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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682753/coupling-of-respiration-and-attention-via-the-locus-coeruleus-effects-of-meditation-and-pranayama
#1
Michael Christopher Melnychuk, Paul M Dockree, Redmond G O'Connell, Peter R Murphy, Joshua H Balsters, Ian H Robertson
The locus coeruleus (LC) has established functions in both attention and respiration. Good attentional performance requires optimal levels of tonic LC activity, and must be matched to task consistently. LC neurons are chemosensitive, causing respiratory phrenic nerve firing to increase frequency with higher CO2 levels, and as CO2 level varies with the phase of respiration, tonic LC activity should exhibit fluctuations at respiratory frequency. Top-down modulation of tonic LC activity from brain areas involved in attentional regulation, intended to optimize LC firing to suit task requirements, may have respiratory consequences as well, as increases in LC activity influence phrenic nerve firing...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680767/outcomes-of-dilation-and-evacuation-with-and-without-feticide-by-intra-cardiac-potassium-chloride-injection-a-service-evaluation
#2
Patricia A Lohr, John H Parsons, Jeanette Taylor, Chelsea Morroni
OBJECTIVE: To compare procedure duration, complications, and acceptability of dilation and evacuation (D&E) with and without feticide by intra-cardiac potassium chloride (KCL) injection. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated outcomes with D&E at 18-24weeks' gestation in the 6months before and 6months after removing feticide with KCL from the guidelines of a national British abortion provider. We extracted demographic and procedure-related data from medical records and electronic databases...
April 19, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680433/night-shift-work-increases-cold-pain-perception
#3
Christoph Pieh, Robert Jank, Christoph Waiß, Christian Pfeifer, Thomas Probst, Claas Lahmann, Stefan Oberndorfer
BACKGROUND: Although night-shift work (NSW) is associated with a higher risk for several physical and mental disorders, the impact of NSW on pain perception is still unclear. This study investigates the impact of NSW on cold pain perception considering the impact of mood and sleepiness. METHOD: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in healthy night-shift workers. Cold pain threshold as well as tonic cold pain was assessed after one habitual night (T1), after a 12-hour NSW (T2) and after one recovery night (T3)...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679107/oligosynaptic-inhibition-mediated-by-group-ia-afferents-from-flexor-digitorum-superficialis-to-wrist-flexors-in-humans
#4
Mitsuhiro Nito, Wataru Hashizume, Manabu Jimenji, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Toshiaki Sato, Hiromi Fujii, Takuji Miyasaka, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
Effects of low-threshold afferents from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) motoneurons were examined using a post-stimulus time-histogram (PSTH) and electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) methods in seven healthy human subjects. Electrical conditioning stimulation to the median nerve branch innervating FDS with the intensity immediately below the motor threshold was delivered. In the PSTH study, the stimulation produced a trough (inhibition) in 19/44 (43%) of FCR and 17/41 (41%) of FCU motor units...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678888/bovine-spastic-syndrome-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Victoria Goeckmann, Sophie Rothammer, Ivica Medugorac
Bovine spastic syndrome (BSS) was described for the first time in 1941. The disease occurs in various-maybe even all-cattle breeds and is a chronic-progressive neuromuscular disorder that commonly affects cattle of at least three years of age. Typical clinical signs of the disease are clonic-tonic cramps of the hindlimbs that occur in attacks. Since BSS does not recover, affected animals can only be treated symptomatically by improving welfare conditions and management factors, or with physical therapy or drugs...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678723/modulatory-effect-of-dopamine-receptor-5-on-the-neurosecretory-dahlgren-cells-of-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#6
Zhaohui Lan, Wei Zhang, Jinling Xu, Mo Zhou, Yingxin Chen, Huafeng Zou, Weiqun Lu
A neuromodulatory role for dopamine has been reported for magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the mammalian hypothalamus. We examined its potential role as a local intercellular messenger in the neuroendocrine Dahlgren cell population of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In vitro application of dopamine (DA) caused an increase in electrical activity (firing frequency, recorded extracellularly) of Dahlgren cells, recruitment of previously silent cells, together with a greater proportion of cells showing phasic (irregular) activity...
April 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675956/clonidine-modulates-the-activity-of-the-subthalamic-supplementary-motor-loop-evidence-from-a-pharmacological-study-combining-dbs-and-eeg-recordings-in-parkinsonian-patients
#7
Charlotte Spay, Marion Albares, Guillaume Lio, Stephane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Brian Lau, Benedicte Ballanger, Philippe Boulinguez
Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication which acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptors agonist. As the noradrenergic system is likely to support cognitive functions including attention and executive control, other clinical uses of clonidine have recently gained popularity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that the noradrenergic system regulates the activity of subthalamo-motor cortical loops, and that this influence can be modulated by clonidine...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674960/emergence-of-relaxation-oscillations-in-neurons-interacting-with-non-stationary-ambient-gaba
#8
Denis A Adamchik, Valery V Matrosov, Victor B Kazantsev
Dynamics of a homogeneous neural population interacting with active extracellular medium were considered. The corresponding mathematical model was tuned specifically to describe the behavior of interneurons with tonic GABA conductance under the action of non-stationary ambient GABA. The feedback provided by the GABA mediated transmembrane current enriched the repertoire of population activity by enabling the oscillatory behavior. This behavior appeared in the form of relaxation oscillations which can be considered as a specific type of brainwaves...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674629/genetic-idiopathic-epilepsy-with-photosensitive-seizures-includes-features-of-both-focal-and-generalized-seizures
#9
Jiao Xue, Pan Gong, Haipo Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuwu Jiang, Yuehua Zhang, Zhixian Yang
Clinically, some patients having genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures were difficult to be diagnosed. We aimed to discuss whether the genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures is a focal entity, a generalized entity or a continuum. Twenty-two patients with idiopathic epilepsies and photoconvulsive response (PCR) were retrospectively recruited. In the medical records, the seizure types included "generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS)" in 15, "partial secondarily GTCS (PGTCS)" in 3, partial seizures (PS) in 3, myoclonic seizures in 2, eyelid myoclonus in one, and only febrile seizures in one...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672278/from-isonatric-to-isotonic-hemodialysis
#10
François Gaillard, Thierry Petitclerc
BACKGROUND: Isonatric hemodialysis aims at maintaining stable cellular hydration through a close control of natremia, considered a surrogate of tonicity. However, 2 methods are available to perform isonatric hemodialysis: one based on natremia derived from plasma conductivity (NaCond) and the other based on natremia measured at laboratory (NaLab). We compared the control of tonicity obtained by isonatric hemodialysis based on NaLab or NaCond. METHODS: Changes in tonicity NaLab and NaCond were recorded during 55 hemodialysis sessions...
April 19, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669813/monophosphorylation-of-cardiac-troponin-i-at-ser23-24-is-sufficient-to-regulate-cardiac-myofibrillar-ca-2-sensitivity-and-calpain-induced-proteolysis
#11
Abel Martin-Garrido, Brandon J Biesiadecki, Hussam E Salhi, Yasin Shaifta, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Serife Ayuz-Guner, Wenxuan Cai, Ying Ge, Metin Avkiran, Jonathan C Kentish
The acceleration of myocardial relaxation produced by β-adrenoceptor stimulation is mediated in part by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), which decreases myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that phosphorylation of both Ser23 and Ser24 in cTnI is required for this Ca2+ desensitization. PKA-mediated phosphorylation also partially protects cTnI from proteolysis by calpain. Here we report that protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylates only one serine of cTnI Ser23/24...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669047/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-transport-of-1-day-old-chickens-on-production-performance-and-fear-response
#12
M S Hollemans, S de Vries, A Lammers, C Clouard
The importance of optimal early life conditions of broilers to sustain efficient and healthy production of broiler meat is increasingly recognized. Therefore, novel husbandry systems are developed, in which immediate provision of nutrition post hatch is combined with on-farm hatching. In these novel systems, 1-day-old-chick handling and transport are minimized. To study whether early nutrition and reduced transport are beneficial for broiler performance and behavior, the effects of early or delayed nutrition and post-hatch handling and transport were tested from hatch until 35 d of age, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
April 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667327/novel-west-syndrome-candidate-genes-in-a-chinese-cohort
#13
Jing Peng, Ying Wang, Fang He, Chen Chen, Li-Wen Wu, Li-Fen Yang, Yu-Ping Ma, Wen Zhang, Zi-Qing Shi, Chao Chen, Kun Xia, Hui Guo, Fei Yin, Nan Pang
AIMS: West syndrome (WS) is a classic form of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) characterized by tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography. Genetic defects play a critical role in the pathology of WS, and 54 EIEE genes have been identified till date. This study was designed to uncover new candidate genes for West syndrome. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 56 Chinese families with WS of unknown etiology...
April 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664578/tcr-tuning-of-t-cell-subsets
#14
REVIEW
Jae-Ho Cho, Jonathan Sprent
After selection in the thymus, the post-thymic T cell compartments comprise heterogenous subsets of naive and memory T cells that make continuous T cell receptor (TCR) contact with self-ligands bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. T cell recognition of self-MHC ligands elicits covert TCR signaling and is particularly important for controlling survival of naive T cells. Such tonic TCR signaling is tightly controlled and maintains the cells in a quiescent state to avoid autoimmunity. Here, we review how naive and memory T cells are differentially tuned and wired for TCR sensitivity to self and foreign ligands...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664048/effect-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-severity-and-cognition-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#15
Jun-Ying Huang, Jin-Ru Zhang, Yun Shen, Hui-Jun Zhang, Yu-Lan Cao, Cheng-Jie Mao, Ya-Ping Yang, Jing Chen, Chun-Feng Liu, Jie Li
Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are the most common sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify whether RBD could alleviate OSA severity in PD patients and its effect on cognitive impairment. Methods: From February 2014 to May 2017, we recruited 174 PD patients from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, all of whom underwent polysomnography (PSG)...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663677/the-carotid-sinus-nerve-structure-function-and-clinical-implications
#16
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Raffaele De Caro
Interest has been renewed in the anatomy and physiology of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and its targets (carotid sinus and carotid body), due to recent proposals of surgical procedures for a series of common pathologies, such as carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, heart failure and insulin resistance. The CSN originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve soon after its appearance from the jugular foramen. It shows frequent communications with the sympathetic trunk (usually at the level of the superior cervical ganglion) and the vagal nerve (main trunk, pharyngeal branches or superior laryngeal nerve)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662216/cortical-drive-and-thalamic-feed-forward-inhibition-control-thalamic-output-synchrony-during-absence-seizures
#17
Cian McCafferty, François David, Marcello Venzi, Magor L Lőrincz, Francis Delicata, Zoe Atherton, Gregorio Recchia, Gergely Orban, Régis C Lambert, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Nathalie Leresche, Vincenzo Crunelli
Behaviorally and pathologically relevant cortico-thalamo-cortical oscillations are driven by diverse interacting cell-intrinsic and synaptic processes. However, the mechanism that gives rise to the paroxysmal oscillations of absence seizures (ASs) remains unknown. Here we report that, during ASs in behaving animals, cortico-thalamic excitation drives thalamic firing by preferentially eliciting tonic rather than T-type Ca 2+ channel (T-channel)-dependent burst firing in thalamocortical (TC) neurons and by temporally framing thalamic output via feedforward reticular thalamic (NRT)-to-TC neuron inhibition...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656800/dopaminergic-disturbances-in-tourette-syndrome-an-integrative-account
#18
REVIEW
Tiago V Maia, Vasco A Conceição
Tourette syndrome (TS) is thought to involve dopaminergic disturbances, but the nature of those disturbances remains controversial. Existing hypotheses suggest that TS involves 1) supersensitive dopamine receptors, 2) overactive dopamine transporters that cause low tonic but high phasic dopamine, 3) presynaptic dysfunction in dopamine neurons, or 4) dopaminergic hyperinnervation. We review evidence that contradicts the first two hypotheses; we also note that the last two hypotheses have traditionally been considered too narrowly, explaining only small subsets of findings...
March 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651961/the-benefit-of-prescribing-vitamin-d-as-add-on-therapy-on-the-electrocardiographic-changes-in-epileptic-patients
#20
Marwan S M Al-Nimer
BACKGROUND: Epileptic children and adolescent have a significantly low serum level of vitamin D due to the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin D metabolism. Those patients are at risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to show that epileptic patients who treated with antiepileptic drugs supplemented with vitamin D are free from the electrocardiograph changes compared with those treated with antiepileptic drugs. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included, 121 epileptic patients aged < 18 years of both genders with a history of idiopathic generalized tonic clonic seizure...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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