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Jenna F DuMond, Xue Zhang, Yuichiro Izumi, Kevin Ramkissoon, Guanghui Wang, Marjan Gucek, Xujing Wang, Maurice B Burg, Joan D Ferraris
NFAT5 is a transcription factor originally identified because it is activated by hypertonicity and that activation increases expression of genes that protect against the adverse effects of the hypertonicity. However, its targets also include genes not obviously related to tonicity. The transactivating domain of NFAT5 is contained in its c-terminal region, which is predicted to be unstructured. Unstructured regions are common in transcription factors particularly in transactivating domains where they can bind co-regulatory proteins essential to their function...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Fernando Freitas de Lima, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei Menegati, Giseli Karenina Traesel, Flávio Henrique Souza de Araújo, Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Sara Moraes Peixoto, Felipe Ariel Mao Silva, Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as "bacuri", is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart...
2016: PloS One
Jun Li, Wei Zhen, Dengkai Long, Ling Ding, Anhui Gong, Chenghong Xiao, Weike Jiang, Xiaoqing Liu, Tao Zhou, Luqi Huang
Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is a mild tonic herb widely cultivated in the Southern part of China. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla accumulate high levels of secondary metabolism products of medicinal value such as saponins, flavonoids, and isoquinoline alkaloids. Despite numerous studies on the pharmacological importance and purification of these compounds in P. heterophylla, their biosynthesis is not well understood. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform to sequence the RNA from flowers, leaves, stem, root cortex and xylem tissues of P...
2016: PloS One
Udaya Seneviratne, Graham Hepworth, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza
PURPOSE: To evaluate electroencephalographic (EEG) differences among syndromes in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) based on quantified data. METHODS: 24-hour ambulatory EEGs were recorded in consecutive patients diagnosed with GGE. All epileptiform EEG abnormalities were quantified into density scores (total duration of epileptiform discharges per hour). We conducted one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find out differences in EEG density scores among the syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Marie-Pascale Côté, Marion Murray, Michel A Lemay
Body-weight supported locomotor training (BWST) promotes recovery of load-bearing stepping in lower mammals, but its efficacy in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited and highly dependent on injury severity. While animal models with complete spinal transections recover stepping with step-training, motor complete SCI individuals do not, despite similarly intensive training. In this review, we examine the significant differences between humans and animal models that may explain this discrepancy in the results obtained with BWST...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Juexin Wang, Dingding Shen, Geqing Xia, Wangzhen Shen, Robert L Macdonald, Dong Xu, Jing-Qiong Kang
Mutations in GABAA receptor subunit genes are frequently associated with epilepsy, and nonsense mutations in GABRG2 are associated with several epilepsy syndromes including childhood absence epilepsy, generalized tonic clonic seizures and the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome. The molecular basis for the phenotypic heterogeneity of mutations is unclear. Here we focused on three nonsense mutations in GABRG2 (GABRG2(R136*), GABRG2(Q390*) and GABRG2(W429*)) associated with epilepsies of different severities...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karan Seegobin, Kamille Abdool, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Haramnauth Dyaanand, Fidel Rampersad
We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
O Naseer, J A Khan, M S Khan, M O Omer, G A Chishti, M L Sohail, M U Saleem
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. which are injurious to animals and humans The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG), haematological and serum biochemical responses of Bovine Calves and to determine the comparative efficacy of two different liver tonics against AFB1. Twenty seven calves were selected from herd and divided into 3 groups. All calves were fed with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 for a period of 10 days...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Janek Spada, Alexander Gross, Tilman Hensch, Philippe Jawinski, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Ulrich Hegerl
OBJECTIVES: The arousal regulation model of affective disorders attributes an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders to dysregulation of brain arousal regulation. According to this model, sensation avoidance and withdrawal in depression and sensation seeking and hyperactivity in mania can be explained as auto-regulatory attempts to counteract a tonically high (depression) or unstable (mania) arousal. The aim of this study was to compare brain arousal regulation between manic and depressive bipolar patients and healthy controls...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Liang Dong, Chong Yuan, Benjamin J Orlando, Michael G Malkowski, William L Smith
Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), also called cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid to PGH2. PGHS-2 is a conformational heterodimer comprised of allosteric (Eallo) and catalytic (Ecat) subunits. Fatty acids (FAs) bind to Arg-120 of Eallo increasing to different degrees, depending on the FA, the Vmax of its Ecat partner. We report here that movement of helical residues 120-122 and loop residues 123-129 of Eallo underlie the allosteric effects of FAs and allosteric COX-2 inhibitors including naproxen and flurbiprofen...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chunming Liu, Stefanie A Drew, Eric Borsting, Amy Escobar, Lawrence Stark, Christopher Chase
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between tonic accommodation (TA), near work induced TA-adaptation and the steady state closed-loop accommodation response (AR). Forty-two graduate students participated in the study. Various aspects of their accommodation system were objectively measured using an open-field infrared auto-refractor (Grand Seiko WAM-5500). Tonic accommodation was assessed in a completely dark environment. The association between TA and closed-loop AR was assessed using linear regression correlations and t-test comparisons...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
Keisuke Shinohara, Xuebo Liu, Donald A Morgan, Deborah R Davis, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, Martin D Cassell, Justin L Grobe, Kamal Rahmouni, Curt D Sigmund
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is a critical determinant of blood pressure, but the mechanisms regulating RAS activity in the brain remain unclear. Expression of brain renin (renin-b) occurs from an alternative promoter-first exon. The predicted translation product is a nonsecreted enzymatically active renin whose function is unknown. We generated a unique mouse model by selectively ablating the brain-specific isoform of renin (renin-b) while preserving the expression and function of the classical isoform expressed in the kidney (renin-a)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Tilmann Ditting, Kristina Rodionova, Sonja Heinlein, Karl Friedrich Hilgers, Christian Ott, Roland Schmieder, Kerstin Amann, Roland Veelken
OBJECTIVE: Afferent renal nerves exhibit a dual function. They influence intrarenal immunological processes by release of neurokinins like CGRP and control central sympathetic outflow via afferent electrical activity. The former seems to be important in renal inflammation whereas the sympathetic modulation by afferent electrical activity is not fully understood in cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Hence, we hypothesized that augmented effects of CGRP in renal inflammation occur with increased afferent renal nerve activity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Young Chul Kim, Dae Hoon Kim, Sang Eok Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Woong Choi, Sang Jin Lee, Hyo-Yung Yun
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous oscillation of tone of blood vessel called vasomotion cause vessel to flow blood which is an oscillation of flow into an organ. Microcirculation is sensitive to hypoxic condition and metabolism but mechanism of vasomotion is still poorly understood. DESIGN AND METHOD: Purpose: We studied involvement of metabolism-mediated regulation by intracellular ATP level of vasomotion in human gastric artery. METHODS: Conventional contractile measuring system and Western blot were used...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Valentina Franco, Roberto Marchiselli, Cinzia Fattore, Elena Tartara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Russo, Emilio Perucca
BACKGROUND: Perampanel, a new specific non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, has been recently approved in the United States and the European Union for the adjunctive treatment of focal seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A positive relationship between plasma perampanel concentration and improvement in seizure control has been identified in regulatory trials, suggesting that therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be useful in optimizing clinical response in patients with epilepsy treated with perampanel...
October 6, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Xiran He, Bo Gao, Lei Zhou, Sidong Xiong
Viral myocarditis, which is mainly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), affects about 5%-20% of the world population and still lacks efficient treatments. Green tea, a tonic and healthful beverage that was originated in ancient China, has been receiving considerable attention for its protective effect on cardiovascular diseases in recent years. In present investigation, we aimed to explore the effect of Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on CVB3-induced myocarditis and its underlying mechanism...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Neil C Ford, Mark L Baccei
Spinal lamina I projection neurons serve as a major conduit by which noxious stimuli detected in the periphery are transmitted to nociceptive circuits in the brain, including the parabrachial nucleus (PB) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). While neonatal spino-PB neurons are more than twice as likely to exhibit spontaneous activity compared to spino-PAG neurons, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear since nothing is known about the voltage-independent (i.e. 'leak') ion channels expressed by these distinct populations during early life...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Wanyue Wang, Natalia Dounskaia
How gravity influences neural control of arm movements remains under debate. We tested three alternative interpretations suggested by previous research: (1) that muscular control includes two components, tonic which compensates for gravity and phasic which produces the movement; (2) that there is a tendency to exploit gravity to reduce muscle effort; and (3) that there is a tendency to use a trailing pattern of joint control during which either the shoulder or elbow is rotated actively and the other joint rotates predominantly passively, and to exploit gravity for control of the passively rotated joint...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
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