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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333263/loss-of-luteotropic-prostaglandin-e-plays-an-important-role-in-the-regulation-of-luteolysis-in-women
#1
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Masataka Kudo, Noriaki Sakuragi, Toshihiko Iwanaga, W Colin Duncan
STUDY QUESTION: Do intraluteal prostaglandins (PG) contribute to luteal regulation in women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Prostaglandin E (PGE), which is produced in human granulosa-lutein cells stimulated with luteotropic hCG, exerts similar luteotropic effects to hCG, and the expression of PG synthetic and metabolic enzymes in the human CL is driven toward less PGE but more prostaglandin F (PGF) during luteolysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterine PGF is a major luteolysin in many non-primate species but not in women...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330725/a-botanical-phytochemical-and-ethnomedicinal-review-of-the-genus-mitragyna-korth-implications-for-products-sold-as-kratom
#2
REVIEW
Paula N Brown, Jensen A Lund, Susan J Murch
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328293/history-of-knowledge-and-evolution-of-occupational-health-and-regulatory-aspects-of-asbestos-exposure-science-1900-1975
#3
Christy A Barlow, Jennifer Sahmel, Dennis J Paustenbach, John L Henshaw
The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed...
March 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325758/the-tubulin-code-at-a-glance
#4
REVIEW
Sudarshan Gadadhar, Satish Bodakuntla, Kathiresan Natarajan, Carsten Janke
Microtubules are key cytoskeletal elements of all eukaryotic cells and are assembled of evolutionarily conserved α-tubulin-β-tubulin heterodimers. Despite their uniform structure, microtubules fulfill a large diversity of functions. A regulatory mechanism to control the specialization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is the 'tubulin code', which is generated by (i) expression of different α- and β-tubulin isotypes, and by (ii) post-translational modifications of tubulin. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular components of the tubulin code, and discuss the mechanisms by which these components contribute to the generation of functionally specialized microtubules...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322524/-nudging-o-educazione-a-scelte-civiche-responsabili-l-esempio-dello-screening-della-mammella
#5
Mariachiara Tallacchini
"Nudge, or nudging, refers to a policy approach inspired by behavioral sciences: it promotes the conducts identified as desirable by regulators without applying prohibition and coercion. This approach has gained a lot of momentum in the domain of health policies. Policy strategies based on behavioral insights appear ideal as to implementing healthier life styles and public health programs while minimizing compliance costs: from organ donation to food choices, from fighting obesity and chronic diseases to screening policies...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320774/3d-bioprint-me-a-socioethical-view-of-bioprinting-human-organs-and-tissues
#6
Niki Vermeulen, Gill Haddow, Tirion Seymour, Alan Faulkner-Jones, Wenmiao Shu
In this article, we review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting has the potential to be a 'game-changer', printing human organs on demand, no longer necessitating the need for living or deceased human donation or animal transplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317209/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-expression-of-canine-regulatory-t-cell-markers
#7
Noemi Tarpataki, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Cezmi A Akdis, Beate Rückert, Marina L Meli, Nina M Fischer, Claude Favrot, Ana Rostaher
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described as key regulators in various immunological processes and are of growing interest in veterinary allergy. Cryopreservation of immune cells is performed routinely in human basic science research and in clinical studies. As such, it allows batch testing of collected samples at a single time point, resulting in a significant reduction in sample variability. Data which describe the effects of cryopreservation on Treg cell frequency and functionality in the canine species are important to inform future research...
March 19, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314976/enzyme-replacement-therapy-and-beyond-in-memoriam-roscoe-o-brady-m-d-1923-2016
#8
REVIEW
Markus Ries
Lysosomal storage disorders are strong candidates for the development of specific innovative therapies. The discovery of enzyme deficiencies is an important milestone in understanding the underlying cause of disease. Being able to replace the first missing enzyme in a lysosomal storage required three decades of dedicated research. Successful drug development for lysosomal storage disorders was fostered by the U.S. Orphan Drug Act. Various optimization strategies have the potential to overcome the current limitations of enzyme replacement therapies...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314841/academic-cancer-center-phase-i-program-development
#9
Arthur E Frankel, Keith T Flaherty, George J Weiner, Robert Chen, Nilofer S Azad, Michael J Pishvaian, John A Thompson, Matthew H Taylor, Daruka Mahadevan, A Craig Lockhart, Ulka N Vaishampayan, Jordan D Berlin, David C Smith, John Sarantopoulos, Matthew Riese, Mansoor N Saleh, Chul Ahn, Eugene P Frenkel
Multiple factors critical to the effectiveness of academic phase I cancer programs were assessed among 16 academic centers in the U.S. Successful cancer centers were defined as having broad phase I and I/II clinical trial portfolios, multiple investigator-initiated studies, and correlative science. The most significant elements were institutional philanthropic support, experienced clinical research managers, robust institutional basic research, institutional administrative efforts to reduce bureaucratic regulatory delays, phase I navigators to inform patients and physicians of new studies, and a large cancer center patient base...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287585/psychophysiological-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-childhood
#10
Elizabeth L Davis, Parisa Parsafar, Laura E Quiñones-Camacho, Emily W Shih
Effective regulation of emotion is one of the most important skills that develops in childhood. Research interest in this area is expanding, but empirical work has been limited by predominantly correlational investigations of children's skills. Relatedly, a key conceptual challenge for emotion scientists is to distinguish between emotion responding and emotion regulatory processes. This paper presents a novel method to address these conceptual and methodological issues in child samples. An experimental paradigm that assesses the effectiveness with which children regulate emotion is described...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285934/human-exposure-to-chemical-mixtures-challenges-for-the-integration-of-toxicology-with-epidemiology-data-in-risk-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Antonio F Hernández, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines...
March 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281911/comparing-oncology-clinical-programs-by-use-of-innovative-designs-and-expected-net-present-value-optimization-which-adaptive-approach-leads-to-the-best-result
#12
Tom Parke, Olga Marchenko, Vladimir Anisimov, Anastasia Ivanova, Christopher Jennison, Inna Perevozskaya, Guochen Song
Designing an oncology clinical program is more challenging than designing a single study. The standard approaches have been proven to be not very successful during the last decade; the failure rate of Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials in oncology remains high. Improving a development strategy by applying innovative statistical methods is one of the major objectives of a drug development process. The oncology sub-team on Adaptive Program under the Drug Information Association Adaptive Design Scientific Working Group (DIA ADSWG) evaluated hypothetical oncology programs with two competing treatments and published the work in the Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science journal in January 2014...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281095/a-national-study-on-the-effects-of-concussion-in-collegiate-athletes-and-us-military-service-academy-members-the-ncaa-dod-concussion-assessment-research-and-education-care-consortium-structure-and-methods
#13
Steven P Broglio, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Barry Katz, Dallas Hack, Brian Hainline
BACKGROUND: The natural history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion remains poorly defined and no objective biomarker of physiological recovery exists for clinical use. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) established the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium to study the natural history of clinical and neurobiological recovery after concussion in the service of improved injury prevention, safety and medical care for student-athletes and military personnel...
March 9, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279182/the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-repair-and-regeneration-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Andy Goldberg, Katrina Mitchell, Julian Soans, Louise Kim, Razi Zaidi
BACKGROUND: The management of articular cartilage defects presents many clinical challenges due to its avascular, aneural and alymphatic nature. Bone marrow stimulation techniques, such as microfracture, are the most frequently used method in clinical practice however the resulting mixed fibrocartilage tissue which is inferior to native hyaline cartilage. Other methods have shown promise but are far from perfect. There is an unmet need and growing interest in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to improve the outcome for patients requiring cartilage repair...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270198/large-scale-adverse-effects-related-to-treatment-evidence-standardization-laertes-an-open-scalable-system-for-linking-pharmacovigilance-evidence-sources-with-clinical-data
#15
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Integrating multiple sources of pharmacovigilance evidence has the potential to advance the science of safety signal detection and evaluation. In this regard, there is a need for more research on how to integrate multiple disparate evidence sources while making the evidence computable from a knowledge representation perspective (i.e., semantic enrichment). Existing frameworks suggest well-promising outcomes for such integration but employ a rather limited number of sources...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268264/opening-plenary-speaker-human-genomics-precision-medicine-and-advancing-human-health
#16
Eric D Green
Starting with the launch of the Human Genome Project in 1990, the past quarter-century has brought spectacular achievements in genomics that dramatically empower the study of human biology and disease. The human genomics enterprise is now in the midst of an important transition, as the growing foundation of genomic knowledge is being used by researchers and clinicians to tackle increasingly complex problems in biomedicine. Of particular prominence is the use of revolutionary new DNA sequencing technologies for generating prodigious amounts of DNA sequence data to elucidate the complexities of genome structure, function, and evolution, as well as to unravel the genomic bases of rare and common diseases...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260748/effect-of-obesity-on-fasting-blood-sugar
#17
R Akter, A Nessa, M F Husain, F Wahed, N Khatun, M Yesmin, S Nasreen, T Tajkia
Obesity is a disorder of body weight regulatory systems characterized by an accumulation of excess body fat. World Heath Organization recommended that 66% of deaths now occur in developing countries and recognizes obesity as a leading risk factor. Obesity is associated with chronic, low grade, systemic inflammation. The inflammatory state plays a causal role in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This study will design to evaluate the relation between obesity with fasting blood sugar (FBS)...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248238/-omics-informed-drug-and-biomarker-discovery-opportunities-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Holly Matthews, James Hanison, Niroshini Nirmalan
The pharmaceutical industry faces unsustainable program failure despite significant increases in investment. Dwindling discovery pipelines, rapidly expanding R&D budgets and increasing regulatory control, predict significant gaps in the future drug markets. The cumulative duration of discovery from concept to commercialisation is unacceptably lengthy, and adds to the deepening crisis. Existing animal models predicting clinical translations are simplistic, highly reductionist and, therefore, not fit for purpose...
September 12, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243681/time-to-harmonize-national-ambient-air-quality-standards
#19
Meltem Kutlar Joss, Marloes Eeftens, Emily Gintowt, Ron Kappeler, Nino Künzli
OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These guidelines are meant to support governments in defining national standards. It is unclear how they are followed. METHODS: We compiled an inventory of ambient air quality standards for 194 countries worldwide for six air pollutants: PM2.5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241064/meta-analyses-of-comparative-efficacy-of-antidepressant-medications-on-peripheral-bdnf-concentration-in-patients-with-depression
#20
Chanjuan Zhou, Jiaju Zhong, Bin Zou, Liang Fang, Jianjun Chen, Xiao Deng, Lin Zhang, Xiang Zhao, Zehui Qu, Yang Lei, Ting Lei
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most important regulatory proteins in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Increasing numbers of studies have reported the relationship between serum/plasma BDNF and antidepressants (ADs). However, the potential effects of several classes of antidepressants on BDNF concentrations are not well known. Hence, our meta-analyses aims to review the effects of differential antidepressant drugs on peripheral BDNF levels in MDD and make some recommendations for future research...
2017: PloS One
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