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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908259/astroglial-camp-signalling-in-space-and-time
#1
REVIEW
Anemari Horvat, Nina Vardjan
To maintain a high level of specificity and normal cell function, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway is tightly regulated in space and time. Recent advances in cAMP reporter technology have provided insights into spatial-temporal characteristics of cAMP signalling in individual living cells, including astrocytes. Astrocytes are glial cells in the central nervous system with many homeostatic functions. In contrast to neurons, astrocytes are electrically silent, but, in response to extracellular stimuli through activation of surface receptors, they can increase intracellular levels of secondary messengers, e...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#2
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908067/effects-of-type-i-interferons-in-malaria
#3
REVIEW
Ismail Sebina, Ashraful Haque
Type I interferons are a family of cytokines with a wide range of biological activities including anti-viral and immune-regulatory functions. Here, we focus on the protozoan parasitic disease, malaria, and examine the effects of type I IFN-signalling during Plasmodium infection of humans and experimental mice. Since the 1960's, there have been many studies in this area, but a simple explanation for the role of type I IFN has not emerged. Although epidemiological data are consistent with roles for type I IFN in influencing malaria disease severity, functional proof of this remains sparse in humans...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905798/nicotine-induced-conditional-place-preference-is-affected-by-head-injury-correlation-with-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#4
Chen Yuan-Hao, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Barry J Hoffer, Jen-Hsin Kao, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Jonathan Miller
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to impact dopamine-mediated reward pathways, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully established. Methods: Nicotine-induced conditional place preference (CPP) was used to study rats exposed to a 6-psi fluid percussion injury (FPI) with and without prior exposure to nicotine. Preference was quantified as a score defined as (C1-C2) / (C1+C2), where C1 is time in the nicotine-paired compartment and C2 is time in the saline-paired compartment...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905155/a-case-of-perioral-myoclonia-with-absences-and-its-evolution-in-adulthood
#5
Reyhan Surmelı, Hatice Kurucu, Ayse Destina Yalcın, Seher Naz Yenı
The rare syndrome of perioral myoclonia with absences (POMA) is described as a specific type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy in which absence seizures are accompanied by prominent perioral myoclonus as a consistent symptom. We present a 52-year-old man who was referred to our department due to treatment-resistant epilepsy. Typical seizures were described as rhythmic twitching of the lips which started at six years old, and his first convulsive seizure occurred at around 20 years old. Based on video-EEG recordings, we present two distinct EEG patterns accompanied by slight differences in clinical manifestations, which appear to be atypical of POMA...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905152/epileptic-seizure-semiology-in-different-age-groups
#6
Guadalupe Fernandez-Baca Vaca, Carlos L Mayor, Naira García Losarcos, Jun T Park, Hans O Lüders
Seizure semiology provides information about the eloquent cortex involved during a seizure and helps to generate a hypothesis regarding the localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ), a prerequisite for surgical management of epilepsy. We aimed to study the seizure semiology among all different age groups to better characterize semiological changes that occur with age. We performed a retrospective review of video-EEG data in paediatric and adult patients admitted to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit over a three-year period...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904367/resting-state-pallidal-cortical-oscillatory-couplings-in-patients-with-predominant-phasic-and-tonic-dystonia
#7
Fusako Yokochi, Kenji Kato, Hirokazu Iwamuro, Tsutomu Kamiyama, Katsuo Kimura, Akihiro Yugeta, Ryoichi Okiyama, Makoto Taniguchi, Satoko Kumada, Junichi Ushiba
Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the symptoms of dystonia. The improvement processes of dystonic movements (phasic symptoms) and tonic symptoms differ. Phasic symptoms improve rapidly after starting DBS treatment, but tonic symptoms improve gradually. This difference implies distinct neuronal mechanisms for phasic and tonic symptoms in the underlying cortico-basal ganglia neuronal network. Phasic symptoms are related to the pallido-thalamo-cortical pathway. The pathway related to tonic symptoms has been assumed to be different from that for phasic symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904337/insulin-regulates-gaba-a-receptor-mediated-tonic-currents-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Saraí Trujeque-Ramos, Diego Castillo-Rolón, Elvira Galarraga, Dagoberto Tapia, Gabina Arenas-López, Stefan Mihailescu, Salvador Hernández-López
Recent studies, have shown that insulin increases extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in the hippocampus, causing alterations of neuronal excitability. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is another brain area which is involved in cognition functions and expresses insulin receptors. Here, we used electrophysiological, molecular, and immunocytochemical techniques to examine the effect of insulin on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in brain slices. We found that insulin (20-500 nM) increases GABAA -mediated tonic currents...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903448/historic-notes-on-anatomic-physiologic-and-clinical-research-on-the-cerebellum
#9
Jan Voogd, Peter J Koehler
This chapter is concerned with ideas on the function, structure, and pathology that shaped our present knowledge of the cerebellum. One of the main themes in its early history is its localization subtentorially, leading to misattributions due to clinical observations in trauma and lesion experiments that caused collateral damage to the brainstem. Improvement of techniques led to the insight that it plays a role in movement control (Rolando) or coordination (Flourens). Purkinje initiated the histology of the cerebellar cortex in 1837...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899382/constitutive-ip-3-signaling-underlies-the-sensitivity-of-b-cell-cancers-to-the-bcl-2-ip-3-receptor-disruptor-bird-2
#10
Mart Bittremieux, Rita M La Rovere, Haidar Akl, Claudio Martines, Kirsten Welkenhuyzen, Kathia Dubron, Myriam Baes, Ann Janssens, Peter Vandenberghe, Luca Laurenti, Katja Rietdorf, Giampaolo Morciano, Paolo Pinton, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Martin D Bootman, Dimitar G Efremov, Humbert De Smedt, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are upregulated in different cancers, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), enabling survival by inhibiting pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 ) receptor (IP3 R)-mediated Ca2+ -signaling. A peptide tool (Bcl-2/IP3 R Disruptor-2; BIRD-2) was developed to abrogate the interaction of Bcl-2 with IP3 Rs by targeting Bcl-2's BH4 domain. BIRD-2 triggers cell death in primary CLL cells and in DLBCL cell lines...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898974/practice-guideline-update-summary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-ii-treatment-resistant-epilepsy-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-and-the-american
#11
Andres M Kanner, Eric Ashman, David Gloss, Cynthia Harden, Blaise Bourgeois, Jocelyn F Bautista, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Evren Burakgazi-Dalkilic, Esmeralda Llanas Park, John Stern, Deborah Hirtz, Mark Nespeca, Barry Gidal, Edward Faught, Jacqueline French
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology guideline for managing treatment-resistant (TR) epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: 2004 criteria were used to systemically review literature (January 2003 to November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Forty-two articles were included. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following are established as effective to reduce seizure frequency (Level A): immediate-release pregabalin and perampanel for TR adult focal epilepsy (TRAFE); vigabatrin for TRAFE (not first-line treatment); rufinamide for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) (add-on therapy)...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898971/practice-guideline-update-summary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-i-treatment-of-new-onset-epilepsy-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-and-the-american
#12
Andres M Kanner, Eric Ashman, David Gloss, Cynthia Harden, Blaise Bourgeois, Jocelyn F Bautista, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Evren Burakgazi-Dalkilic, Esmeralda Llanas Park, John Stern, Deborah Hirtz, Mark Nespeca, Barry Gidal, Edward Faught, Jacqueline French
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline for treating new-onset focal or generalized epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: The 2004 AAN criteria were used to systematically review literature (January 2003-November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Several second-generation AEDs are effective for new-onset focal epilepsy...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896407/-campylobacter-fetus-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-presenting-as-a-stroke
#13
Christina Petridou, Lenka Strakova, Ruan Simpson
Introduction: Campylobacter is a common pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract, but invasive disease is rare. Campylobacter fetus can play a role in osteomyelitis, meningitis and joint infection and has a prediliction for the vascular endothelium, causing mycotic aneurysms, thrombophlebitis and endocarditis. Here we present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. fetus and a review of the literature. Case presentation: An 85-year-old woman with a tissue aortic valve replacement and atrial fibrillation was admitted to hospital with tonic-clonic seizures, right-sided hemiparesis, facial droop and hemianopia...
May 2018: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895712/dual-role-of-usp30-in-controlling-basal-pexophagy-and-mitophagy
#14
Elena Marcassa, Andreas Kallinos, Jane Jardine, Emma V Rusilowicz-Jones, Aitor Martinez, Sandra Kuehl, Markus Islinger, Michael J Clague, Sylvie Urbé
USP30 is an integral protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane that counteracts PINK1 and Parkin-dependent mitophagy following acute mitochondrial depolarisation. Here, we use two distinct mitophagy reporter systems to reveal tonic suppression by USP30, of a PINK1-dependent component of basal mitophagy in cells lacking detectable Parkin. We propose that USP30 acts upstream of PINK1 through modulation of PINK1-substrate availability and thereby determines the potential for mitophagy initiation. We further show that a fraction of endogenous USP30 is independently targeted to peroxisomes where it regulates basal pexophagy in a PINK1- and Parkin-independent manner...
June 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894724/pharmacological-rescue-of-mutated-k-v-3-1-ion-channel-linked-to-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies
#15
Anders Sonne Munch, Arnela Saljic, Kim Boddum, Morten Grunnet, Charlotte Hougaard, Thomas Jespersen
Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) constitute a cluster of inherent, genetically diverse, rare seizure disorders characterized by ataxia, tonic-clonic seizures, and action myoclonus. Recently, a mutation in the KCNC1 gene (Arg320His) was described in a group of PME patients. The KCNC1 gene encodes the Kv 3.1 potassium ion channel responsible for the rapid repolarization of the membrane potential following action potential firing in fast spiking GABAergic interneurons (FSI), thereby enabling high firing frequency...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892699/relationship-between-tonic-and-phasic-craving-for-alcohol
#16
Emily E Hartwell, Lara A Ray
Background: Multiple measures are utilized to assess alcohol craving, often interchangeably. Little is known about the relationship between tonic and phasic craving. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining the association between tonic levels of alcohol craving and phasic craving for alcohol that is provoked by alcohol administration. Methods: Forty-three non-treatment seeking problem drinkers underwent an initial interview and two laboratory testing sessions, where either alcohol or a saline placebo was administered intravenously...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892048/thalamic-dual-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#17
Thomas C Gent, Mojtaba Bandarabadi, Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Antoine R Adamantidis
Slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) predominate in the cortical electroencephalogram during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in mammals. They reflect the synchronization of large neuronal ensembles alternating between active (UP) and quiescent (Down) states and propagating along the neocortex. The thalamic contribution to cortical UP states and sleep modulation remains unclear. Here we show that spontaneous firing of centromedial thalamus (CMT) neurons in mice is phase-advanced to global cortical UP states and NREM-wake transitions...
June 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892019/single-layer-graphene-modulates-neuronal-communication-and-augments-membrane-ion-currents
#18
Niccolò Paolo Pampaloni, Martin Lottner, Michele Giugliano, Alessia Matruglio, Francesco D'Amico, Maurizio Prato, Josè Antonio Garrido, Laura Ballerini, Denis Scaini
The use of graphene-based materials to engineer sophisticated biosensing interfaces that can adapt to the central nervous system requires a detailed understanding of how such materials behave in a biological context. Graphene's peculiar properties can cause various cellular changes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that single-layer graphene increases neuronal firing by altering membrane-associated functions in cultured cells. Graphene tunes the distribution of extracellular ions at the interface with neurons, a key regulator of neuronal excitability...
June 11, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891728/homeostatic-feedback-modulates-the-development-of-two-state-patterned-activity-in-a-model-serotonin-motor-circuit-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Bhavya Ravi, Jessica Garcia, Kevin M Collins
Neuron activity accompanies synapse formation and maintenance, but how early circuit activity contributes to behavior development is not well understood. Here, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying motor circuit as a model to understand how coordinated cell and circuit activity develops and drives a robust two-state behavior in adults. Using calcium imaging in behaving animals, we find the serotonergic Hermaphrodite Specific Neurons (HSNs) and vulval muscles show rhythmic calcium transients in L4 larvae before eggs are produced...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889105/dexmedetomidine-prevents-excessive-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-function-after-anesthesia
#20
Dian-Shi Wang, Kirusanthy Kaneshwaran, Gang Lei, Fariya Mostafa, Junhui Wang, Irene Lecker, Sinziana Avramescu, Yu-Feng Xie, Nathan K Chan, Alejandro Fernandez-Escobar, Junsung Woo, Darren Chan, Amy J Ramsey, Jeremy M Sivak, C Justin Lee, Robert P Bonin, Beverley A Orser
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is associated with poor long-term outcomes and increased mortality. General anesthetic drugs may contribute to delirium because they increase cell-surface expression and function of α5 subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, an effect that persists long after the drugs have been eliminated. Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, prevents delirium in patients and reduces cognitive deficits in animals. Thus, it was postulated that dexmedetomidine prevents excessive function of α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors...
June 8, 2018: Anesthesiology
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