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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432100/casein-kinase-i-isoform-hrr25-is-a-negative-regulator-of-haa1-in-the-weak-acid-stress-response-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Morgan E Collins, Joshua J Black, Zhengchang Liu
Haa1 is a transcription factor that adapts Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to weak organic acid stresses by activating the expression of various genes. Many of these genes encode membrane proteins such as TPO2 and YRO2 How Haa1 is activated by weak acids is not clear. Here, we show that casein kinase I isoform Hrr25 is an important negative regulator of Haa1. Haa1 is known to be multiply phosphorylated. We found that mutations in HRR25 lead to reduced Haa1 phosphorylation and increased expression of Haa1-target genes, and that Hrr25 interacts with Haa1...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#2
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430419/prediction-of-hydrolysis-products-of-organic-chemicals-under-environmental-ph-conditions
#3
Caroline Tebes-Stevens, Jay M Patel, W Jack Jones, Eric J Weber
Cheminformatics-based software tools can predict the molecular structure of transformation products using a library of transformation reaction schemes. This paper presents the development of such a library for abiotic hydrolysis of organic chemicals under environmentally relevant conditions. The hydrolysis reaction schemes in the library encode the process science gathered from peer-reviewed literature and regulatory reports. Each scheme has been ranked on a scale of one to six based on the median half-life in a data set compiled from literature-reported hydrolysis rates...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422768/mechanisms-involved-in-secondary-cardiac-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-trauma-and-haemorrhagic-shock
#4
Nick M Wilson, Johanna Wall, Veena Naganathar, Karim Brohi, Henry D De'Ath
Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) which is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma haemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-Iike receptors (TLRs), the exact protagonists of which remain unclear...
April 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422316/regulatory-t-cells-tolerance-induction-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Trishan Vaikunthanathan, Niloufar Safinia, Dominic Boardman, Robert I Lechler, Giovanna Lombardi
The concept of regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy in transplantation is now a reality. Significant advances in science and technology have enabled us to isolate human Tregs, expand them to clinically relevant numbers and infuse them into human transplant recipients. With several Phase I/II trials underway investigating Treg safety and efficacy it is now more crucial than ever to understand their complex biology. However, our journey is by no means complete, results from these trials will undoubtedly provoke both further knowledge and enquiry, which, alongside evolving science will continue to drive the optimization of Treg therapy in the pursuit of transplantation tolerance...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421428/how-has-cder-prepared-for-the-nano-revolution-a-review-of-risk-assessment-regulatory-research-and-guidance-activities
#6
Katherine M Tyner, Nan Zheng, Stephanie Choi, Xiaoming Xu, Peng Zou, Wenlei Jiang, Changning Guo, Celia N Cruz
The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was established to assess the potential impact of nanotechnology on drug products. One of the working group's major initiatives has been to conduct a comprehensive risk management exercise regarding the potential impact of nanomaterial pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients on drug product quality, safety, and efficacy. This exercise concluded that current review practices and regulatory guidance are capable of detecting and managing the potential risks to quality, safety, and efficacy when a drug product incorporates a nanomaterial...
April 18, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414969/cytokines-in-the-management-of-rotavirus-infection-a-systematic-review-of-in-vivo-studies
#7
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Victor Santana Santos, Marina Denadai, Valdete Kaliane da Silva Calisto, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection...
April 14, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412874/effects-of-regulatory-support-services-on-institutional-review-board-turnaround-times
#8
Pankaja Desai, Priyanka Nasa, Jackie Soo, Cunhui Jia, Michael L Berbaum, James H Fischer, Timothy P Johnson
We evaluated how regulatory support services provided by University of Illinois at Chicago's Center for Clinical and Translational Science may reduce Institutional Review Board (IRB) turnaround times. IRB applications were categorized by receipt of any regulatory support and amount of support received. Turnaround time included total turnaround time, time for IRB review, and time for investigators to modify protocols. There were no differences in any turnaround times for supported versus nonsupported applications...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403439/advances-in-vector-control-science-rear-and-release-strategies-show-promise%C3%A2-but-don-t-forget-the-basics
#9
Scott A Ritchie, Brian J Johnson
Both chikungunya and Zika viruses have recently swept from Africa across the Pacific to the Americas, causing major outbreaks of disease in humans. In the meantime, dengue epidemics continue throughout the tropics. Traditional vector control programs based on strategies from 1950s and 1960s have been relatively ineffective in combating recent epidemics. In response, new methods involving the rearing and releasing of large numbers of mosquitoes to eliminate or modify local Aedes populations are being developed, with several currently conducting field releases in high-risk countries...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389711/genome-editing-approaches-manipulating-of-lovastatin-and-taxol-synthesis-of-filamentous-fungi-by-crispr-cas9-system
#10
REVIEW
Ashraf S A El-Sayed, Salah E Abdel-Ghany, Gul Shad Ali
Filamentous fungi are prolific repertoire of structurally diverse secondary metabolites of remarkable biological activities such as lovastatin and paclitaxel that have been approved by FDA as drugs for hypercholesterolemia and cancer treatment. The clusters of genes encoding lovastatin and paclitaxel are cryptic at standard laboratory cultural conditions (Kennedy et al. Science 284:1368-1372, 1999; Bergmann et al. Nature Chem Biol 3:213-217, 2007). The expression of these genes might be triggered in response to nutritional and physical conditions; nevertheless, the overall yield of these metabolites does not match the global need...
April 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388300/minimal-standards-for-reporting-microrna-target-interactions
#11
Klara Piletič, Tanja Kunej
Epigenomics is one of the leading frontiers of postgenomics medicine. The challenges and prospects ahead in epigenomics are related not merely to technology innovation and clinical implementation but also to science communication. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs) are an important part of the epigenomic regulatory machinery. As the number of publications reporting miRNA-target interactions (MTIs) is growing rapidly, there is an urgent need to standardize reporting. This study reports (1) an analysis of the published literature and databases reporting validated MTIs, and for the first time to the best of our knowledge (2) suggests a solution as a way forward, the minimum information required for MTI standard reporting...
April 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388297/cancer-transcriptome-dataset-analysis-comparing-methods-of-pathway-and-gene-regulatory-network-based-cluster-identification
#12
Seungyoon Nam
Cancer transcriptome analysis is one of the leading areas of Big Data science, biomarker, and pharmaceutical discovery, not to forget personalized medicine. Yet, cancer transcriptomics and postgenomic medicine require innovation in bioinformatics as well as comparison of the performance of available algorithms. In this data analytics context, the value of network generation and algorithms has been widely underscored for addressing the salient questions in cancer pathogenesis. Analysis of cancer trancriptome often results in complicated networks where identification of network modularity remains critical, for example, in delineating the "druggable" molecular targets...
April 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383711/synergistic-effect-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-angiogenesis-in-the-endometriotic-milieu
#13
Xiao-Qiu Wang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Xue-Zhen Luo, Yu Tao, Da-Jin Li
STUDY QUESTION: Do regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to angiogenesis in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: High levels of CCL17 and CCL22 cause the recruitment of Tregs, upregulate the immunosuppression of Tregs and, in turn, may promote angiogenesis in endometrial cells in synergy with proinflammatory cytokines. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis has a higher percentage of Tregs than that of normal individuals; however, the regulatory role of Tregs in the disease remains unclear...
April 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381724/current-status-of-regulatory-science-education-in-faculties-of-pharmaceutical-science-in-japan
#14
Masahiro Tohkin
 I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381723/regulatory-science-in-professional-education
#15
Hiroshi Akiyama
 In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, the subject of regulatory science (RS) includes pharmaceuticals, food, and living environments. For pharmaceuticals, considering the balance between efficacy and safety is a point required for public acceptance, and in that balance, more importance is given to efficacy in curing disease. For food, however, safety is the most important consideration for public acceptance because food should be essentially free of risk. To ensure food safety, first, any hazard that is an agent in food or condition of food with the potential to cause adverse health effects should be identified and characterized...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381722/pharmacists-and-regulatory-science
#16
Mikio Masada
 For providing appropriate pharmacotherapy, "Doing the right things, and doing things right" are necessary. Additionally, vigilance is required for the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals. Evidence-based medicine has been a common approach to healthcare, and many guidelines have been published. In addition, risk management plans (RMPs) are developed upon the approval of new drugs. Therefore an environment to provide the best healthcare based on scientific evidence has been developed. When putting RMPs into practice, it is necessary to understand and utilize regulatory science (RS)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381721/regulatory-science-in-practice-pharmaceuticals-and-medical-devices-agency
#17
Taisuke Hojo
 Review, safety, and relief services of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency are primarily focused on scientifically evaluating pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and cellular and tissue-based products referring to their quality, efficacy, and safety, which requires a variety of scientific knowledge and methods. Pharmaceutical regulation should be established based on the most advanced scientific expertise at all times. In order to evaluate products that use cutting-edge technology such as induced pluripotent stem cells and information and communication technology adequately, since fiscal year 2012 the Science Committee has been established as a platform to exchange opinions among members from top-ranking domestic and international academia and to enhance personnel exchanges through the Initiative to Facilitate Development of Innovative Drugs...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381720/practice-of-regulatory-science-development-of-medical-devices
#18
Shingo Niimi
 Prototypes of medical devices are made in accordance with the needs of clinical practice, and for systems required during the initial process of medical device development for new surgical practices. Verification of whether these prototypes produce the intended performance specifications is conducted using basic tests such as mechanical and animal tests. The prototypes are then improved and modified until satisfactory results are obtained. After a prototype passes through a clinical trial process similar to that for new drugs, application for approval is made...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381719/practice-of-regulatory-science-drug-development
#19
Toru Kawanishi
 The practice of regulatory science (RS) for drug development is described. In the course material for education in pharmaceutical sciences drafted by the RS Division of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, RS for pharmaceuticals is defined as the science of predicting, assessing, and judging the quality, efficacy, and safety of pharmaceutical products throughout their lifespan. RS is also described as an integrated science based on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and clinical trial methodology, and social sciences such as decision science, risk assessment, and communication science...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381718/greeting-and-general-statement-by-the-organizer
#20
Makoto Shiragami
 Regulatory science is growing increasingly important, and the Health and Medical Strategy of the Japanese government reflects this. How regulatory science is covered in pharmaceutical education is an urgent issue. Education on regulatory science is also part of the modified version of the model core curriculum in the six-year pharmaceutical course that was introduced from 2015. The Regulatory Science Task Force of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, in response to a commission of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, conducted a study on the development of teaching material and educational methods for regulatory science, held a symposium with the participation of pharmaceutical educators in February 2015, and proposed draft teaching material based on the discussions during the symposium...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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