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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057855/a-rare-case-of-autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis-an-uncharted-territory
#1
Hatim Ibrahim, Abdulelah N Al Jasser, Sonia A Khan, Kalthoum G Tlili
Autoimmune encephalitis is rare. Several auto- antibodies are described in autoimmune encephalitis. We describe a case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with positive voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies and positive leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies (LGI1). A 33-year-old Saudi housewife, she presented with 2 months history of cognitive deterioration and recurrent left facio-brachial dystonic seizures followed by generalized tonic clonic seizures. At times the seizures are preceded by rising epigastric aura and shortness of breath...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056964/hyperbolic-modeling-of-subthalamic-nucleus-cells-to-investigate-the-effect-of-dopamine-depletion
#2
Mohammad Daneshzand, Miad Faezipour, Buket D Barkana
To investigate how different types of neurons can produce well-known spiking patterns, a new computationally efficient model is proposed in this paper. This model can help realize the neuronal interconnection issues. The model can demonstrate various neuronal behaviors observed in vivo through simple parameter modification. The behaviors include tonic and phasic spiking, tonic and phasic bursting, class 1 and class 2 excitability, rebound spike, rebound burst, subthreshold oscillation, and accommodated spiking along with inhibition neuron responses...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055485/painful-tonic-spasm-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-prevalence-clinical-implications-and-treatment-options
#3
Ju Liu, Qin Zhang, Zhiyun Lian, Hongxi Chen, Ziyan Shi, Huiru Feng, Xiaohui Miao, Qin Du, Hongyu Zhou
BACKGROUND: Painful tonic spasm (PTS) is a common symptom in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). This study aimed to obtain further insights into the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of PTS in patients with NMOSD, and to systematically investigate and compare the clinical features and prognosis of NMOSD with and without PTS. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and prospectively interviewed patients with NMOSD who attended the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Chengdu, China between September 2014 and December 2016...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055470/commentary-on-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-related-tonic-spams-responsive-to-lacosamide
#4
Sergio Alejandro Rodríguez-Quiroga, Luz Abaroa, Luciana Melamud, Tomoko Arakaki, Nélida S Garretto, Andrés M Villa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054405/standardized-extract-of-bacopa-monnieri-cdri-08-effect-on-germ-cell-dynamics-and-possible-mechanisms-of-its-beneficial-action-on-spermatogenesis-and-sperm-quality-in-male-mice
#5
Shishir Kumar Patel, Shilpi Singh, Shio Kumar Singh
Bacopa monnieri (BM) is used in traditional medicine as nerve tonic. We have recently shown that CDRI-08, a standardized extract of BM, improves testicular functions and epididymal sperm quality in Parkes (P) mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CDRI-08 on germ cell dynamics and mechanisms of its action on spermatogenesis and sperm quality in P mice, and to determine the chemical profile of the extract. CDRI-08 (40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to male mice for 28 days...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053192/dissociation-of-nnos-from-psd-95-promotes-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-ischaemia-in-mice-through-reducing-excessive-tonic-gaba-release-from-reactive-astrocytes
#6
Yu-Hui Lin, Hai-Ying Liang, Ke Xu, Huan-Yu Ni, Jian Dong, Hui Xiao, Lei Chang, Hai-Yin Wu, Fei Li, Dong-Ya Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo
Mechanisms underlying functional recovery after stroke are little known, and effective drug intervention during the delayed stage is desirable. One potential drug target, the protein-protein interaction between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), is critical to acute ischaemic damage and neurogenesis. We show that nNOS-PSD-95 dissociation induced by microinjection of a recombinant fusion protein Tat-nNOS-N1-133 or systemic administration of a small molecule ZL006 from days 4 to 10 after photothrombotic ischaemia in mice reduced excessive tonic inhibition in the peri-infarct cortex and ameliorated motor functional outcome...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051871/bilateral-divergent-shoulder-s-fracture-dislocation-case-in-an-ischemic-stroke-patient
#7
Atchi Walla, Faré Gnandi-Piou, Pilakimwé Egbohou, Komi Assogba, Mawuko Quacoe
INTRODUCTION: The literature review revealed that nowadays only about 15 cases of bilateral shoulder dislocation associated with the fracture of the upper end of the humerus have been published. The triad of lesional mechanism designated by the triple syndrome E composed of epilepsy, electrocution, and external trauma was the circumstances noted in which these fractures dislocations occur with migration of the two humeral heads either forward or backward. CASE REPORT: An architect of 36-year-old, right-handed, was admitted in emergency department for loss of knowledge of progressive installation...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051496/evidence-for-a-task-dependent-switch-in-subthalamo-nigral-basal-ganglia-signaling
#8
Jay J Jantz, Masayuki Watanabe, Ron Levy, Douglas P Munoz
Basal ganglia (BG) can either facilitate or inhibit movement through excitatory and inhibitory pathways; however whether these opposing signals are dynamically regulated during healthy behavior is not known. Here, we present compelling neurophysiological evidence from three complimentary experiments in non-human primates, indicating task-specific changes in tonic BG pathway weightings during saccade behavior with different cognitive demands. First, simultaneous local field potential recording in the subthalamic nucleus (STN; BG input) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr; BG output) reveals task-dependent shifts in subthalamo-nigral signals...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051115/an-herbal-formula-consisting-of-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baill-lycium-chinense-mill-and-eucommia-ulmoides-oliv-alleviates-disuse-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#9
Seongguk Cho, Riwon Hong, Poorm Yim, Mijung Yeom, Bombi Lee, Woong Mo Yang, Jongki Hong, Hyang Sook Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill (SC), Lycium chinense Mill (LC) and Eucommia ulmoides Oliv (EU) are representative tonic herbal medicines that help to strengthen body muscles and bones making them stronger according to the Donguibogam, a tradition medical book of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea. AIM OF STUDY: To evaluate effects of an herbal formula consisting of SC, LC and EU on muscle atrophy in C2C12 myotubes and in a rat model of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051039/convolvulus-pluricaulis-shankhapushpi-ameliorates-human-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-hmap%C3%AF-induced-neurotoxicity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-drosophila-model
#10
Kizhakke P Anupama, Olakkaran Shilpa, Anet Antony, Tilagul K Siddanna, Hunasanahally P Gurushankara
Convolvulus pluricaulis (Shankhapushpi) has long been used as traditional herbal medicine in India as nerve tonic. We studied the neuroprotective effects of C. pluricaulis extract (aqueous) against human microtubule-associated protein tau (hMAPτ) induced neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) Drosophila model. We analysed the lifespan, locomotor activity, τ protein level, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in 10th, 20th and 30th days old control (wild type), τ control tauopathy Drosophila reared on C...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049872/optimal-dosing-and-delivery-of-pth-and-its-analogues-for-osteoporosis-and-hypoparathyroidism-translating-the-pharmacology
#11
REVIEW
D Tay, S Cremers, J P Bilezikian
In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), bone loss results from the resorptive effects of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH). Under physiological conditions, PTH has actions that are more targeted to homeostasis and to bone accrual. The predominant action of PTH, either catabolic, anabolic, or homeostatic, can be understood in molecular and pharmacokinetic terms. When administered intermittently, PTH increases bone mass, but when present continuously and in excess (e.g., PHPT), bone loss ensues. This dual effect of PTH depends not only on the dosing regimen, continuous or intermittent, but also on how the PTH molecule interacts with various states of its receptor (PTH/PTHrP receptor) influencing downstream signaling pathways differentially...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047147/case-control-pharmacogenetic-study-of-hcn1-hcn2-variants-and-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#12
Shu-Zhi Wu, Hua Ye, Xiao-Guo Yang, Zhi-Li Lu, Qiang Qu, Jian Qu
Epilepsy is a common complex neurological disorder, and some forms are resistant to drug treatment. The HCN1/HCN2 genes encode hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, which play important roles in the electrophysiology of neurons. We investigated the association between HCN1/HCN2 variants and drug resistance or the risk of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to assess nine variants of HCN1/HCN2 in 284 healthy participants and 483 GGEs (279 drug-responsive, 204 drug-resistant)...
October 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046425/carotid-chemoreceptors-tune-breathing-via-multipath-routing-reticular-chain-and-loop-operations-supported-by-parallel-spike-train-correlations
#13
Kendall F Morris, Sarah C Nuding, Lauren S Segers, Kimberly Erin Iceman, Russell O'Connor, Jay B Dean, Mackenzie M Ott, Pierina A Alencar, Dale Shuman, Kofi-Kermit Horton, Thomas E Taylor-Clark, Donald C Bolser, Bruce G Lindsey
We tested the hypothesis that carotid chemoreceptors tune breathing through parallel circuit paths that target distinct elements of an inspiratory neuron chain in the ventral respiratory column (VRC). Microelectrode arrays were used to monitor neuronal spike trains simultaneously in the VRC, peri-nucleus tractus solitarius-medial medulla (p-NTS-MM), the dorsal parafacial region of the lateral tegmental field (FTL-pF), and medullary raphé nuclei together with phrenic nerve activity during selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors or transient hypoxia in 19 decerebrate, neuromuscularly-blocked, and artificially ventilated cats...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046423/the-intrinsic-physiology-of-inhibitory-neurons-changes-over-auditory-development
#14
Briana J Carroll, Richard Bertram, Richard L Hyson
During auditory development, changes in membrane properties promote the ability of excitatory neurons in the brainstem to code aspects of sound, including the level and timing of a stimulus. Some of these changes coincide with hearing onset, suggesting that sound-driven neural activity produces developmental plasticity of ion channel expression. While it is known that the coding properties of excitatory neurons are modulated by inhibition in the mature system, it is unknown whether there are also developmental changes in the membrane properties of brainstem inhibitory neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044765/a-novel-inborn-error-of-the-coenzyme-q10-biosynthesis-pathway-cerebellar-ataxia-and-static-encephalomyopathy-due-to-coq5-c-methyltransferase-deficiency
#15
May Christine V Malicdan, Thierry Vilboux, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Jennifer Guo, Aviva Eliyahu, Ben Pode-Shakked, Amir Dori, Sravan Kakani, Settara C Chandrasekharappa, Carlos Ferreira, Natalia Shelestovich, Dina Marek-Yagel, Hadass Pri-Chen, Ilan Blatt, John E Niederhuber, Langping He, Camilo Toro, Robert W Taylor, John Deeken, Tal Yardeni, Douglas C Wallace, William A Gahl, Yair Anikster
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ; MIM# 607426) deficiencies are an emerging group of inherited mitochondrial disorders with heterogonous clinical phenotypes. Over a dozen genes are involved in the biosynthesis of CoQ10 , and mutations in several of these are associated with human disease. However, mutations in COQ5 (MIM# 616359), catalyzing the only C-methylation in the CoQ10 synthetic pathway, have not been implicated in human disease. Here, we report three female siblings of Iraqi-Jewish descent, who had varying degrees of cerebellar ataxia, encephalopathy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and cognitive disability...
October 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042752/spotlight-on-perampanel-in-the-management-of-seizures-design-development-and-an-update-on-place-in-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Michele A Faulkner
PURPOSE: Perampanel is a first-in-class antiepileptic medication approved for the treatment of partial (focal) seizures, and as adjunctive treatment for primarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The pharmacology, efficacy data, adverse-effect profile, pharmacokinetics and place in therapy are reviewed. SUMMARY: Perampanel is indicated for use in patients with epilepsy who are 12 years of age or older. It is the first medication designed specifically to be a non-competitive antagonist at post-synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042214/synthetic-cannabinoid-am2201-induces-seizures-involvement-of-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors-and-glutamatergic-transmission
#17
Masahiko Funada, Mika Takebayashi-Ohsawa
Abuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a serious social problem worldwide. Intentional ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe toxicity, including seizures. Here we investigated the effects of acute administration of synthetic cannabinoids on the induction of epileptic seizures by monitoring electroencephalographic activity in freely moving mice. The synthetic cannabinoid, AM2201, induced abnormal, high-amplitude (>2-fold baseline amplitude), sharp-wave activity. The abnormal spike-wave discharges were accompanied by epileptiform behavior: rigid posture, tail extension, rearing with forepaws extended, jumping, and intermittent tonic-clonic jerking movements...
October 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042065/analgesic-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-leu-31-pro-34-neuropeptide-y-microinjected-into-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-rats
#18
Priscila Vázquez-León, Luis G Mendoza-Ruiz, Eduardo Ramírez-San Juan, German Alberto Chamorro-Cevallos, Abraham Miranda-Páez
Several reports have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in food intake, epilepsy, circadian rhythms, drug seeking, pain and anxiety, and other physiological or pathological conditions. On the other hand, periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a key brain center for modulating pain, anxiety and fear. It is the main structure implicated in integrated defensive behaviors. One such behavior, tonic immobility (TI), resembles fear and is able to induce analgesia. After microinjection of [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-Neuropeptide Y ([Leu(31),Pro(34)]-NPY) into the PAG dorsal (D) or ventrolateral (VL) of adult male Wistar rats, the following parameters were assessed: i) the analgesic effect by means of the tail-flick test (TF), ii) the duration of TI as a passive defensive behavioral response and as an anxiety/fear model (considering both TF and TI as single behaviors), iii) TI-induced analgesia by the combination of TF/TI, and iv) the anxious-like state through the elevated plus maze (EPM), and defensive burying behavior (DBB)...
October 12, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042003/pisa-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-electromyographic-quantification-of-paraspinal-and-non-paraspinal-muscle-activity
#19
C Geroin, G Squintani, A Morini, F Donato, Nicola Smania, Maria Giovanna Gandolfi, S Tamburin, Alfonso Fasano, Michele Tinazzi
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Pisa syndrome (PS) may present tonic dystonic or compensatory (i.e. acting against gravity) hyperactivity in the paraspinal and non-paraspinal muscles. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in nine patients with PD and PS, three with PD without PS, and five healthy controls. Fine-wire intramuscular electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the iliocostalis lumborum (ICL), iliocostalis thoracis (ICT), gluteus medius (GM), and external oblique (EO) muscles. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal was calculated and normalized for each muscle...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041397/on-chip-second-harmonic-generation-and-broadband-parametric-down-conversion-in-a-lithium-niobate-microresonator
#20
Rui Luo, Haowei Jiang, Steven Rogers, Hanxiao Liang, Yang He, Qiang Lin
Nonlinear wavelength conversion is essential for many classical and quantum pho-tonic applications. The underlying second-order nonlinear optical processes, however, generally exhibit limited spectral bandwidths that impact their application potential. Here we use a high-Q X-cut lithium niobate microdisk resonator to demonstrate both second-harmonic generation and spontaneous parametric down-conversion on chip. In particular, our lithium niobate microresonator, with its wide-range cyclic phase matching and rich optical mode structures, is able to achieve ultra-broadband spontaneous parametric down-conversion, with a bandwidth over 400 nm, inferred from recorded spectra of the down-converted photons...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
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