALG/Nis-siRNA into the spinal cord lesion area of spinal cord injury rats was performed...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119332/therapeutic-effect-of-vinorine-on-sciatic-nerve-injured-rat
#17
Dongdong Guo, Xingang Lu, Xiaoli Xu, Haixin Gou, Zhiqian Wang, Yi Cao, Xingjing Luo
Vinorine is a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, a type of natural alkaloids. Growing reports exhibited the numerous pharmacology activities of vinorine such as anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial and anti-tumor. In this study, the effect of vinorine injection (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) on motor function, sensation and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury rat was investigated. The results of behavioral analysis, electrophysiological analysis and muscle histological analysis suggested that vinorine promoted the motor function recovery after sciatic nerve injury...
February 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116017/regenerative-potential-of-primary-adult-human-neural-stem-cells-on-micropatterned-bio-implants-boosts-motor-recovery
#18
Carole Davoust, Benjamin Plas, Amélie Béduer, Boris Demain, Anne-Sophie Salabert, Jean Christophe Sol, Christophe Vieu, Laurence Vaysse, Isabelle Loubinoux
BACKGROUND: The adult brain is unable to regenerate itself sufficiently after large injuries. Therefore, hopes rely on therapies using neural stem cell or biomaterial transplantation to sustain brain reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement in sensorimotor recovery brought about by human primary adult neural stem cells (hNSCs) in combination with bio-implants. METHODS: hNSCs were pre-seeded on implants micropatterned for neurite guidance and inserted intracerebrally 2 weeks after a primary motor cortex lesion in rats...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082445/effects-of-over-expression-of-sod2-in-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Xiaodong Shi, Yunan Bai, Guodong Zhang, Yuguang Liu, Hang Xiao, Xiaogang Liu, Wei Zhang
Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been shown to promote nerve cell regeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI). As the anti-oxidant defense systems in neuronal tissue including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) are crucial to defend cell against oxidative stress. We proposed a new stratege to increase the therapeutic effect of MSCs by preventing cells death from oxidative stress. We overexpressed SOD2 in BM-MSCs, transplanted these MSCs into TBI model mice, assessed the protective effect of SOD2 against oxidation-induced apoptosis in BM-MSCs both in vitro and in vivo, evaluated brain functional recovery by the rotarod behavioral test, and tested the oxidation status of TBI mice brain after BM-MSCs transplantation by monitoring the superoxide dismutase, glutathione and malonaldehyde level...
October 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977304/children-with-multiple-congenital-defects-what-are-the-limits-between-therapeutic-obstinacy-and-the-treatment-of-uncertain-benefit
#20
Patricia Souza Valle Cardoso Pastura, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot Land
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic approach of children with multiple malformations poses many dilemmas, making it difficult to build a line between the treatment of uncertain benefit and therapeutic obstinacy. The aim of this paper was to highlight possible sources of uncertainty in the decision-making process, for this group of children. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-month-old boy, born with multiple birth defects and abandoned by his parents, has never been discharged home. He has complex congenital heart disease, main left bronchus stenosis and imperforate anus...
January 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
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